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Hieronymus Theodor Richter
The richterite group minerals are defined as sodium-calcium amphiboles with 0,5 apfu < A(Na+K+ 2Ca) where Na or K is dominant, and with C(Al+Fe3++2Ti)<0,5 apfu. The W position may contain (OH),F or Cl.

Richterite is defined with
A position: Na dominant
C position: Mg dominant
W position: (OH) dominant.
Brown to brownish-red, rose-red, or yellow, grey-brown, and also pale to dark green. dark green blue and grey blue
5 - 6
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Named in 1865 by Johann Friedrich August Breithaupt in honor of Hieronymus Theodor Richter [November 21, 1824, Dresden, Germany – September 25, 1898, Freiberg, Saxony, Germany], professor of chemistry at Freiberg University of Mining and Technology. He was the co-discoverer of indium.
This page provides mineralogical data about Richterite.

Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of RichteriteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
E : Inosilicates with 2-periodic double chains, Si4O11; Clinoamphiboles

66 : INOSILICATES Double-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=2)
1 : Amphiboles - Mg-Fe-Mn-Li subgroup

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
18 : Silicates of Mn and Na, K, Mg, Ca or Fe

Pronounciation of RichteriteHide

PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of RichteriteHide

Brown to brownish-red, rose-red, or yellow, grey-brown, and also pale to dark green. dark green blue and grey blue
5 - 6 on Mohs scale
Amphibole cleavage perfect on {110}intersecting at 56 and 124 degrees.
partings on {100} and {001}
3.1 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Optical Data of RichteriteHide

Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.615 nβ = 1.629 nγ = 1.636
Measured: 68° , Calculated: 70°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.021
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
r < v strong
Strong in pale yellows, orange and red

Chemical Properties of RichteriteHide


The richterite group minerals are defined as sodium-calcium amphiboles with 0,5 apfu < A(Na+K+ 2Ca) where Na or K is dominant, and with C(Al+Fe3++2Ti)<0,5 apfu. The W position may contain (OH),F or Cl.

Richterite is defined with
A position: Na dominant
C position: Mg dominant
W position: (OH) dominant.
IMA Formula:
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of RichteriteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.9 Å, b = 17.97 Å, c = 5.26 Å
β = 104.25°
a:b:c = 0.551 : 1 : 0.293
Unit Cell V:
906.98 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals to 15 cm, rarely doubly terminated. Flattened along [100] also acicular and asbestiform
Simple or multiple parallel to {100}

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Occurrences of RichteriteHide

Paragenetic Mode(s):

Type Occurrence of RichteriteHide

Synonyms of RichteriteHide

Other Language Names for RichteriteHide

Varieties of RichteriteHide

AstochiteA manganoan variety of Richterite.
MarmairoliteA manganoan Richterite
Potassian RichteriteK-bearing variety from DeBeers mine (kimberlites), associated, i.a., with hawthorneite.
Titanian Potassian RichteriteTi,K-enriched variety from Prairie Creek lamproite, Arkansas, USA, associated, e.g., with haggertyite.

Relationship of Richterite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
Fluoro-richterite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Hackmanite61 photos of Richterite associated with Hackmanite on
Calcite40 photos of Richterite associated with Calcite on
Sodalite9 photos of Richterite associated with Sodalite on
Hematite7 photos of Richterite associated with Hematite on
Phlogopite7 photos of Richterite associated with Phlogopite on
Rhodonite6 photos of Richterite associated with Rhodonite on
Schefferite4 photos of Richterite associated with Schefferite on
Senaite4 photos of Richterite associated with Senaite on
Hiortdahlite II3 photos of Richterite associated with Hiortdahlite II on
Braunite3 photos of Richterite associated with Braunite on

