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About Rhabdophane-(Ce)Hide

Ce(PO4) · H2O
Ce is almost always partly replaced by La, Nd and other REE.
Brown, pale pink, yellowish-white; pale gray, fibers may be colourless in transmitted light.
Resinous, Waxy, Greasy, Dull
Specific Gravity:
3.77 - 4.01
Crystal System:
Named in 1878 by William Garrow Lettsom from the Greek, ραβδοζ, a rod, plus φαιυεσθαι, to appear, in allusion to the bands characteristically exhibited in its spectrum, plus the suffix "-(Ce)" indicating the dominance of Ce over other REE in this species.
Rhabdophane Group.
The most common member in this group.

Classification of Rhabdophane-(Ce)Hide


C : Phosphates without additional anions, with H2O
J : With only large cations

4 : (AB)5(XO4)2·xH2O

19 : Phosphates
9 : Phosphates of rare earths and Sc

Physical Properties of Rhabdophane-(Ce)Hide

Resinous, Waxy, Greasy, Dull
Brown, pale pink, yellowish-white; pale gray, fibers may be colourless in transmitted light.
May be stained by iron oxides
Colorless when pure
3½ on Mohs scale
None Observed
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
3.77 - 4.01 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.19 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Rhabdophane-(Ce)Hide

Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.654 - 1.700 nε = 1.703 - 1.744
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.049
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Optical Extinction:
Colorless, E tan to light brown

Chemical Properties of Rhabdophane-(Ce)Hide

Ce(PO4) · H2O

Ce is almost always partly replaced by La, Nd and other REE.

Crystallography of Rhabdophane-(Ce)Hide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
6 2 2 - Trapezohedral
Space Group:
P62 2 2
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.055(5) Å, c = 6.439(3) Å
a:c = 1 : 0.913
Unit Cell V:
277.55 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Occurs as incrustations, botryoidal, globular, or stalactitic forms with radial-fibrous structure. Short rod-like simple hexagonal crystals.

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0009142Rhabdophane-(Ce)Mooney R C L (1950) X-ray diffraction study of cerous phosphate and related crystals I. Hexagonal modification Acta Crystallographica 3 337-3401950synthetic0293
0019169Rhabdophane-(Ce)Mooney R C L (1948) Crystal structures of a series of rare earth phosphates Journal of Chemical Physics 16 1003-10031948synthetic0293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
6.09 Å(90)
4.41 Å(80)
3.51 Å(70)
3.03 Å(100)
2.83 Å(90)
2.16 Å(60)
1.865 Å(60)

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
An uncommon late-stage mineral in almost all of its occurrences: nepheline syenite pegmatites, polymetallic veins, also rarely from granite pegmatites, has been found in limonite beds

Type Occurrence of Rhabdophane-(Ce)Hide

Synonyms of Rhabdophane-(Ce)Hide

Other Language Names for Rhabdophane-(Ce)Hide

Varieties of Rhabdophane-(Ce)Hide

Lead-bearing Rhabdophane-(Ce)A lead-bearing to -rich variety of rhabdophane-(Ce).
Often associated with pyromorphite or other lead minerals.

Relationship of Rhabdophane-(Ce) to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
Brockite(Ca,Th,Ce)PO4 · H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
Rhabdophane-(La)La(PO4) · H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
Rhabdophane-(Nd)Nd(PO4) · H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
Rhabdophane-(Y)YPO4 · H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
Tristramite(Ca,U,Fe)(PO4,SO4) · 2H2OHex.
UM1993-07-PO:CaCeHLa(Ca,Ce,La,REE)PO4 · nH2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
7 photos of Rhabdophane-(Ce) associated with QuartzSiO2
4 photos of Rhabdophane-(Ce) associated with SeranditeNaMn2+2Si3O8(OH)
4 photos of Rhabdophane-(Ce) associated with CatapleiiteNa2Zr(Si3O9) · 2H2O
4 photos of Rhabdophane-(Ce) associated with Parisite-(Ce)CaCe2(CO3)3F2
4 photos of Rhabdophane-(Ce) associated with NatroliteNa2Al2Si3O10 · 2H2O
4 photos of Rhabdophane-(Ce) associated with MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
3 photos of Rhabdophane-(Ce) associated with ChalcopyriteCuFeS2
2 photos of Rhabdophane-(Ce) associated with AegirineNaFe3+Si2O6
2 photos of Rhabdophane-(Ce) associated with Kupletskite(K,Na)3(Mn,Fe)7Ti2Si8O26(OH)4F
2 photos of Rhabdophane-(Ce) associated with AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

