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Renierite

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Formula:
(Cu1+,Zn)11Fe4(Ge4+,As5+)2S16
Colour:
Orange-bronze, tarnishes reddish
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
4 - 5
Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Member of:
Name:
Named after Armand Marie Vincent Joseph Renier (Verviers 26 June 1876 - Leuze 9 October 1951), Director of the Geological Survey of Belgium.
Charge balance maintained by coupled substitution Zn+Ge = Cu+As.

Compare the Zn- and As-free member germanite.


Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of RenieriteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
2.CB.35a

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
C : Metal Sulfides, M: S = 1: 1 (and similar)
B : With Zn, Fe, Cu, Ag, etc.
2.9.4.1

2 : SULFIDES
9 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 1:1
6.2.3

6 : Sulphosalts - Sulphostannates, Sulphogermanates,Sulpharsenates, Sulphantimonates, Sulphovanadates and Sulphohalides
2 : Sulphogermanates

Physical Properties of RenieriteHide

Metallic
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Orange-bronze, tarnishes reddish
Hardness:
4 - 5 on Mohs scale

Chemical Properties of RenieriteHide

Formula:
(Cu1+,Zn)11Fe4(Ge4+,As5+)2S16
Common Impurities:
Ga,Pb

Crystallography of RenieriteHide

Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Class (H-M):
4 2m - Scalenohedral
Space Group:
P4 2c
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.62 Å, c = 10.55 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.993
Unit Cell V:
1,189.88 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.06 (100)
2.65 (30)
1.871 (80)
1.600 (60)
Comments:
(for Zn-rich As-poor renierite)

Type Occurrence of RenieriteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Musée de Minéralogie, Ecole des Mines de Paris

Synonyms of RenieriteHide

Other Language Names for RenieriteHide

German:Renierit
Simplified Chinese:硫铜锗矿
Spanish:Renierita
Traditional Chinese:硫銅鍺礦