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.DE.05Anthophyllite☐{Mg2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
9.DE.05Clino-holmquistite Root Name☐{Li2}{Z2+3Z3+2}(Si8O22)(OH,F,Cl)2Mon.
9.DE.05Grunerite☐{Fe2+2}{Fe2+5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.05Manganocummingtonite☐{Mn2+2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.05Ferro-fluoro-pedrizite{Na}{Li2}{Fe2Al2Li}(Al2Si6O22)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.05Ferri-fluoro-leakeite{Na}{Na2}{Mg2Fe3+2Li}(Si8O22)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.10Actinolite☐{Ca2}{Mg4.5-2.5Fe0.5-2.5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.10Ferro-tschermakite☐{Ca2}{Fe2+3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.10Tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.10Tschermakite☐(Ca2)(Mg3Al2)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.10Parvo-manganotremolite☐{CaMn2+}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.10Fluoro-tremolite☐{Ca2}{Mg5}(Si8O22)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.10Potassic-fluoro-pargasite{K}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Kaersutite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg3AlTi}(Al2Si6O22)O2 Mon.
9.DE.15Fluoro-edenite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : P2/m
9.DE.15Magnesio-fluoro-hastingsite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Potassic-fluoro-hastingsite{K}{Ca2}{Fe2+4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Potassic-chloro-hastingsite{K}{Ca2}{Fe2+4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(Cl,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Fluoro-pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Parvo-mangano-edenite{Na}{CaMn2+}{Mg5}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Potassic-magnesio-hastingsite{K}{Ca2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Potassic-ferro-pargasite{K}{Ca2}{Fe2+4Al}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.15Chromio-pargasite{Na}{Ca2}{Mg4Cr3+}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Ferro-taramiteNa(CaNa)(Fe2+3Al2)(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Ferro-ferri-katophoriteNa(NaCa)(Fe2+4Fe3+)(Si7Al)O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Ferro-barroisite☐{CaNa}{Fe2+3Al2}(AlSi7O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Ferro-winchite ☐{CaNa}{Fe2+4Al}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon.
9.DE.20Taramite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Fluoro-richterite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg5}(Si8O22)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m
9.DE.20Katophorite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg4Al}[(AlSi7)O22](OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Ferri-ghoseite☐[Mn2+Na][Mg4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m
9.DE.20Ferri-winchite☐[CaNa][Mg4(Fe3+,Al)]Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.20Fluoro-taramite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Arfvedsonite[Na][Na2][Fe2+4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25EckermanniteNaNa2(Mg4Al}Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Magnesio-arfvedsonite{Na}{Na2}{Mg4Fe3+}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Riebeckite◻[Na2][Fe2+3Fe3+2]Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-nybøiteNaNa2[(Fe2+3,Mg)Fe3+2](AlSi7O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Clino-ferro-ferri-holmquistite◻{Li2}{Fe2+3Fe3+2}(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Potassic-ferri-leakeite[K][Na2][Mg2Fe3+2Li]Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Fluoro-nybøiteNaNa2(Mg3Al2)(AlSi7O22)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Mangani-dellaventuraite{Na}{Na2}{MgMn3+2LiTi4+}Si8O22O2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Fluoro-pedriziteNaLi2(Mg2Al2Li)(Si8O22)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Potassic-arfvedsonite[(K,Na)][Na2][Fe2+4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Mangani-obertiiteNa(Na2)(Mg3Mn3+Ti)(Si8O22)O2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-pedrizite[Na][Li2][Fe2+2Fe3+2Li]Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Potassic-magnesio-arfvedsonite[K][Na2][Mg4Fe3+]Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25PedriziteNaLi2(LiMg2Al2)(Si8O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Ferro-pedriziteNaLi2(Fe2+2Al2Li)Si8O22(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Fluoro-leakeiteNaNa2(Mg2Al2Li)(Si8O22)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.DE.25Ferro-ferri-obertiiteNaNa2(Fe2+3Fe3+Ti)Si8O22O2Mon. 2/m : B2/m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

66.1.3b.11Katophorite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg4Al}[(AlSi7)O22](OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
66.1.3b.15Taramite{Na}{CaNa}{Mg3Al2}(Al2Si6O22)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

14.18.3ZakharoviteNa4Mn5Si10O24(OH)6 · 6H2OTrig.
14.18.4NorrishiteKLiMn3+2(Si4O10)O2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
14.18.5Shafranovskite(Na,K)6(Mn,Fe)3Si9O24 · 6H2OTrig.
14.18.6AbswurmbachiteCuMn3+6(SiO4)O8Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
14.18.8KanoiteMn2+(Mg,Mn2+)Si2O6Mon. 2/m : P21/b
14.18.13BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)Tric. 1 : P1
14.18.15Truscottite(Ca,Mn)14Si24O58(OH)8 · 2H2OTrig.
14.18.16SantaclaraiteCaMn4[Si5O14OH](OH) · H2OTric.
14.18.18JohannseniteCaMn2+Si2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
14.18.19NeltneriteCaMn3+6(SiO4)O8Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
14.18.20OrlymaniteCa4Mn3Si8O20(OH)6 · 2H2OHex.
14.18.21InesiteCa2(Mn,Fe)7Si10O28(OH)2 · 5H2OTric. 1 : P1
14.18.22OrientiteCa8Mn3+10(SiO4)3(Si3O10)3(OH)10 · 4H2O Orth.
14.18.23RuiziteCa2Mn3+2[Si4O11(OH)2](OH)2·2H2OMon. 2
14.18.24BostwickiteCaMn6Si3O16 · 7H2OOrth.
14.18.25KittatinnyiteCa2Mn2Mn(SiO4)2(OH)4 · 9H2OHex.
14.18.27SeranditeNaMn2+2Si3O8(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
14.18.29MarsturiteNaCaMn3Si5O14(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
14.18.30RaiteNa4Mn2+3Ti0.25Si8O20(OH)2 · 10H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : C2 2 2
14.18.32Byelorussite-(Ce)NaBa2Ce2MnTi2[Si4O12]2O2(F,OH) · H2O
14.18.35PyroxmangiteMnSiO3Tric. 1
14.18.37Neotocite(Mn,Fe,Mg)SiO3 · H2OAmor.
14.18.38BabingtoniteCa2(Fe,Mn)FeSi5O14(OH)Tric. 1 : P1