8.CJ.CaesiumpharmacosideriteCsFe4[(AsO4)3(OH)4] · 4H2OIso. 4 3m : P4 3m
8.CJ.JeankempiteCa5(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 7H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.CJ.AirditeSr(V4+O)2(PO4)2 · 4H2OMon. m : Bb
8.CJ.05Stercorite(NH4)Na(PO3OH) · 4H2OTric.
8.CJ.10Mundrabillaite(NH4)2Ca(PO3OH)2 · H2OMon. m : Pm
8.CJ.10Swaknoite(NH4)2Ca(PO3OH)2 · H2OOrth.
8.CJ.15NabaphiteNaBaPO4 · 9H2OIso.
8.CJ.15NastrophiteNa(Sr,Ba)PO4 · 9H2OIso. 2 3 : P21 3
8.CJ.20HaidingeriteCaHAsO4 · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
8.CJ.25VladimiriteCa4(AsO4)2(AsO3OH) · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
8.CJ.30FerrarisiteCa5(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 9H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.CJ.35Machatschkiite(Ca,Na)6(AsO4)(HAsO4)3(PO4,SO4) · 15H2OHex.
8.CJ.40PhaunouxiteCa3(AsO4)2 · 11H2OTric.
8.CJ.40RauenthaliteCa3(AsO4)2 · 10H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.CJ.45Brockite(Ca,Th,Ce)PO4 · H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
8.CJ.45Grayite(Th,Pb,Ca)(PO4) · H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
8.CJ.45Rhabdophane-(La)La(PO4) · H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
8.CJ.45Rhabdophane-(Nd)Nd(PO4) · H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
8.CJ.45Tristramite(Ca,U,Fe)(PO4,SO4) · 2H2OHex.
8.CJ.45Smirnovskite(Th,Ca)PO4 · nH2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
8.CJ.50ArdealiteCa2(PO3OH)(SO4) · 4H2OMon. m : Bb
8.CJ.50BrushiteCa(PO3OH) · 2H2OMon. m : Bb
8.CJ.50Churchite-(Y)Y(PO4) · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
8.CJ.50PharmacoliteCa(HAsO4) · 2H2OMon. m
8.CJ.50Churchite-(Nd)Nd(PO4) · 2H2OMon.
8.CJ.55McneariteNaCa5(AsO4)(HAsO4)4 · 4H2OTric.
8.CJ.60DorfmaniteNa2(PO3OH) · 2H2OOrth.
8.CJ.65SincositeCa(VO)2(PO4)2 · 5H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/nnm
8.CJ.65BariosincositeBa(VO)2(PO4)2 · 4H2OTet.
8.CJ.70CatalanoiteNa2(PO3OH) · 8H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Ibca
8.CJ.75GuériniteCa5(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 9H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
8.CJ.85Ningyoite(U,Ca,Ce)2(PO4)2 · 1-2H2OOrth.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide · H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2,Pb,Ca)(PO4) · H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2,Th,Ce)PO4 · H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2,U,Fe)(PO4,SO4) · 2H2OHex.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

