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Rhodonite

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Formula:
CaMn3Mn(Si5O15)
Colour:
Red, pink, brownish-red, gray.
Lustre:
Vitreous, Pearly
Hardness:
5½ - 6½
Specific Gravity:
3.57 - 3.76
Crystal System:
Triclinic
Member of:
Name:
Named in 1819 by Christoph Friedrich Jasche from the Greek ρόδον, "rose", referring to its color.
Pyroxmangite of MnSiO3 composition is the high-pressure, low-temperature polymorph with respect to rhodonite of the same composition (Maresch & Mottana, 1976). There is also an unnamed α phase - UM1975-18-SiO:Mn - recognized in limestones from the Polish Tatra Mts.

The Fe-substituted analogue is known - see ferrorhodonite.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Rhodonite.


Classification of Rhodonite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
9.DK.05

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
K : Inosilicates with 5-periodic single chains
65.4.1.1

65 : INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
4 : Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=5
14.17.1

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
17 : Silicates of Mn

Physical Properties of Rhodonite

Vitreous, Pearly
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Comment:
Somewhat pearly on cleavage
Colour:
Red, pink, brownish-red, gray.
Streak:
White
Hardness:
5½ - 6½ on Mohs scale
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on {110} & {110}
Good on {001}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density:
3.57 - 3.76 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.726 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Rhodonite

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.711 - 1.738 nβ = 1.714 - 1.741 nγ = 1.724 - 1.751
2V:
Measured: 58° to 73°, Calculated: 58°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.013
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
r < v
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
X= yellowish red
Y= pinkish red
Z= pale yellowish red

Chemical Properties of Rhodonite

Formula:
CaMn3Mn(Si5O15)
IMA Formula:
Mn2+SiO3
Common Impurities:
Al,Ca,Fe,Zn

Crystallography of Rhodonite

Crystal System:
Triclinic
Class (H-M):
1 - Pinacoidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.758 Å, b = 10.499 Å, c = 12.205 Å
α = 108.58°, β = 102.92°, γ = 82.52°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.929 : 1 : 1.162
Unit Cell V:
1,152.86 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
20
Morphology:
Crystals rough, typically tabular
Twinning:
Lamellar, with {010} as composition plane.
Comment:
Non-standard space-group setting C-1.

Crystallographic forms of Rhodonite

Crystal Atlas:
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Click on an icon to view
Rhodonite no.30 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Rhodonite no.49 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

Epitaxial Relationships of Rhodonite

Epitaxial Minerals:
TiragalloiteMn2+4As5+Si3O12(OH)
MarsturiteNaCaMn3Si5O14(OH)
Epitaxy Comments:
(001)[100]mar // (001)[100]rho ; Dunn & Leavens (1986)
(010)[001]tir // (010)[100]rho ; Roth & Meisser (2011)

X-Ray Powder Diffraction

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
2.772 (100)
2.980 (65)
2.924 (65)
3.14 (30)
3.34 (25)
3.10 (25)
2.651 (18)
(

Type Occurrence of Rhodonite

Synonyms of Rhodonite

Other Language Names for Rhodonite

Varieties of Rhodonite

Dyssnite

Dull brownish black alteration of rhodonite containing both higher valance manganese and iron.

Fowlerite

Zincian and calcian variety of rhodonite which consequently is paler pink than end-member rhodonite. Fowlerite was particularly noticed as rhodonite rarely occurred in crystals before the discovery at Franklin, New Jersey, USA.

Hsihutsunite

A purplish-red variety of rhodonite, unusually high in Ca.

Orlets

Usually finegrained quartzite-like rhodonite enriched by manganese and low contents of iron and magnesium (usually

Relationship of Rhodonite to other Species

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
BabingtoniteCa2(Fe,Mn)FeSi5O14(OH)
FerrorhodoniteCaMn3Fe(Si5O15)
LithiomarsturiteLiCa2Mn2Si5O14(OH)
ManganbabingtoniteCa2(Mn,Fe)FeSi5O14(OH)
MarsturiteNaCaMn3Si5O14(OH)
Nambulite(Li,Na)Mn4Si5O14(OH)
Natronambulite(Na,Li)(Mn,Ca)4Si5O14OH
ScandiobabingtoniteCa2(Fe2+,Mn)ScSi5O14(OH)

Common Associates

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Calcite126 photos of Rhodonite associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Galena120 photos of Rhodonite associated with Galena on mindat.org.
Franklinite68 photos of Rhodonite associated with Franklinite on mindat.org.
Quartz64 photos of Rhodonite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Willemite56 photos of Rhodonite associated with Willemite on mindat.org.
Pyrite47 photos of Rhodonite associated with Pyrite on mindat.org.
Axinite-(Mn)25 photos of Rhodonite associated with Axinite-(Mn) on mindat.org.
Andradite23 photos of Rhodonite associated with Andradite on mindat.org.
Sphalerite23 photos of Rhodonite associated with Sphalerite on mindat.org.
Cahnite20 photos of Rhodonite associated with Cahnite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz Grouping