Fluorescence of RichteriteHide

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Richterite in petrologyHide

An essential component of (items highlighted in red)
Common component of (items highlighted in red)

References for RichteriteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Breithaupt, A. (1865) Mineralogische Studien. 25. Ricterit. 32 Scheffferit. Berg- und Huettenmænnische Zeitung: 24: 364-364. [PDF:]
Mottana, A., Paris, E., Della Ventura, G., Robert, J.-L. (1990) Spectroscopic evidence for tetrahedrally-coordinated titanium in richteritic amphiboles. Rend. Fis. Accad. Lincei: 1: 387-392.
Oberti, R., Ungaretti, L., Cannillo, E., Hawthorne, F.C. (1992) The behaviour of Ti in amphiboles. I. Four- and six-coordinate Ti in richterite. European Journal of Mineralogy: 4: 425-439.
Oberti, R., Hawthorne, F.C., Ungaretti, L., Cannillo, E. (1993) The behaviour of Mn in amphiboles: Mn in richterite. European Journal of Mineralogy: 5: 43-51.
Hawthorne, F.C., Della Ventura, G., Robert, J.L., Welch, M.D., Raudsepp, M., Jenkins, D.M. (1997) A Rietveld and infrared study of synthetic amphiboles along the potassium-richterite-tremolite join. American Mineralogist: 82: 708-716.
Ishida, K., Hawthorne, F.C. (2001) Assignment of infrared OH-stretching bands in mangano-arfvedsonite and richterite through heat-treatment. American Mineralogist: 86: 965-972.
Hawthorne, F.C., Oberti, R. (2006) On the classification of amphiboles: Canadian Mineralogist: 44(1): 1-21.
Hawthorne, F.C., Oberti, R., Harlow, G.E., Maresch, W.V., Martin, R.F., Schumacer, J.C., Welch, M.D. (2012) Nomenclature of the amphibole supergroup, American Mineralogist: 97: 2031–2048.
Ventura, G.D., Redhammer, G.J., Robert, J., Sergent, J., Iezzi, G., Cavallo, A. (2016) Crystal-chemistry of synthetic amphiboles along the richterite—ferro-richterite join: A combined spectroscopic (FTIR, Mössbauer), XRPD, and microchemical study. The Canadian Mineralogist: 54: 97-114.