19.9.1Xenotime-(Y)Y(PO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
19.9.2Churchite-(Y)Y(PO4) · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
19.9.3Monazite-(Ce)Ce(PO4)Mon. 2/m
19.9.4Monazite-(La)La(PO4)Mon. 2/m
19.9.5Monazite-(Nd)Nd(PO4)Mon. 2/m
19.9.7Rhabdophane-(La)La(PO4) · H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
19.9.8Rhabdophane-(Nd)Nd(PO4) · H2OHex. 6 2 2 : P62 2 2
19.9.9Vitusite-(Ce)Na3(Ce,La,Nd)(PO4)2Orth. mm2 : Pca21
19.9.10Florencite-(Ce)CeAl3(PO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
19.9.11Florencite-(La)LaAl3(PO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
19.9.12Florencite-(Nd)NdAl3(PO4)2(OH)6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
19.9.13KolbeckiteScPO4 · 2H2OMon. 2/m

Other InformationHide

Readily soluble in HCl.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Rhabdophane-(Ce)Hide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Lettsom (1878) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 3: 191 (as Rhabdophane).
Lecoq d Boisbaudran (1878) Comptes rendu de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 86: 1028 (as Rhabdophane).
Bertrand (1880) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 3: 58.
Hartley (1882) Journal of the Chemical Society, London: 41: 210.
Hartley (1884) Journal of the Chemical Society, London: 45: 167.
Lettsom (1882) Proceedings of the Crystallological Society, London: 105 (as Rhabdophane).
Mooney, R.C.L. (1950) X-ray diffraction study of cerous phosphate and related crystals I. Hexagonal modification. Acta Crystallographica, 3: 337-340
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 774 (as Rhabdophane).
American Mineralogist (1980): 65: 1065.
Walenta, K. (2003): Monokliner bleihaltiger Rhabdophan von der Grube Clara im mittleren Schwarzwald. Aufschluss 54, 405-409.
Kolitsch, U.: Structure redetermination of natural rhabdophane-(Ce) (2018, to be published)