Relationship of Renierite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
ChatkaliteCu6FeSn2S8Tet. 4 2m : P4m2
ColusiteCu12VAs3S16Iso. 4 3m : P4 3n
GermaniteCu13Fe2Ge2S16Iso. 4 3m : P4 3n
GermanocolusiteCu26V2(Ge,As)6S32Iso.
NekrasoviteCu26V2(Sn,As,Sb)6S32Iso.
StibiocolusiteCu13V(Sb,Sn,As)3S16Iso.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Germanite27 photos of Renierite associated with Germanite on mindat.org.
Tennantite14 photos of Renierite associated with Tennantite on mindat.org.
Briartite12 photos of Renierite associated with Briartite on mindat.org.
Chalcopyrite10 photos of Renierite associated with Chalcopyrite on mindat.org.
Bornite9 photos of Renierite associated with Bornite on mindat.org.
Gallite7 photos of Renierite associated with Gallite on mindat.org.
Sphalerite7 photos of Renierite associated with Sphalerite on mindat.org.
Quartz4 photos of Renierite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Galena2 photos of Renierite associated with Galena on mindat.org.
Covellite2 photos of Renierite associated with Covellite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.CB.AgmantiniteAg2MnSnS4Orth.
2.CB.05aColoradoiteHgTeIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
2.CB.05aHawleyiteCdSIso. 4 3m : F4 3m
2.CB.05aMetacinnabarHgSIso. 4 3m : F4 3m
2.CB.05cPolhemusite(Zn,Hg)STet.
2.CB.05bSakuraiite(Cu,Zn,Fe)3(In,Sn)S4 Iso.
2.CB.05aSphaleriteZnSIso. 4 3m : F4 3m
2.CB.05aStilleiteZnSe
2.CB.05aTiemanniteHgSe
2.CB.05UM1998-15-S:CuFeZnCu2Fe3Zn5S10
2.CB.05aRudashevskyite(Fe,Zn)SIso. 4 3m : F4 3m
2.CB.10aChalcopyriteCuFeS2Tet. 4 2m : I4 2d
2.CB.10aEskeborniteCuFeSe2Tet.
2.CB.10aGalliteCuGaS2Tet. 4 2m : I4 2d
2.CB.10bHaycockiteCu4Fe5S8Orth. 2 2 2
2.CB.10aLenaiteAgFeS2Tet. 4 2m : I4 2d
2.CB.10bMooihoekiteCu9Fe9S16Tet.
2.CB.10bPutoraniteCu1.1Fe1.2S2Iso.
2.CB.10aRoquesiteCuInS2Tet. 4 2m : I4 2d
2.CB.10bTalnakhiteCu9(Fe,Ni)8S16Iso. 4 3m : I4 3m
2.CB.10aLaforêtiteAgInS2Tet. 4 2m : I4 2d
2.CB.15aČernýiteCu2(Cd,Zn,Fe)SnS4Tet. 4 2m : I4 2m
2.CB.15aFerrokësteriteCu2(Fe,Zn)SnS4Tet. 4 : I4
2.CB.15aHocartiteAg2(Fe2+,Zn)SnS4Tet. 4 2m : I4 2m
2.CB.15aIdaiteCu5FeS6Hex.
2.CB.15aKësteriteCu2ZnSnS4Tet. 4 : I4
2.CB.15aKuramiteCu3SnS4Tet.
2.CB.15bMohiteCu2SnS3Mon.
2.CB.15aPirquitasiteAg2ZnSnS4Tet. 4 : I4
2.CB.15aStanniteCu2FeSnS4Tet. 4 2m : I4 2m
2.CB.15cStannoiditeCu+6Cu2+2(Fe2+,Zn)3Sn2S12Orth.
2.CB.15aVelikiteCu2HgSnS4Tet.
2.CB.15cUM2006-11-S:CuFeGeZnCu8(Fe,Zn)3Ge2S12 (?)
2.CB.20ChatkaliteCu6FeSn2S8Tet. 4 2m : P4m2
2.CB.20MawsoniteCu6Fe2SnS8Tet. 4 2m : P4m2
2.CB.30ColusiteCu12VAs3S16Iso. 4 3m : P4 3n
2.CB.30GermaniteCu13Fe2Ge2S16Iso. 4 3m : P4 3n
2.CB.30GermanocolusiteCu26V2(Ge,As)6S32Iso.
2.CB.30NekrasoviteCu26V2(Sn,As,Sb)6S32Iso.
2.CB.30StibiocolusiteCu13V(Sb,Sn,As)3S16Iso.
2.CB.30Ovamboite Cu20(Fe,Cu,Zn)6W2Ge6S32Iso.
2.CB.30MaikainiteCu20(Fe,Cu)6Mo2Ge6S32
2.CB.35aHemusiteCu6SnMoS8Iso.
2.CB.35aKiddcreekiteCu6SnWS8Iso. 4 3m : F4 3m
2.CB.35aPolkovicite(Fe,Pb)3(Ge,Fe)1-xS4Iso.
2.CB.35aVincienniteCu+7Cu2+3Fe2+2Fe3+2Sn(As,Sb)S16Tet.
2.CB.35aMorozeviczite(Pb,Fe)3Ge1-xS4Iso.
2.CB.35bCatamarcaiteCu6GeWS8Hex. 6mm : P63mc
2.CB.40LautiteCuAsSOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
2.CB.45CadmoseliteCdSeHex. 6mm : P63mc
2.CB.45GreenockiteCdSHex. 6mm : P63mc
2.CB.45Wurtzite(Zn,Fe)SHex. 6mm : P63mc
2.CB.45RambergiteMnSHex. 6mm : P63mc
2.CB.45Buseckite(Fe,Zn,Mn)SHex. 6mm : P63mc
2.CB.55aCubaniteCuFe2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.CB.55bIsocubaniteCuFe2S3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
2.CB.60PicotpauliteTlFe2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
2.CB.60RaguiniteTlFeS2Orth.
2.CB.65ArgentopyriteAgFe2S3Mon. 2/m
2.CB.65SternbergiteAgFe2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.CB.70SulvaniteCu3VS4Iso.
2.CB.75VulcaniteCuTeOrth.
2.CB.80EmpressiteAgTeOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
2.CB.85MuthmanniteAuAgTe2Mon. 2/m : P2/m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

2.9.4.2GermaniteCu13Fe2Ge2S16Iso. 4 3m : P4 3n

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

6.2.1GermaniteCu13Fe2Ge2S16Iso. 4 3m : P4 3n
6.2.2BriartiteCu2(Fe,Zn)GeS4Tet.
6.2.4ArgyroditeAg8GeS6Orth. mm2 : Pna21
6.2.5CanfielditeAg8SnS6Orth. mm2
6.2.6Morozeviczite(Pb,Fe)3Ge1-xS4Iso.
6.2.7Polkovicite(Fe,Pb)3(Ge,Fe)1-xS4Iso.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for RenieriteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Vaes, J. F. (1948): Renierite, a germanium-bearing sulfide from the Prince Leopold Mine, Kipushi, Belgian Congo. Annales de la Société Géologique de Belgique, Bulletin 72, 19-32 (in French).
Lambot, H. (1950): Renierite. Annales de la Société Géologique de Belgique. Bulletin 73, 183-186 (in French).
American Mineralogist (1953): 38: 794-801.
Hayashi, Kenichiro; Kikutani, Tadashi; Sugaki, Asahiko (1985): Arsenic-bearing renierite from the Furutobe mine, Akita prefecture, Japan. Ganseki Kobutsu Kosho Gakkaishi 80 (10), 451-458 (in Japanese).
Bernstein, L.R. (1986): Renierite, Cu10ZnGe2Fe4S16-Cu11GeAsFe4S16: a coupled solid solution series. American Mineralogist 71, 210-221.
Bernstein L.R., Reichel D.G., Merlino S. (1989) Renierite crystal structure refined from Rietveld analysis of powder neutron-diffraction data. American Mineralogist: 74: 1177-1181.
Mozgova, N. N.; Borodaev, Yu. S.; Nenasheva, S. N.; Efimov, A. V.; Gandhi, S. M.; Mookherjee, A. (1992): Rare minerals from Rajpura-​Dariba, Rajasthan, India. VII: Renierite. Mineralogy and Petrology 46(1), 55-65.

