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About RectoriteHide

Elias W. Rector
(Na,Ca)Al4((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 2H2O
White to light brown
Waxy, Greasy, Pearly, Earthy
0½ - 1
Specific Gravity:
2.34 (Calculated)
Crystal System:
Named in 1891 by Richard Newman Brackett and John Francis Williams in honor of Colonel Elias William Rector (11 June 1847(49), Little Rock, Arkansas, USA - 29 January 1917, Hot Spring, Arkansas, USA), a politician (Speaker of the Arkansas House of Representatives) and attorney in Hot Springs, Arkansas, who supported the formation of the Arkansas Geological Survey.
A 1:1 regular interstratification of muscovite/illite (dioctahedral mica) and montmorillonite (dioctahedral smectite). Frequently called "rectorite-K" to distinguish it from regularly interstratified paragonite/montmorillonite = "rectorite-Na".

Classification of RectoriteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First Published:

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
C : Phyllosilicates with mica sheets, composed of tetrahedral and octahedral nets

71 : PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
4 : Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
2 : Aluminosilicates of Na

Physical Properties of RectoriteHide

Waxy, Greasy, Pearly, Earthy
White to light brown
0½ - 1 on Mohs scale
On {001}
2.34 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of RectoriteHide

Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.519 nβ = 1.550 nγ = 1.559
Measured: 5° to 20°, Calculated: 54°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.040
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
r > v

Chemical Properties of RectoriteHide

(Na,Ca)Al4((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 2H2O
IMA Formula:
(Na,Ca)Al4(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 2H2O
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of RectoriteHide

Crystal System:
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.13 Å, b = 8.88 Å, c = 23.85 Å
β = 96.3°
a:b:c = 0.578 : 1 : 2.686
Unit Cell V:
1,079.91 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Type Occurrence of RectoriteHide

Brackett, R.N., Williams, J.F. (1891) Newtonite and rectorite - two new minerals of the kaolinite group. American Journal of Science: 142: 11-21.