Internet Links for RichteriteHide

Localities for RichteriteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Badakhshan Province (Badakshan Province; Badahsan Province)
    • Khash & Kuran Wa Munjan Districts
Dipl. Min. M. Schaeffer, Detmold, 2003; RRUFF Project Specimen ID: R050414
Richard Dale collection & earlier mindat photos
        • Sar-e Sang (Sar Sang; Sary Sang)
Rob Woodside collection
Dudley Blauwet (2008) Private Communication
  • New South Wales
    • Nandewar Co.
Dunn, T. L., H. Y. McSween Jr., and P. R. Christensen (2007), Thermal emission spectra of terrestrial alkaline volcanic rocks: Applications to Martian remote sensing, Journal of Geophysical Research,112
  • Victoria
    • Macedon Ranges Shire
      • Mount Macedon
Museum Victoria Mineralogy Collection
  • Western Australia
    • Derby-West Kimberley Shire
      • Ellendale
Department of Mines Western Australia (1990), Geology and Mineral Resources of Western Australia, Memoir 3, Geological Survey of Western Australia, Department of Mines Western Australia, State Government of Western Australia, 1990
The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, 1986.
Dept of Mines WA (1990), Geology and Mineral Resources of WA, GSWA, State Government of WA, 1990
The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, 1986.
The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, 1986.
Department of Mines Western Australia (1990), Geology and Mineral Resources of Western Australia, Geological Survey of Western Australia, Department of Mines Western Australia, State Government of Western Australia, 1990
      • Fitzroy Crossing
The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, 1986.
Jaques, A.L., Lewis, J.D. & Smith C.B., (1986): The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, Geological Survey of Western Australia, Bulletin 132.
      • Noonkanbah Station
Mineralogical Magazine 1984 48 : 263-266
The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, 1986.
The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, 1986.
The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, 1986.
The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, 1986.
The Kimberlites and Lamproites of Western Australia, 1986.
Dept of Mines WA (1990), Geology and Mineral Resources of WA, GSWA, State Government of WA, 1990
    • Leonora Shire
Kiviets, G. B., Phillips, D., Shee, S. R., Vercoe, S. C., Barton, E. S., Smith, C. B., & Fourie, L. F. (1998). 40Ar/39Ar dating of yimengite from Turkey Well kimberlite, Australia: the oldest and the rarest. Ext. Abstr. In 7th International Kimberlite Conference (pp. 432-434).
    • Wyndham-East Kimberley Shire
      • Lake Argyle area
[MinRec 21:561]
  • Lower Austria
    • Waldviertel
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
  • São Paulo
    • Cajati
MinRec 15:261-270
  • Alberta
    • Abee
Mason, B. H. (1972). The Mineralogy of Meteorites. Meteoritics 7 (3): 309-326.
  • British Columbia
    • Kamloops Mining Division
      • Blue River carbonatites
        • Verity claim
Blue River Carbonatites, British Columbia- Primary Exploration Targets for Tantalum, G.J. Simandle,P.C. Jones, M. Rotella Exploration and Mining in British Columbia - 2001, B. C. Mines Report, pg 123-131 (
    • Omenica Mining Division
      • Williston Lake
Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139; Jennifer Pell (1994) Carbonatites, Nepheline Syenites, Kimberlites and Related Rocks in British Columbia. Brithish Columbia Ministry of Energy Bulletin 88.
  • Nova Scotia
    • Cumberland Co.
Doucette, C., Pe-Piper, G. (1997) Digitial mapping of the Wentworth plutonic complex, Cobequid Highlans, Nova Scotia, and petrology of its felsic phases. 1997 AGS Abstracts, Atlantic Geology: 33(1): 56.
  • Ontario
    • Algoma District
      • McMurray Township
Sage (1988) Ont. Geol. Survey Study 47.
    • Haliburton Co.
      • Monmouth Township
Hawthorne, F.C., Oberti, R., Martin, R.F. (2006): Short-range order in amphiboles from the Bear Lake Diggings, Ontario. Canadian Mineralogist, 44, 1171-1179.
Reiner Mielke
  • Québec
    • Abitibi-Témiscamingue
      • Témiscamingue RCM
        • Les Lacs-du-Témiscamingue; Kenneth L. Currie and Otto van Breemen (1996)The origin of rare minerals in the Kipawa syenite complex, western Quebec. Can Mineral 34:435-451
    • Laurentides
      • Deux-Montagnes RCM
        • Oka
Gaston Pouliot (1970) Study of carbonatitic calcites from Oka, Quebec. Can Mineral 10:511-540
Self collected specimen with analysis by Frank Hawthorne: (Na0.88K0.09) (Ca1.04Mn0.04Na0.92) (Mg4.46Mn0.06Fe0.38Ti0.04Al0.06) (Si7.84Al0.16)O22(OH1.55F0.45); Gaston Pouliot (1970) Study of carbonatitic calcites from Oka, Quebec. Can Mineral 10:511-540
    • Montérégie
      • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
        • Mont Saint-Hilaire
Horváth, L and Gault, R.A. (1990), The mineralogy of Mont Saint-Hilaire Quebec. Mineralogical Record: 21: 284-359.