Internet Links for RenieriteHide

Localities for RenieriteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Argentina
 
  • Catamarca
    • Andalgalá Department
Milka K. de Brodtkorb (2002) Las Especies Minerales de la Republica Argentina. Vol. 1 (elements, sulphides and sulphosalts). (Asociacion Mineralogica Argentina); DE BRODTKORB, Milka K. Precious metaltellurides and other Te-bearing minerals in different paragenesis of Argentina: A review. Rev. Asoc. Geol. Argent. [online]. 2009, vol.64, n.3, pp. 365-372.
Armenia
 
  • Syunik' Province
Singer, D.A., Berger, V.I., and Moring, B.C. (2008): US Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1155.
    • Kafan District (Kapan)
Mederer, J., Moritz, R., Zohrabyan, S., Vardanyan, A., Melkonyan, R., & Ulianov, A. (2014). Base and precious metal mineralization in Middle Jurassic rocks of the Lesser Caucasus: A review of geology and metallogeny and new data from the Kapan, Alaverdi and Mehmana districts. Ore Geology Reviews, 58, 185-207.
      • Kapan (Ghapan; Kafan; Zangezur; Madan)
Khachaturian, E. A. (1958): The mineral composition of ores of Kafan copper deposits. Izvest. Akad. Nauk Armyan. S.S.R., Ser. Geol i Geograf. Nauk 11 (No. 6), 25-38.
Australia
 
  • Tasmania
    • West Coast municipality
      • Queenstown district
Bottrill, R. S. (2000). A Mineralogical Field Guide for the Western Tasmania Minerals and Museums Tour.
Bottrill RS & Baker, WE (in prep) Catalogue of Minerals of Tasmania. Mineral Resources Tasmania
Austria
 
  • Salzburg
    • Saalfelden
      • Leogang
        • Hütten
          • Schwarzleograben
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
            • Schwarzleo District
R.Poeverlein (2016)
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
  • Styria
    • Leoben
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
Bulgaria
 
  • Pazardzhik Oblast (Pazardjik Oblast)
    • Panagyurishte (Panagurishte) Obshtina
      • Levski
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; Bogdanov, K., Tsonev, D., & Popov, K. (2004). Mineral Assemblages And Genesis Of The Cu-Au Epithermal Deposits In The Southern Part Of The Panaguyrishte Ore District, Bulgaria. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece, 36:406-415; Kouzmanov, K. (2004). Galena-bearing myrmekitic intergrowths from the Radka deposit, Bulgaria: Origin and mechanisms of formation. Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Petrology, 41, 17-30.
  • Sofiya Oblast (Sofia Oblast)
    • Chelopech
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; American Mineralogist (1966): 51: 29-36; Bonev, I.K.; Petrunov, R.; Cook, N. J.; Ciobanu, C. L. (2005): Kostovite and its argentian varieties: Deposits and mineral associations. Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Petrology. 42, 1-22
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • Alberni Mining Division
      • Vancouver Island
        • Buttle Lake
Economic Geology,(1996) Vol. 91-3, pp.507-526
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Newfoundland
Gill, S.B., Piercey, S.J. & Layton-Matthews, D. (2016): Mineralogy and metal zoning of the Cambrian Zn-Pb-Cu-Ag-Au Lemarchant volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS) deposit, Newfoundland. Canadian Mineralogist 54, 1307-1344.
  • Nova Scotia
    • Inverness Co.
      • Meat Cove
The Nova Scotia Mineral Occurrence Database (MODB)
Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre) (TL)
 
  • Katanga (Shaba)
    • Kipushi
Gramaccioli, C. M., 1985. Conoscere i minerali. I solfosali. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 96 pp; Kamona, A.F., Lévêque, J., Friedrich, G., and Haack, U. (1999): Mineralium Deposita 34, 273-283.; Kampunzu, A.B., Cailteux, J.L.H., Kamona, A.F., Intiomale, M.M., and Melcher, F. (2009): Ore Geology Reviews 35, 263-297.; Nenasheva, S. New Data on Minerals (2003): 38: 41-44; Chabu, M. (1995). The Geochemistry Of Phlogopite And Chlorite From The Kipushi Zn-Pb-Cu Deposit, Shaba, Zaire., Canadian Mineralogist 33, 547-558.
France
 