Other Language Names for RectoriteHide

Simplified Chinese:累托石
Traditional Chinese:累托石

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
3 photos of Rectorite associated with QuartzSiO2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.EC.05MinnesotaiteFe2+3Si4O10(OH)2Tric. 1 : P1
9.EC.05TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2Tric. 1 : P1
9.EC.9.EC.VoloshiniteRb(LiAl1.51.5)(Al0.5Si3.5)O10F2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.10PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2Tric. 1
9.EC.15CeladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Fe3+(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.15Montdorite(K,Na)2(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)5(Si4O10)2(OH,F)4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.15MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.15RoscoeliteK(V3+,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.15ChromphylliteK(Cr,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.15FerroaluminoceladoniteK(Fe2+,Mg)(Al,Fe3+)(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.15FerroceladoniteK(Fe2+,Mg)(Fe3+,Al)(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20AnniteKFe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20HendricksiteKZn3(Si3Al)O10(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20NorrishiteKLiMn3+2(Si4O10)O2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20PolylithioniteKLi2Al(Si4O10)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.20FluorotetraferriphlogopiteKMg3(Fe3+Si3O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20Wonesite(Na,K)(Mg,Fe,Al)6((Al,Si)4O10)2(OH,F)4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20TrilithioniteK(Li1.5Al1.5)(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.20ShirokshiniteKNaMg2(Si4O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20ShirozuliteKMn2+3(Si3Al)O10(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20AspidoliteNaMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20FluorophlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20Suhailite(NH4)Fe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20YangzhumingiteKMg2.5(Si4O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20OrloviteKLi2Ti(Si4O10)OFMon. 2 : B2
9.EC.20OxyphlogopiteK(Mg,Ti,Fe)3[(Si,Al)4O10](O,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.35Anandite(Ba,K)(Fe2+,Mg)3((Si,Al,Fe)4O10)(S,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.35BityiteLiCaAl2(AlBeSi2O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.35ClintoniteCa(Mg,Al)3(Al3SiO10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.35Oxykinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Mg,Ti,Fe3+,Fe2+)3((Si,Al)4O10)(O,OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.35FluorokinoshitaliteBaMg3(Al2Si2O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.40Beidellite(Na,Ca0.5)0.3Al2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.40Kurumsakite(Zn,Ni,Cu)8Al8V5+2Si5O35 · 27H2O (?)Orth.
9.EC.40Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.40NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.40VolkonskoiteCa0.3(Cr,Mg,Fe)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.40Yakhontovite(Ca,Na)0.5(Cu,Fe,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 3H2OMon.
9.EC.45SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.45SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.45SpadaiteMgSiO2(OH)2 · H2O (?)
9.EC.45SwineforditeLi(Al,Li,Mg)4((Si,Al)4O10)2(OH,F)4 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.45ZincsiliteZn3(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.45FerrosaponiteCa0.3(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.50VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2OMon. 2/m
9.EC.55Baileychlore(Zn,Fe2+,Al,Mg)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8Tric. 1
9.EC.55ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.55Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Mon. 2/m
9.EC.55FranklinfurnaceiteCa2Fe3+Mn2+3Mn3+(Zn2Si2O10)(OH)8Mon. 2 : B2
9.EC.55DonbassiteAl4.33(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Mon. 2 : B2
9.EC.55GlagoleviteNa(Mg,Al)6(AlSi3O10)(OH,O)8Tric. 1 : P1
9.EC.60AliettiteCa0.2Mg6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.60Corrensite(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2OOrth.
9.EC.60HydrobiotiteK(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.60Karpinskite(Ni,Mg)2Si2O5(OH)2 (?)Mon.
9.EC.60TosuditeNa0.5(Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)8O18)(OH)12 · 5H2OMon. 2 : B2
9.EC.60BrinrobertsiteNa0.3Al4(Si4O10)2(OH)4 · 3.5 H2OMon.
9.EC.70BurckhardtitePb2(Fe3+Te6+)[AlSi3O8]O6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1m
9.EC.75Ferrisurite(Pb,Ca)2.4Fe3+2(Si4O10)(CO3)1.7(OH)3 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.75Niksergievite(Ba,Ca)2Al3(AlSi3O10)(CO3)(OH)6 · nH2OMon.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide,O)10Mon.,Na)Al3(AlSi3O10)(OH)5Mon.,Mg)6((Si,Al)8O18)(OH)12 · 5H2OMon. 2 : B2,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2OOrth.,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 4H2OMon.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

16.2.1AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)Tric. 1
16.2.2AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2OTric. 1 : P1
16.2.3UssingiteNa2AlSi3O8OHTric. 1 : P1
16.2.5NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2OOrth. mm2 : Fdd2
16.2.7ParanatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 3H2OMon. m : Bb

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for RectoriteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Brackett, R.N., Williams, J.F. (1891) Newtonite and rectorite - two new minerals of the kaolinite group. American Journal of Science: 142: 11-21.
Brindley, G.W. (1956) Allevardite, a swelling double-layer mica mineral. American Mineralogist: 41: 91-103.
Korolev, Y.M. (1961) The structure of allevardite. Kristallografiya (Sov. Phys. Crystal.): 5: 848-852. (in Russian)
Brown, G., Weir, A.H. (1963) The identity of rectorite and allevardite. Proc. Inter. Clay Conference: 27-36.
Fleischer, M. (1964) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 49: 439-448.
Komada, H. (1966) The nature of the component layers of rectorite. American Mineralogist: 51: 1035-1055.
International Mineralogical Association (1967) Commission on new minerals and mineral names. Mineralogical Magazine: 36: 131-136.
Henderson, G.V., Bradley, W.F. (1970) Rectorite and the rectorite-like layer structures. Clays and Clay Minerals: 18: 115-119.
Korolev, Y.M. (1971) Some features of rectorite from Pakistan. Kristallografiya (Sov. Phys. Crystal.): 16: 250-253. (in Russian)
Bailey, S.W. (1981) A system of nomenclature for regular interstratifications. The Canadian Mineralogist: 19: 651-655.
Bailey, S.W. (1982) Nomenclature for regular interstratifications. American Mineralogist: 67: 394-398.
Jakobsen, H.J., Nielsen, N.C., Lindgreen, H. (1995) Sequences of charged sheets in rectorite. American Mineralogist: 80: 247-252.
Kitagawa, R. (1997) Surface microtopography of rectorite (allevardite) from Allevard, France. Clay Minerals: 32 : 89-95.
Atanasova, M.T., Vyalikh, A., Scheler, U., Focke, W.W. (2016) Characterization of rectorite from the Beatrix Gold Mine in South Africa. Applied Clay Science: 126: 7-16.