Internet Links for Rhabdophane-(Ce)Hide

Localities for Rhabdophane-(Ce)Hide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Huambo Province
    • Bailundo
Beleque, A. R. C. (2010). Minerais de ETR no complexo carbonatítico de Bailundo (Mungo, Angola): ocorrência, composição e significado económico.
    • Londuimbali
Amores-Casals, S.; Gonçalves, A.O.; Melgarejo, J.-C.; Molist, J.M. (2020) Nb and REE Distribution in the Monte Verde Carbonatite–Alkaline–Agpaitic Complex (Angola). Minerals 10, 5.
  • Huíla Province
    • Quilengues
Amores-Casals, S., Melgarejo, J. C., Bambi, A., Gonçalves, A. O., Morais, E. A., Manuel, J., ... & Molist, J. M. (2019). Lamprophyre-Carbonatite Magma Mingling and Subsolidus Processes as Key Controls on Critical Element Concentration in Carbonatites—The Bonga Complex (Angola). Minerals, 9(10), 601.
  • Namibe Province
    • Tombwa
L. Torró, C. Villanova, M. Castillo, M. Campeny, A. O. Gonçalves and J. C. Melgarejo (2012): Niobium and rare earth minerals from the Virulundo carbonatite, Namibe, Angola. Mineralogical Magazine 76, 393-409.
  • New South Wales
    • Yancowinna Co.
      • Broken Hill district
        • Broken Hill
          • Broken Hill South Mine (BHS Mine; South Mine)
Birch, W. D., ed. (1999): The minerals of Broken Hill. Broken Hill City Council and Museum of Victoria, Broken Hill, Australia, 289 pp.
  • Tasmania
    • Waratah-Wynyard municipality
      • Corinna-Savage River district
Bottrill & Taheri, 2008, Savage River mine, Unpub. Rept, Mineral Resources Tasmania Bottrill, R.S., Renaud, J ., and Unwin, L. (2021) Mineralogical / Petrological Analyses, Savage River Mine. Unpublished Mineral Resources Tasmania Laboratory Report LJN2021-004.
  • Wallonia
    • Luxembourg
      • Vielsalm
        • Grand-Halleux
Dehove, J., Hubert, F. (2006) Nouvelles découvertes à Hourt. Magazine du 4M, 27(263), 9-11.
  • Québec
    • Montérégie
      • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
        • Mont Saint-Hilaire
Horváth, L and Gault, R.A. (1990), The mineralogy of Mont Saint-Hilaire Quebec. Mineralogical Record: 21: 284-359.
      • Lajemmerais RCM
        • Varennes & St-Amable
HORVÁTH, L., PFENNINGER HORVÁTH, E., GAULT, R.A., and TARASSOFF, P. (1998) Mineralogy of the Saint Amable sill, Varennes and Saint Amable, Québec, Canada. Mineralogical Record, 29, 83 118.
Horváth, L., Pfenninger-Horváth, E., Gault, R. A., & Tarassoff, P. (1998): Mineralogy of the Saint-Amable Sill, Varennes and Saint-Amable, Québec. Mineralogical Record, 29: 83-118.
  • Inner Mongolia
    • Baotou City (Baotou Prefecture)
      • Bayan Obo mining district
        • Bayan Obo
Zhang Peishan, Yang Zhuming, Tao Kejie, and Yang Xueming (1996): "Mineralogy and Geology of Rare Earths in China", Science Press (Beijing), 226 pp.
Czech Republic
  • Central Bohemian Region
    • Kutná Hora District
GOLIÁŠ, V. (2002): Thoriová mineralizace Českého Masívu. – MS, dokt. práce, PřF UK Praha.
        • Moldanubian Zone pegmatites
Novak, M., Kadlec, T., & Gadas, P. (2013). Geological position, mineral assemblages and contamination of granitic pegmatites in the Moldanubian Zone, Czech Republic; examples from the Vlastejovice region. Journal of Geosciences, 58(1), 21-47.
  • Liberec Region
Scharm, B.: Přehled minerálů nalezených v oblasti uranových koncentrací v severočeské křídě. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1995, roč. 3, s. 169-172.
  • Moravian-Silesian Region
    • Frýdek-Místek District
      • Krmelín
Matýsek D. (2013): Projevy mobilizace prvků vzácných zemin (REE) v podbeskydských těšínitech. Acta Mus. Morav., Sci. nat., 98, 101–113.
  • Olomouc Region
    • Prostějov District
Škoda R., Čopjakova R. 2006: Authigenic REE mineralsfrom greywackes of the Drahany Uplands, Czech Republic and their significance for diagenetic processes. Mineralogia Polonica, vol. 28, 208-210
      • Rozstání
        • Baldovec