    • Nord-du-Québec
      • Nunavik
        • Ungava
          • Abloviak fjord
Tappe, S., Jenner, G. A., Foley, S. F., Heaman, L., Besserer, D., Kjarsgaard, B. A., & Ryan, B. (2004). Torngat ultramafic lamprophyres and their relation to the North Atlantic Alkaline Province. Lithos, 76(1), 491-518.
  • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
    • Baotou League (Baotou Prefecture)
      • Bayan Obo Mining District
        • Bayan Obo
Jinsha Xu, Guaming Yang, Guowu Li, Zhilan Wu, Ganfu Shen (2008): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 28(3), 237-243; Qingchang Meng (1981): Geology and Prospecting 17(3), 10-17
Miyawaki R, Shimazaki H, Shigeoka M, Yokoyama K, Matsubara S, Yurimoto H (2011) Yangzhumingite, KMg2.5Si4O10F2, a new mineral in the mica group from Bayan Obo, Inner Mongolia, China. European Journal of Mineralogy 23, 467-473
  • Liaoning Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
    • Dandong Prefecture
      • Fengcheng Co.
        • Saima complex
Yiming Zhao and Daxin Li (2003): Mineral Deposits 22(4), 345-359
  • Shaanxi Province
    • Hanzhong Prefecture
      • Ningqiang Co.
Jiuling Zhang (1982): Geology and Prospecting 18(2), 26-40
  • Eastern Finland Region
Hugh E. O'Brien and Matti Tyni (1999) Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Kimberlites and Related Rocks from Finland. Proceedings of the 7th International Kimberlite Conference, 1999, p.625-636.
    • Siilinjärvi
Information of mine geologist given to Yves Heroes in 1995 (; Puustinen, K. A. U. K. O. (1973). Tetraferriphlogopite from the Siilinjärvi carbonatite complex, Finland. Bull. Geol. Soc. Finland, 45, 35-42.
  • Lapland Region
    • Savukoski
      • Tulppio
Vartiainen, H. 1980 The petrography, mineralogy and petrochemistry of the Sokli carbonative massif, northern Finland. Geological Survey of Finland, Bulletin, 313
    • Sodankylä
Geological Survey of Finland 2008 Pahtavaara - Gold Database
  • Northern Finland Region
    • Pudasjärvi
  • Corsica
    • Haute-Corse
      • Bastia
Mineralogical Magazine 1968 36 : 867-870.
  • Nouvelle-Aquitaine
    • Charente
Brearley, A.J. & Jones, R.H. (1998) Chondritic Meteorites. In: Planetary Materials (Papike, JJ - Ed.), Chapter 3: 1-398: Mineralogical Society of America, Washington, DC, USA.
  • Occitanie
    • Haute-Garonne
      • Saint-Jory
Brearley, A. J. & Jones, R. H. (1998): Chondritic Meteorites. In: Planetary Materials (Papike, J. J., Editor): Chapter 3, 398 pages. Mineralogical Society of America: Washington, DC, USA. (1998)
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Eifel
      • Andernach
        • Nickenich
Hand Egon Künzel, Günter Blaß, Willi Schüller (2011) Mineralien - Bomben - Grottensteine: Der Nickenicher Weinberg. Lapis, 36, #7-8, 55-66
      • Gerolstein
        • Rockeskyll
          • Rockeskyll volcanic complex
in the collection of Christof Schäfer
  • Qaasuitsup
  • Qeqqata
    • Isortoq Fjord (Søndre Isortoq)
      • Sarfartoq region
Petersen, O.V., Secher, K. (1984): Grönland, Der Karbonatit-Komplex von Sarfartoq, Magma, 6/1984
  • Andhra Pradesh
    • Nalgonda District
Rao, N. C., & Madhavan, V. (1996). Some observations on the geochemistry of Ramannapeta-Ustapalle lamproitic body, Krishna district, Andhra Pradesh. Bulletin-Geological Society of India, 47(4), 409-418.
  • Madhya Pradesh
    • Balaghat District
Babu, S.K., and Nayak, V.K. (1961): Proc. Natl. Inst. Sci. India 27A, 161-166.
  • West Bengal
    • Purulia District
      • Beldih village
Mineral. Petrol. 95 (2009) 105-112. ; Chakrabarty, A., & Sen, A. K. (2010). Enigmatic association of the carbonatite and alkali-pyroxenite along the Northern Shear Zone, Purulia, West Bengal: A saga of primary magmatic carbonatite. Journal of the Geological Society of India, 76(4), 403-413.
  • Aosta Valley
    • Bard
Ch. Wagner and D. Velde, Bull. Minéral. , 1985, 108, pp. 173-187.
    • Saint-Marcel
Castello P. (1982) - Il giacimento manganesifero di Praborna (St. Marcel - AO) - Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, Fasc. 3, pp. 87-92 Castello P. (1982) - Il giacimento manganesifero di Praborna (St. Marcel - AO) - Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, Fasc. 3, pp. 87-92 Castello P. (1982) - Il giacimento manganesifero di Praborna (St. Marcel - AO) - Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, Fasc. 3, pp. 87-92
    • Valtournanche Valley
      • Valtournanche
        • Breuil-Cervinia
Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
  • Latium
    • Rome Province
Caponera I., Fiori S., Pucci R., 2003. Fluoborite, piombo nativo, richterite ed altri interessanti ritrovamenti nei Colli Albani. Il Cercapietre, 1-2.
        • Albano Laziale
Caponera, I., Fiori S., Pucci R. (2003): Fluoborite, piombo nativo, richterite ed altri interessanti ritrovamenti nei Colli Albani. Il Cercapietre, 1-2, 3-13.
      • Rome