Internet Links for RectoriteHide

Localities for RectoriteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Victoria
    • Mansfield Shire
      • A1 Mining Settlement
F.Bussat 1980, Minerals from some mines in the Woods Point district, Victoria. The Australian Mineralogist No.31, July 1980, pp. 147-152
      • Gaffney's Creek
F.Bussat 1980. Minerals from some mines in the Woods Point district, Victoria. The Australian Mineralogist No.31 July 1980, pp. 147-152
      • Woods Point
Bussat, F. (1980) Minerals from some mines in the Woods Point district, Victoria. The Australian Mineralogist No.31 July 1980, pp. 147-152.
Bussat, F, (1980) Minerals from some mines in the Woods Point district, Victoria, The Australian Mineralogist No. 31, July 1980, pp. 147-152.
  • Salzburg
    • Salzburg-Umgebung District
      • Oberndorf bei Salzburg
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
  • Bahia
    • Boquira
MinRec 6:286
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Newfoundland
      • St. Lawrence
Norman Wilson collection
  • Guangxi
    • Baise
Naixian Zhang, Liancheng Wang, Yaxiu Yang, Gengmei Zhao, and Yuguang Ma (1996): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 16(1), 8-13
  • Guizhou
    • Bijie
      • Dafang County
Lin Yang (1991): Guizhou Geology 1991(3), 276-280
  • Hubei
    • Jingmen
Rongying Zhang, Fangqi Wu, and Daihong Zhang (1987): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 7(2), 113-120
Clay Min 32:425 (1997)
  • Nicosia District
    • Skouriotissa
Adamides, N. G. (2010). Mafic-dominated volcanogenic sulphide deposits in the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus Part 1–The deposits of the Solea graben. Applied Earth Science, 119(2), 65-77.
  • South Ostrobothnia
    • Alajärvi
Kinnunen, Kari A. 2013. Mikrokiteistä kvartsia, kalsedonia ja zeoliitteja Alajärven Hietakankaan sorakuopista. Mineralia 2/2013 10-15.
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Isère
ClayMin 32:89 (1997)
  • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén County
    • Szerencs District
      • Mád
Koch: Minerals of Hungary, 1985
  • Aomori Prefecture
    • Kamikita District
INOUE, A., & UTADA, M. (1991). Hydrothermal Alteration in the Kamikita Kuroko Mineralization Area. Mining Geology, 41(228), 203-218.
  • Kagoshima Prefecture
Kawano, M. & Tomita, K. (1989) Mineralogical Journal, 14, 351-372.; Kawano, M., & Tomita, K. (1991). Mineralogy and genesis of clays in postmagmatic alteration zones, Makurazaki volcanic area, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. Clays and Clay Minerals, 39(6), 597-608.
  • Nagano Prefecture
Clays and Clay Minerals 45:773 (1997)
New Zealand
  • Waikato Region
    • Hauraki District
      • Waihi
Singh, R.S. (2015) Identifying Mineralogical and Geochemical Vectors towards the Epithermal Au-Ag Correnso Mine, Waihi. (unpublished thesis, MSc), Univerity of Waikato.
  • Ondo
Ademila, O., & Adebanjo, O. J. (2017). Geotechnical and Mineralogical Characterization of Clay Deposits in Parts of Southwestern Nigeria.
  • Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug
    • Saranpaul
Burlakov, J. V. (1995): Dodo: Alpine Klüfte im Polar-Ural. Lapis. 20 (3), 13-26, 35
No reference listed
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Banská Štiavnica District
      • Banská Štiavnica (Schemnitz)
Pauliš,P.,Ďuďa,R.,2002: Nejzajímavejší mineralogická naletište Slovenska. Kuttna,K.Hora, 136p