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Alpes-Maritimes
      • Guillaumes
R. Pierrot, P. Picot, J. Feraud, J. Vernet : "Inventaire Minéralogique de la France, N° 4, Alpes Maritimes", BRGM, 1974
India
 
  • Rajasthan (Rajputana)
    • Udaipur Division
      • Udaipur District
Mozgova, N. N.; Borodaev, Yu. S.; Nenasheva, S. N.; Efimov, A. V.; Gandhi, S. M.; Mookherjee, A. (1992): Rare minerals from Rajpura-​Dariba, Rajasthan, India. VII: Renierite. Mineralogy and Petrology 46(1), 55-65.
Italy
 
  • Sardinia
    • Cagliari Province
      • Assemini
Stara, P. (1990): La miniera di San Leone (CA). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 3/1990, 121-136.
    • Carbonia-Iglesias Province
      • Gonnesa
Stara, P., Rizzo, R., Tanca, G.A. (1996): Iglesiente - Arburese. Miniere e Minerali. Volume 1 & 2. Nine Italian Mineralogical Groups/Associations, 192 + 239 pp.
      • Iglesias
        • Punta della Torre
De Michele, V. (1974). Guida mineralogica d'Italia. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 2 vol
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Tohoku Region
      • Akita Prefecture
        • Kosaka
Hayashi, Kenichiro; Kikutani, Tadashi; Sugaki, Asahiko (1985): Arsenic-bearing renierite from the Furutobe mine, Akita prefecture, Japan. Ganseki Kobutsu Kosho Gakkaishi 80 (10), 451-458 (in Japanese).
        • Odate
Am. Min. 71 (1986), 210-221
Kazakhstan
 
  • Pavlodar Province (Pavlodar Oblysy; Pavlodarskaya Oblast')
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow; Baibatsha, A., Dyussembayeva, K., & Kassenova, A. (2015). Microparagenetic Associations of Gold in Ore-Forming Minerals from Deposits of Different Geological and Industrial Types of Kazakhstan. In Proceedings of the 11th International Congress for Applied Mineralogy (ICAM) (pp. 1-8). Springer International Publishing.
Namibia
 
  • Otjikoto Region (Oshikoto)
Gramaccioli, C. M., 1985. Conoscere i minerali. I solfosali. Istituto Geografico De Agostini, Novara, 96 pp
http://rruff.info/renierite/display=default/
  • Otjozondjupa Region
    • Grootfontein District
Cairncross, B. (1997) The Otavi Mountain Land Cu-Pb-Zn-V Deposits, Namibia. Mineralogical Record 28(2) 117 pp.
      • Kombat
Dunn, P.J. (1991), Rare minerals of the Kombat Mine, Mineralogical Record: 22(6): 421-425.
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Krasnoyarsk Territory (Krasnoyarsk Kray; Krasnoyarskii Krai)
      • Igarka
Cox, D.P., Lindsey, D.A., Singer, D.A., Moring, B.C., and Diggles, M.F. (2003): USGS Open-File Report 03-107
  • Northern Caucasus Region
    • Karachaevo-Cherkesskaya Republic (Karachai-Cherkess Republic; Karachay-Cherkessia Republic)
Jambor J L, Grew E S (1994) New mineral names, American Mineralogist 79, 387-391
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
        • Magnitogorsk
Belogub, E.V., Novoselov, K.A., Yakovleva, V.A., and Spiro, B. (2008): Ore Geology Reviews 33, 239-254.
Spain
 
  • Andalusia
    • Granada
      • Motril
Morales Ruano, S., Touray,J.C., Barbanson, L., Fenoll Hach-Ali, P. (1996) Génesis de las mineralizaciones de Ge asociadas a esfaleritas portadoras de fluidos "incompatibles" del Cerro del Toro (Alpujárride, SE de España) Geogaceta, 20, pp. 1567-1570.
  • Asturias
    • Riosa
A. Paniagua et al. , Bull. Minéral. , 1988, 111, pp. 383-391.
USA
 
  • Alaska
    • Northwest Arctic Borough
      • Shungnak District
        • Ruby Creek Prospect
U.S. Geological Survey, 2008, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF): U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2008-1225.
  • Colorado
    • Boulder Co.
      • Jamestown District
        • Inexco Mine
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
Zambia
 
  • Central Province
    • Kabwe District
      • Kabwe (Broken Hill)
Kamona, A. F. & Friedrich, G. H. (2007): Geology, mineralogy and stable isotope geochemistry of the Kabwe carbonate-hosted Pb-Zn deposit, Central Zambia. Ore Geology Reviews 30, 217-243.; Kamona, A.F., Lévêque, J., Friedrich, G., and Haack, U. (1999): Mineralium Deposita 34, 273-283.
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