Fiori, S., Gorga, R., Pucci, R., (2001): Richterite nei proietti metamorfosati di Stracciacappe, Complesso Vulcanico Sabatino (Roma, Italia). Il Cercapietre, n. 1/2, 29-32
    • Viterbo Province
      • Làtera volcano
        • Onano
Signoretti, E., Pucci, R., (2007): Gita sociale e ricerca mineralogica sul terreno nella cava di Montenero, Onano (VT), Il Cercapietre, 1-2/2007, 61-67
  • Liguria
    • La Spezia Province
      • Vara Valley
        • Borghetto Vara
Palenzona A., Di Giovanni F., Borgo E. (1988) - La miniera di Manganese di Cerchiara (SP) - Rivista Miner. Ital., Milano, fasc. 4, pp.209-218
  • Lombardy
    • Sondrio Province
      • Valtellina
        • Malenco Valley
          • Lanterna Valley
            • Lanzada
              • Scerscen Valley
Bedognè, F., Montrasio, A., Sciesa, E. (1993) I minerali della provincia di Sondrio: Valmalenco. Bettini, Sondrio, 275 pp.
  • Piedmont
    • Cuneo Province
      • Maira Valley
        • Canosio
          • Vallone della Valletta
Cámara, F., Bittarello, E., Ciriotti, M.E., Nestola, F., Radica, F., Massimi, F., Balestra, C., Bracco, R. (2017a) As-bearing new mineral species from Valletta mine, Maira Valley, Piedmont, Italy: III. Canosioite, Ba2Fe3+(AsO4)2(OH), description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 81, 305–317.
    • Torino Province
      • Canavese District
        • Léssolo
          • Cálea
P Haas collection
  • Honshu Island
    • Chubu Region
      • Aichi Prefecture
        • Kita-Shidara-gun
          • Shidara-cho
Mineral. Journal, Japan, 1973, 7, pp. 159-168.
    • Kanto Region
      • Tochigi Prefecture
        • Kanuma City
Matsubara, S., Kato, A., Miyawaki, R., Komuro, Y. and Okada, Y. (2007) Natronambulite from the Dohnoiri mine, Kanuma City, Tochigi Prefecture, Japan. Bulletin of the National Museum of Natural Sciences, Ser. C. 33, 1-5.
    • Kinki Region
      • Kyoto Prefecture
        • Kizugawa City
Dr. Yohachiro Okamoto collection (curated at Geological Survey museum, Japan)
    • Tohoku Region
      • Iwate Prefecture
        • Kunohe-gun
          • Noda-mura
Watanabe, T. (1959) Mineralogical Journal, 2, 6, 408-421; Okamoto collection (curated at the Geological Survey museum, Japan)
        • Shimohei-gun
          • Tanohata-mura
H. Momoi (1964) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 15, #1, 39-63.
  • Nyanza Province
Sutherland, D.S. (1969): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 24, 114-135.
  • Tuléar Province (Toliara)
    • Anosy Region (Fort Dauphin Region)
      • Amboasary District
        • Tranomaro Commune
Rob Lavinsky photo, photo id 197779
  • Kachin State
    • Mohnyin District (Moe Hnyin District)
      • Hpakant Township (Hpakan; Phakant; Phakan)
Shi, G. H., Zhu, X. K., Deng, J., Mao, Q., Liu, Y. X., & Li, G. W. (2011). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75(6), 1608-1620 Guanghai Shi, George E. Harlow, Jing Wang, Jun Wang, Enoch Ng, Xia Wang, ShuMin Cao and Wenyuan CUI(2012): Mineralogy of jadeitite and related rocks from Myanmar: a review with new data. European Journal of mineralogy, Vol 24, pp 345-380; Shi, G., Harlow, G.E., Wang, J. Wang, J., Ng, E., Wang, X., Cao, G. & Cui, W. (2012): Mineralogy of jadeitite and related rocks from Myanmar:a review with new data. Eur. J. Mineral. 24, 345–370
Shi, G., Harlow, G. E., Wang, J., Wang, J., Ng, E., Wang, X., ... & Cui, W. (2012). Mineralogy of jadeitite and related rocks from Myanmar: a review with new data. European Journal of Mineralogy, 24(2), 345-370.
Jing Wang, Guanghai Shi, Jun Wang, Ye Yuan, and Mengchu Yang (2013): Acta Petrologica Sinica 29(4), 1450-1460
C. Mével and J.R. Kiénast, Bull. Minéral. , 109, 6, 1986, pp. 617-633.; Nyunt, T. T. (2009). Petrological and geochemical contribution to the origin of jadeitite and associated rocks of the Tawmaw Area, Kachin State, Myanmar.
  • Otjozondjupa Region
    • Grootfontein District
      • Kombat
Dunn, P.J. (1991), Rare minerals of the Kombat Mine, Mineralogical Record: 22(6): 421-425.
New Zealand
  • North Island
    • Bay of Plenty
      • Rotorua
        • Mt Ngongotaha recalc of recalc of ferrikatophorite data
  • Telemark
    • Nome
      • Fen Complex
[In fenite] Kresten, P. & Morgan, V. (1986): Fenization at the Fen complex, southern Norway. Lithos: 29:27-42
  • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
    • Sudetes Mts
Republic of Macedonia
  • Veles
    • Nežilovo
      • Jakupica Mts
        • Babuna Valley
Chukanov, Nikita V., Jančev, Simeon., Pekov, Igor V. (2015): The association of Oxygen-bearing minerals of the chalcophile elements in the orogenetic zone related to the “mixed series” complex near Nežilovo, Republic of Macedonia. Macedonian Journal of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Vol. 34, No. 1, pp. 115–124
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Krasnoyarsk Territory (Krasnoyarsk Kray; Krasnoyarskii Krai)
      • Enisei Range (Yenisei Ridge; Enisei Ridge)