Halavínová, M., Slobodník, M., Krmíček, L., Kučera, J.: Hydrotermální asociace na žilách v klastických horninách spodního karbonu Drahanské a Zábřežské vrchoviny: genetické aspekty. Geologické výzkumy na Moravě a ve Slezsku v roce 2004, 2005, roč. 12, s. 55-58.
  • Ústí nad Labem Region
    • Most District
      • Hora Svaté Kateřiny (Sankt Katharinaberg; Halleberg; Katterberg)
Breiter, Karel, Copjakova, Renata, and Skoda, Radek, 2009, The Involvement of F, CO2, and As in the Alteration of Zr-Th-REE-bearing Accessory Minerals in the Hora Svaté Kateřiny A-type Granite, Czech Republic, Canadian Mineralogist, v. 47, p. 1375-1398.
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Haute-Loire
      • Brioude
        • Langeac
          • Marsanges
PERINET F. (2014) - Minéraux des terres rares de Marsanges (Haute Loire). Le Cahier des Micromonteurs N° 123 pp. 18-22
  • Occitanie
    • Aveyron
      • Villefranche-de-Rouergue
        • Asprières
Leconte J., Hatert F., Grégoire L., (2016) - Bréziès, Asprières, Aveyron, France - Micromonteurs, p. 106-107
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Freiburg Region
      • Lörrach
        • Todtnau
Lapis 21(12), 44 (1996)
      • Ortenaukreis
        • Gengenbach
          • Gengenbach
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
        • Wolfach
          • Oberwolfach
Walenta, K. (1979): Chukhrovit-(Ce) und Rhabdophan-(Ce) aus der Grube Clara im mittleren Schwarzwald. Chem. Erde, 38, 331-39. (in German); Walenta, K. (1992): Die Mineralien des Schwarzwaldes. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, 336 pp. (in German); KOLITSCH, U., GRÖBNER, J. & BAYERL, R. (1995): Die Mineralien der Silber-Antimon-Vererzungen der Grube Clara im Zeitraum 1993 bis 1995. - Erzgräber 9 (2), 61-77.
Belendorff, K. (1986): Lapis 11 (3), 27-28.
  • Bavaria
    • Lower Franconia
      • Aschaffenburg District
        • Waldaschaff
Lorenz, J., Schmitt, R., Hahn, W. (2007): Rhabdophan und Cuprobismutit von der Barytgrube "Pauline" in Waldaschaff im Spessart, Der Aufschluss, Vol. 58, 41-54
    • Upper Franconia
      • Hof District
        • Sparneck
          • Reinersreuth
            • Großer Waldstein
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990; Meier, S. (2002): Seltene Phosphatmineralien aus dem Fichtelgebirge und der Oberpfalz. Lapis 27 (2), 32-34
      • Wunsiedel im Fichtelgebirge
        • Weißenstadt
          • Rudolfstein
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Upper Palatinate
      • Schwandorf District
        • Nabburg
          • Brudersdorf
Dill, H. G., & Weber, B. (2010). Accessory minerals of fluorite and their implication regarding the environment of formation (Nabburg–Wölsendorf fluorite district, SE Germany), with special reference to fetid fluorite (“Stinkspat”). Ore Geology Reviews, 37(2), 65-86.
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Mayen-Koblenz District
      • Mendig
        • Mendig
[Hentschel, G., (1983): Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag, München] [Blass, G., Emmerich, F., Graf, HW., Schäfer, Ch., Tschörtner, J., (2006): Minerale der Eifelvulkane, Version 1.0, CD, published by authors]
[Hentschel, G., (1983): Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag, München] [Blass, G., Emmerich, F., Graf, HW., Schäfer, Ch., Tschörtner, J., (2006): Minerale der Eifelvulkane, Version 1.0, CD, published by authors]
          • Wingertsberg
[Hentschel, G., (1983): Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag, München] [Blass, G., Emmerich, F., Graf, HW., Schäfer, Ch., Tschörtner, J., (2006): Minerale der Eifelvulkane, Version 1.0, CD, published by authors]
      • Pellenz
        • Kruft
[Hentschel, G., (1983): Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag, München] [Blass, G., Emmerich, F., Graf, HW., Schäfer, Ch., Tschörtner, J., (2006): Minerale der Eifelvulkane, Version 1.0, CD, published by authors]
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Saalekreis