South Africa
  • Free State
Atanasova, M.T., Vyalikh, A., Scheler, U., Focke, W.W. (2916): Characterization of rectorite from the Beatrix Gold Mine in South Africa. Applied Clay Science, 126, 7-16.
Minerals of South Africa
  • Castile-La Mancha
    • Ciudad Real
      • Almadén mining district
        • Almadén
Higueras, P., Oyarzun, R., Lunar, R., Sierra, J., and Parras, J. (1999): Mineralium Deposita 34, 211-214.
  • Valais
    • Goms
      • Binn
        • Fäld (Imfeld; Im Feld; Feld)
XRD Analyses by N. Meisser, Lausanne, in Summer 2015
  • Scotland
    • Highland
      • Isle of Skye
Livingstone, A. (1988): Reyerite, tobermorite, calcian analcime, and bytownite from amygdales in a Skye basalt. Mineralogical Magazine 52, 711-713.
  • Arizona
    • Cochise County
      • Whetstone Mining District
www.caves.org; Hill, C.A. (1999) Mineralogy of Kartchner Caverns, Arizona, Journal of Cave and Karst Studies: 61(2): 73-78; Grant, Raymond W., Richard A. Bideaux & Sidney A. Williams (2006), Minerals Added to the Arizona List 1995 to 2005: 7.
  • Arkansas
    • Garland Co.
      • Marble Township
[www.johnbetts-fineminerals.com]; Dana System of Mineralogy 6th ed.; Rocks & Min.:64:327
    • Perry Co.
      • Hollis
Rocks & Min.:63:115; Miser & Milton(1964).
      • Nimrod
        • Deckard Mountain
Rocks & Min.:63:115; Engel(1952).
    • Pulaski Co.
      • Jeffrey
Newsom, G.(1978): The Jeffrey Quarry. Mineralogical Record 9 (2),75-79; Miser, H.D.,and Milton, C.,1964, Quartz, rectorite, and cookeite from theJeffrey Quarry, North Little Rock, Pulaski Co., Arkansas, Arkansas GeologicalCommission, Bull.21 (in coop. with the U.S.G.S.), Little Rock, Arkansas,29 p.
      • Little Rock
Rocks & Min.: 63:122.
    • Saline Co.
      • Bland
MinRec 17:151
      • Paron
Rocks & Min.:63:122.
Smith, Arthur E. Jr. (1996) Collecting Arkansas Minerals. L. Ream Publishing, Idaho 149p.
Rocks & Min.: 63:122.
  • California
    • El Dorado Co.
      • Salmon Falls Mining District (Flagstaff Hill area)
        • Flagstaff Hill
  • Colorado
    • Lake Co.
      • Alicante
        • Buckeye Gulch
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
    • San Juan Co.
      • Red Mountain Mining District
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckel
  • Montana
    • Flathead Co.
      • Hog Heaven Mining District (Flathead Mining District)
        • Kofford Ridge
Gobla, M.J. (2012) Montana mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 87, #3, 208-240.
  • Tennessee
    • Grainger Co.
      • Copper Ridge Zinc Mining District
Paris, T.A. (2011) Tennessee mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 86, #4, 300-328.
    • Smith Co.
      • Carthage
Travis A. Paris (2011) Tennessee mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 86, #4, 300-328.
  • Utah
    • Tooele Co.
      • Oquirrh Mountains
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
      • Stansbury Mountains
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    • Utah Co.
      • Beverly Hills
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
      • Lehi Mining District (Lake Mountain)
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
      • Thorpe Hills
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
      • Wasatch Mountains
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
Mineral and/or Locality  
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