9.DK.05BabingtoniteCa2(Fe,Mn)FeSi5O14(OH)
9.DK.05LithiomarsturiteLiCa2Mn2Si5O14(OH)
9.DK.05ManganbabingtoniteCa2(Mn,Fe)FeSi5O14(OH)
9.DK.05MarsturiteNaCaMn3Si5O14(OH)
9.DK.05Nambulite(Li,Na)Mn4Si5O14(OH)
9.DK.05Natronambulite(Na,Li)(Mn,Ca)4Si5O14OH
9.DK.05ScandiobabingtoniteCa2(Fe2+,Mn)ScSi5O14(OH)
9.DK.05FowleriteCaMn3Mn(Si5O15)
9.DK.10SantaclaraiteCaMn4[Si5O14OH](OH) · H2O
9.DK.15SaneroiteNaMn2+5[Si5O14(OH)](VO3)(OH)
9.DK.20Hellandite-(Y)(Ca,REE)4Y2Al◻2(B4Si4O22) (OH)2
9.DK.20Tadzhikite-(Ce)Ca4Ce3+2Ti◻(B4Si4O22)(OH)2
9.DK.20Mottanaite-(Ce)Ca4(CeCa)AlBe2(Si4B4O22)O2
9.DK.20CiprianiiteCa4[(Th,U)(REE)]Al◻2(Si4B4O22)(OH,F)2
9.DK.20Hellandite-(Ce)(Ca,REE)4Ce2Al□2(B4Si4O22) (OH)2

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals Grouping

14.17.2TephroiteMn2+2SiO4
14.17.3BrauniteMn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8
14.17.4AlleghanyiteMn2+5(SiO4)2(OH)2
14.17.5Ribbeite(Mn2+,Mg)5(SiO4)2(OH)2
14.17.6LeucophoeniciteMn2+7(SiO4)3(OH)2
14.17.7JerrygibbsiteMn2+9(SiO4)4(OH)2
14.17.8BementiteMn7Si6O15(OH)8
14.17.9Parsettensite(K,Na,Ca)7.5(Mn,Mg)49Si72O168(OH)50 · nH2O
14.17.10YofortieriteMn5Si8O20(OH)2 · 8-9H2O

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)

65.4.1.2BabingtoniteCa2(Fe,Mn)FeSi5O14(OH)
65.4.1.3ManganbabingtoniteCa2(Mn,Fe)FeSi5O14(OH)
65.4.1.4Nambulite(Li,Na)Mn4Si5O14(OH)
65.4.1.5Natronambulite(Na,Li)(Mn,Ca)4Si5O14OH
65.4.1.6MarsturiteNaCaMn3Si5O14(OH)
65.4.1.7LithiomarsturiteLiCa2Mn2Si5O14(OH)

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Rhodonite in petrology

Common component of (items highlighted in red)

References for Rhodonite

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Liebau, F., Hilmer, W. and Lindemann, G. (1959) Über die Kristallstruktur des Rhodonits (Mn,Ca)SiO3. Acta Crystallographica: 12: 182-187.
Peacor, D.R. and N. Niizeki (1963) The redetermination and refinement of the crystal structure of rhodonite, (Mn,Ca)SiO3. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 119, 98-116.
H. Momoi (1964) Mineralogical study of rhodonites in Japan, with special reference to contact metamorphism. Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 15, #1, 39-63.
Ohashi, Y. and Finger, L.W. (1975) Pyroxenoids. A comparison of refined structures of rhodonite and pyroxmangite. Carnegie Institution Washington Year Book: 74: 564-569.
Maresch, W.V. and Mottana, A. (1976) The pyroxmangite-rhodonite transformation for the MnSiO3 composition. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 55: 69-79.
Narita, H., Koto, K., and Morimoto, N. (1977) The crystal structures of MnSiO3 polymorphs (rhodonite- and pyroxmangite-type). Mineralogical Journal of Sapporo: 8: 329-342.
American Mineralogist (1988) 73: 798-808.
Robie, R.A., Huebner, J.S., and Hemingway, B.S. (1995) Heat capacities and thermodynamic properties of braunite (Mn7SiO12) and rhodonite (MnSiO3). American Mineralogist: 80: 560-575.
Deer, W.A., Howie, R.A. and Zussman, J. (1997) Vol. 2A: 586-599.
Pertlik, F. & Zahiri, R. (1999) Rhodonite with a low calcium content: crystal structure determination and crystal chemical calculations. Monatshefte für Chemie 130, 257–265.
Cook, R.B. (2005) "Connoisseur's Choice: Rhodonite." Rocks & Minerals 80: 264-269.
Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W. and Nichols, M.C., Eds. (2016) Handbook of Mineralogy, Mineralogical Society of America, Chantilly, VA 20151-1110, USA. http://www.handbookofmineralogy.org/

Internet Links for Rhodonite

mindat.org URL:
https://www.mindat.org/min-3407.html
Please feel free to link to this page.
Specimens:
The following Rhodonite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Rhodonite

Mineral and/or Locality  
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