      • Petersberg
Jahn, S. (2007): Der Petersberg bei Halle a. d. Saale. Mineralien-Welt 18(6), 16-41.
  • Saxony
    • Görlitz District
      • Königshain
Witzke, T. & Giesler, T. (2013): Eine Seltenerd- und Niob-Tantal-Mineralisation aus dem Königshainer Granit in der Lausitz, Sachsen.- Mineralien-Welt 24(1), 36-45
  • Kujalleq
    • Ilímaussaq complex
      • Kvanefjeld (Kuannersuit Plateau)
Knut Eldjarn collection and photo ID: 61730
  • Győr-Moson-Sopron County
    • Sopron
Mineral Species of Hungary, 2005
      • Sopron-Brennbergbánya Coal Deposit
Mineral Species of Hungary, 2005
  • Piedmont
    • Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province
      • Baceno
        • Devero Alp
Cuchet, S., Crumbach, M., van der Burgt, A., Vanini, F., Loranth, C., Mestrom, P., Antonysen, E., Meisser, N., Roth, P. (2019): Mineralogische Topografie der Schweiz und angrenzender Regionen. 1. Teil - Binntal (CH) - Veglia (I) - Devero (I). Schweizer Strahler 53(1), 2-17 (in German and French).
  • Sardinia
    • Metropolitan City of Cagliari
      • Sarroch
- Orlandi, P., Gelosa, M., Bonacina, E., Caboni, F., Mamberti, M., Tanca, G., A. et Vinci, A. (2013) : Sardignaite, gelosaite et tancaite-(Ce) : trois nouveaux minéraux de Su Seinargiu, Sarroch, Sardaigne, Italie. Le Règne Minéral, 112, 39-52.; Orlandi P., Gelosa M., Bonacina E., Caboni F., Mamberti M., Tanca G.A., Vinci A. (2015): Sette nuove specie mineralogiche della Sardegna. I minerali della mineralizzazione a molibdeno e bismuto di Su Seinargiu (CA). Riv. Mineral. Ital., 39, 2, 84-115.
  • Saga Prefecture
Takai, Y. and Uehara, S. (2012) Rhabdophane-(Y), YPO4·H2O, a new mineral in alkali olivine basalt from Hinodematsu, Genkai-cho, Saga Prefecture, Japan. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 107, 110-113.
  • Southern Region
    • Zomba
American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 1216–1222, 2009
  • Agder
    • Evje og Hornnes
      • Lauvland
        • Skavdalen
Stensrud, S. (2009): De opptredende mineraler på granittpegmatittganger i Iveland og Evje. Unpublished paper based on 4 previous papers written together with Johan Løchen.
    • Iveland
      • Birkeland
Neumann (1985) : Norges mineraler. Norges geologiske undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 117
      • Skripeland
Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68,p. 117.
  • Østfold
    • Halden
      • Idd
        • Aspedammen
R. Kristiansen (1974, pers. com.); Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, p. 117
  • Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province
    • Peshawar District
      • Hameed Abad Kafoor Dheri
The Mineralogical Record, Volume 35 Number 3, p. 212
  • Lower Silesian Voivodeship
    • Jelenia Góra County
      • Gmina Podgórzyn
Kajdas, B., Michalik, M. (2011): Formation of secondary REE-bearing minerals during grusification of Karkonosze granite. Mineralogia Special Papers: 38: 108-109
Kajdas, B., Michalik, M. (2011): Formation of secondary REE-bearing minerals during grusification of Karkonosze granite. Mineralogia Special Papers: 38: 108-109
  • Viseu
    • São Pedro do Sul
      • Manhouce
Pedro Alves analytical data and collection.
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
    • Plastovsky District
      • Svetlyi
Igor Savin's data
  • Murmansk Oblast
    • Khibiny Massif
      • Koashva Mt
Arzamastsev, A., Yakovenchuk, V., Pakhomovsky, Y., & Ivanyuk, G. (2008). The Khibina and Lovozero alkaline massifs: Geology and unique mineralization. In Guidbook for 33rd International Geological Congress Excursion (No. 47, p. 58).
[AmMin 85:1844]; Pekov, I. V., & Nikolaev, A. P. (2007) Minerals of the Pegmatites and Hydrothermal Assemblages of the Koashva Deposit.
Pavel M. Kartashov data
    • Lovozersky District
Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Panikorovskii, T.L., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Mikhailova, J.A., Krivovichev, S.V., Bocharov, V.N. & Kalashnikov, A.O. (2018) Selivanovaite, NaTi3(Ti,Na,Fe,Mn)4[(Si2O7)2O4(OH,H2O)4]·nH2O, a new rock-forming mineral from the eudialyte-rich malignite of the Lovozero alkaline massif (Kola Peninsula, Russia). European Journal of Mineralogy. 30 (3): 515-523
        • Umbozero mine (Umbozerskii mine; Umba Mine)
Chukanov, N. V., Ermolaeva, V. N., Pekov, I. V., Sokolov, S. V., Nekrasov, A. N., & Sokolova, M. N. (2005). Raremetal mineralization connected with bituminous matters in late assemblages of pegmatites of the Khibiny and Lovozero massifs. New Data Minerals, 40, 80-95.
      • Engporr Mountain
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data (2013)
N.V. Chukanov, I.V. Pekov, A.E. Zadov, S.V. Krivovichev, P.C.Burns, Yu. Schneider (2001): Organovaite-Mn,K2Mn(Nb,Ti)4(Si4O12)2(O,OH)4·6H2O, a new labuntsovite-group mineral from the Lovozero massif, Kola Peninsula. Zap. Vseross. Mineral. Obshch., 130(2), 46­53; Pakhomovsky, Y. A., Ivanyuk, G. Y., & Yakovenchuk, V. N. (2014). Loparite-(Ce) in rocks of the Lovozero layered complex at Mt. Karnasurt and Mt. Kedykvyrpakhk. Geology of Ore Deposits, 56(8), 685-698.
P.M. Kartashov data
        • Second Eastern Stream (Kromka Stream)
Pavel M. Kartashov collection (#3183) and photo. ( Photo ID: 121415 )
Ivanyuk, Gregory & Я.А, Пахомовский & В.Н, Яковенчук & Ю.П, Меньшиков & А.Н, Богданова & Ю.А, Михайлова. (2006). Редкометальные минералы микроклино-кварцевых жил в вулканогенно-осадочных породах г. Киткнюн (Ловозерский массив). 66-81.
Pekov, I.V. (2000): Lovozero Massif. Moscow, Ocean Pictures Ltd, 480 pp.; Yakovenchuk, V. N., Ivanyuk, G. Y., Krivovichev, S. V., Pakhomovsky, Y. A., Selivanova, E. A., Korchak, J. A., ... & Zalkind, O. A. (2011). Eliseevite, Na1. 5Li [Ti2Si4O12. 5 (OH) 1.5]∙ 2H2O, a new microporous titanosilicate from the Lovozero alkaline massif (Kola Peninsula, Russia). American Mineralogist, 96(10), 1624-1629.
      • Seidozero Lake
Yakovenchuk, V.N., Pakhomovsky, Ya.A., Men’shikov, Yu.P., Mikhailova, J.A., and Ivanyuk, G.Yu. (2007): Canadian Mineralogist 45, 451-456.
Pavel M. Kartashov data; Semenov E.I. (1972) Mineralogy of Lovozero alkaline massif, - Moscow, Nauka, p. 308 (in Rus.)
Semenov E.I. (1972) Mineralogy of Lovozero alkaline massif, - Moscow, Nauka, p. 308 (in Rus.)
The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 43, pp. 735-746 (2005)
      • Suoluaiv Mt
Mikhail Uchitel' data
[World of Stones 12:49]
    • Polar Yakutia
S.M. Kravchenko data
  • Galicia
    • Pontevedra
      • Porriño
Calvo, M., Viñals, J. and Vila, F. (2009) Mineralogy of the pegmatites and miarolitic cavities in the granitic batholit of Porriño, Pontevedra, galicia, Spain. Mineral Up, (2009-1), 6-23
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • Tywardreath and Par
No reference listed
  • Zhytomyr Oblast
Lyckberg, P., Chornousenko, V. & Wilson, W. E. (2009): Volodarsk-Volynski, Zhitomir Oblast, Ukraine. Mineralogical Record, 40, 473-506.
  • Arkansas
    • Hot Spring Co.
      • Magnet Cove
Art Smith (2001) Mineral News, 17, #11.
  • Colorado
    • Gunnison Co.
      • White Earth Mining District (Powderhorn Mining District)
"Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997
  • Nevada
    • Humboldt Co.
      • Iron Point Mining District
        • Valmy
Silver Coin Mine. Compact Disc. Paul Adams
    • Pershing Co.
      • Antelope Mining District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada; Jensen, M. (1993): Update on the mineralogy of the Majuba Hill mine, Pershing County. Mineralogical Record. 24, 171-180.
Jensen, M. (1993): Update on the mineralogy of the Majuba Hill mine, Pershing County. Mineralogical Record. 24, 171-180.
  • Wisconsin
    • Marathon Co.
      • Wausau Intrusive Complex
Hanson, S.L., et al (1999) Rocks and Minerals, 74, 184
Mineral and/or Locality  
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