        • Tatarka Range
Pavel M. Kartashov data
    • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
      • Aldan Shield
        • Aldan
          • Inagli Massif
        • Chara and Tokko Rivers Confluence
[Lapis 1993:4 p.13-20]
    • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
      • Buriatia Republic (Buryatia)
        • Ulan-Ude
Ripp, G.S. (2002): Lithology and Mineral Resources 37(4), 386-389.
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Khabarovskiy Kray
      • Taikan Ridge
        • Ir-Nimi manganese deposit
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data of 2016, V.V. Kalinin materials
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaya Oblast'
Chakhmouradian A.R., Zaitsev A.N. (2002) Calcite–Amphibole–Clinopyroxene rock from the Afrikanda complex, Kola peninsula, Russia: mineralogy and a possible link to carbonatites. III. Silicate minerals. - Canadian Mineralogist, Vol.40, pp. 1347-1374.
      • Khibiny Massif
Konopleva, N.G., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Men’shikov, Y.P., and Korchak, Y.A. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 720-731.
Konopleva, N.G., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Men’shikov, Y.P., and Korchak, Y.A. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 720-731.
Konopleva, N.G., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Men’shikov, Y.P., and Korchak, Y.A. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 720-731.
Yakovenchuk, V.N., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Men’shikov, Y.P., Konopleva, N.G., and Korchak, Y.A. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 732-745.
Konopleva, N.G., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Yakovenchuk, V.N., Men’shikov, Y.P., and Korchak, Y.A. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 720-731.
      • Kovdor Massif
N. I. Krasnova (2001): The Kovdor phlogopite deposit, Kola Peninsula, Russia. Canadian Mineralogist, 39, 33–44.
Arzamastseva, L.V., Pakhomovsky, Ya.A. [Арзамасцева, Л.В., Пахомовский Я.А.] (1999): Mineral associations in rocks of Niva agpaitic intrusion (Kola Peninsula) as indicators of its forming conditions [Минеральные ассоциации пород агпаитовой интрузии Нива (Кольский Полуостров) как индикаторы условий ее образования]. Zap. VMO [Зап. ВМО], 128, 6, 1-16 (in Russian); Arzamastsev, A.A., Belyatsky, B.V., Arzamastseva, L.V. (2000): Agpaitic magmatism in the northeastern Baltic Shield: a study of the Niva intrusion, Kola Peninsula, Russia. Lithos, 51, 1, 27-46.
      • Northern Karelia
Kogarko, L.N. et al (1995) Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites of the World Vol 2.
      • Turii Cape
Keith Bell, Elizabeth Ann Dunworth, Andrei G. Bulakh, and Valeriy V. Ivanikov (1996) Alkaline rocks of the Turiy Peninsula, Russia, including type-locality turjaite and turjite; a review. Can Mineral, v. 34, p. 265-280
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
        • Vishnevye Mts (Vishnyovye; Cherry)
Nedosekova, I.L. (2007): Geology of Ore Deposits 49(2), 129-146.
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Lučenec Co.
Huraiová, M., Konečný, P., Holický, I., Nemec, O., Milovská, S., Hurai, V. (2017): Late-magmatic neptunite in composite peralkaline granite syenite nodules within a Pleistocene basalt (Bulhary, Slovakia). Periodico di Mineralogia, 86, 1-17
  • Prešov Region
    • Vranov nad Topľou Co.
Ďuďa,R., et al., 1981: Mineralógia severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovaca, Monografia 2, 98s
South Africa
  • Northern Cape Province
    • Kalahari manganese field
      • Hotazel
Von Bezing, K. L. et al. (1991) The Kalahari manganese field: An Update, Mineralogical Record 22(4) 279-302;
      • Kuruman
        • N'Chwaning Mines
Minerals of South Africa
  • Canary Islands
    • Las Palmas Province
      • Gran Canaria (Grand Canary)
H.U. Schmincke and M. Sumita : "Tephra Event Stratigraphy and Emplacement of Volcanoclastic Sediments, Mogan and Fataga Stratigraphic Intervals, Part II : Origin and Emplacement of Volcanoclastic Layers", LEG 157—SCIENTIFIC RESULTS (ISSN: 1096-7451), Gran Canaria and Madeira Abyssal Plain, Sites 950-956,
  • Castile-La Mancha
    • Albacete
      • Hellín
        • Cancarix
E. Salvioli-mariani et al. , Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, pp. 1027-1039.
  • Murcia
    • Jumilla
      • La Celia
E. Salvioli-mariani et al. , Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, pp. 1027-1039.
  • Dalarna
    • Hedemora
      • Garpenberg
Grensman, F., Kalinowski, M.P. and Sandström, F. (2001): Garpenberg Norra. Litofilen. 18 (2), 26-46.
  • Lappland
    • Ultevis
  • Medelpad
    • Sundsvall
Sandström, F., Binett, T., Wiklund, C. & Vikström, J. (2010): Alnöområdets geologi och mineralogi. Litiofilen. 27 (2) :14-42
    • Timrå
Sandström, F., Binett, T., Wiklund, C. & Vikström, J. (2010): Alnöområdets geologi och mineralogi. Litiofilen. 27 (2) :14-42
  • Värmland
    • Filipstad
[var: Astochite] Sjögren, H. (1891): Bidrag til Sveriges mineralogi. 2. Astochit, en ny led af amfibolgruppen. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar. 13, 604-607.
      • Nordmark district
        • Jakobsberg ore field
      • Persberg district
        • Pajsberg
Hamberg, A. (1888): Om kristalliseradt bly från Harstigsgrufvan vid Pajsberg i Värmland. Översigt af Kongl. Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar 1888. 45, 483-490; Nysten, P. (2004): Harstigen ett mineralogisk eldorado i Bergslagen. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 28: 5-13
No reference listed
  • Västmanland
    • Hällefors
      • Grythyttan
No reference listed
    • Lindesberg
      • Nyberget ore field
Holtstam, D. (1994): Senaite from Mangruvan, Örebro, Sweden. GFF. 116, 17–21
Koark, H. (1970): Zur Geologie des Neuentdeckten Jakobsit-Braunit-Hämatit-Mangansilikatlagers Slöjdartorp im Nybergetfelde in Zentralschweden. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar (GFF). 92, 388-401
    • Norberg
Ounchanum, P. & Morad, S. (1987): Paragenesis of akatoreite and ganophyllite in the manganiferous rocks of the Häste Field, Norberg ore district, central Sweden. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen 157, 225-244.
  • Grischun (Grisons; Graubünden)
    • Engadin
      • Maloja
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Verlag Wepf & Co. (Basel), p. 64
    • Poschiavo Valley
      • Poschiavo (Puschlav)
        • Selva
Romani E. (2000): Andar per cristalli - Tesori nascosti. Centro studi del Museo mineralogico naturalistico di Bormio, 151 p.
  • Eastern Region
    • Tororo District
Sutherland, D.S. (1969): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 24, 114-135.
  • Arizona
    • Coconino Co.
      • Winslow
        • Meteor Crater and vicinity
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 171-172, 354; Olsen, E. & L. Fuchs (1968), Krinovite, NaMg2CrSi3O10 = a new meteorite mineral, Science 161: 786-787.
  • Arkansas
    • Pike Co.
      • Murfreesboro
Am. Mineral. 83:1323-1329 (1998); B. H, Scott Smith & EMW Skinner (1984) A new look at the Prairie Creek, Arkansas 3rd International Kimberlite Conference pp 255-283
  • California
    • Humboldt Co.
      • Coastal Range
  • Colorado
    • Fremont Co.
USGS Bull 2192
    • Grand Co.
      • Middle Park
        • Rabbit Ears Pass
Thompson, R. N., Velde, D., Leat, P. T., Morrison, M. A., Mitchell, J. G., Dickin, A. P., and Gibson, S. A., 1997. Oligocene lamproite containing an Al-poor, Ti-rich biotite, Middle Park, northwest Coloroado, USA. Mineralogical Magazine 61: 557-572.
    • Gunnison Co.
      • White Earth District (Powderhorn District)
"Minerals of Colorado, updated & revised", p. 17, by Eckel, Edwin B., 1997; USGS Bull 2192
    • Larimer Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
  • Hawaii
    • Maui Co.
      • Maui
Velde, D. (1978): An aenigmatite-richterite-olivine trachyte from Puu Koae, West Maui, Hawaii, American Mineralogist, Vol. 63, 771-778
  • Kansas
Woolley (1987), Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites of the World.
Mitchell, Roger H. and Chakhmouradian (1999):Sr-Bearing Perovskite and Loparite from Lamproite and Agpaitic Nepheline Syenite Pegmatites (Canadian Mineralogist 37:99-112).
  • Montana
    • Garfield Co.
    • Lincoln Co.
      • Libby District (Snowshoe District)
        • Libby
American Mineralogist, Volume 88, pages 1955–1969, 2003; Lowers, H.A., Wilson, S.A., Hoefen, T.M., Benzel, W.M., and Meeker, G.P., 2012, Preparation and characterization of “Libby Amphibole” toxicological testing material: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2012–1012, 20 p.; Gobla, M. J. (2012) Montana Mineral Locality Index. Rocks and Minerals 87:208-240.
      • Rainy Creek District
Eur. J. Mineral. 2008, 20, 1043–1053
Gobla, M.J. (2012) Montana mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 87, #3, 208-240.
    • Meagher Co.; Chakhmouradian A.R., Mitchell R.H. (2002): The mineralogy of Ba- and Zr-rich alkaline pegmatites from Gordon Butte, Crazy Mountains (Montana, USA): comparisons between potassic and sodic agpaitic pegmatites. Contrib. Mineral. Petrol., 143, 93-114.
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
  • North Carolina
    • Haywood Co.
Anderson,Eric Douglas and Moecher,David P. (2009) Formation Of High -Pressure Metabasites In The Southern Appalachians Blue Ridge via Taconic Continental Subduction Beneath The Laurentian Margin :Tectonic Vol.28(5) October
  • Texas
    • Hudspeth Co.
R&M 66:3 pp 196-224
BEG Min Res Circ 73
BEG Min Res Circ 73
BEG Min Res Circ 73
BEG Min Res Circ 73
    • Wichita Co.
Olsen, E. in Science 156.:61 - 62 (7 April 1967)
  • Utah
    • Summit Co.
      • Woodland
Am Min 53:1041-1048
  • Wyoming
    • Sweetwater Co.
Rocks & Minerals 76:390
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