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Ca5(HSi3O9)2 · 2H2O
Crystal System:
Named after its discovery locality.
A natural occurrence of riversideite is not demonstrated unequivocally and its status should be considered as “questionable” (Biagioni et al., 2015).

The exact structure of riversideite is not known, but a reliable model can be derived from the structures of Tobermorite and Clinotobermorite. In this model, the riversideite structure contains composite layers, consisting of infinite sheets of (CaO7) polyhedra, to both sides of which dreier single chains of (SiO4) tetrahedra are attached, running along the b axis. Those layers are stacked along the c axis and linked by additional calcium ions and water molecules which occupy cavities between the layers (Ferraris et al., 2004).

A very similar structure is found in plombièrite.

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Classification of RiversideiteHide

Approved, Questionable

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
G : Inosilicates with 3-periodic single and multiple chains

72 : PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
3 : Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 3-, 4-, or 5-membered rings and 8-membered rings

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
5 : Silicates of Ca

Physical Properties of RiversideiteHide


Optical Data of RiversideiteHide

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.600 nβ = 1.601 nγ = 1.605
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.005
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
r < v weak

Chemical Properties of RiversideiteHide

Ca5(HSi3O9)2 · 2H2O
IMA Formula:
Ca5Si6O16(OH)2 · 2H2O
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of RiversideiteHide

Crystal System:
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.57 Å, b = 3.64 Å, c = 18.79 Å
a:b:c = 1.53 : 1 : 5.162
Unit Cell V:
380.96 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Type Occurrence of RiversideiteHide

Synonyms of RiversideiteHide

Other Language Names for RiversideiteHide

Relationship of Riversideite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
Clinotobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O]·(Ca·3H2O)Mon.
Plombièrite[Ca4Si6O16(OH)2 · 2H2O]·(Ca·5H2O)Orth.
Tobermorite GroupTobermorite group compounds are well known in the cement industry.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Vesuvianite3 photos of Riversideite associated with Vesuvianite on
Tobermorite1 photo of Riversideite associated with Tobermorite on

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.DG.05BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)Tric. 1 : P1
9.DG.05PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
9.DG.05SeranditeNaMn2+2Si3O8(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
9.DG.05WollastoniteCaSiO3Tric. 1 : P1
9.DG.08Plombièrite[Ca4Si6O16(OH)2 · 2H2O]·(Ca·5H2O)Orth.
9.DG.10Clinotobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O]·(Ca·3H2O)Mon.
9.DG.10Tobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O]·(Ca·3H2O)Orth.
9.DG.20JenniteCa9(Si3O9)2(OH)8 · 8H2OTric.
9.DG.25ParaumbiteK3Zr2H(Si3O9)2 · nH2OOrth.
9.DG.25UmbiteK2(Zr,Ti)Si3O9 · H2OOrth.
9.DG.30SørenseniteNa4SnBe2Si6O16(OH)4Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DG.35XonotliteCa6(Si6O17)(OH)2Mon. 2/m
9.DG.40HillebranditeCa2(SiO3)(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
9.DG.45ZoriteNa8(Ti,Nb)5(Si6O17)2(OH,O)5 · 14H2OOrth.
9.DG.45ChivruaiiteCa4(Ti,Nb)5(Si6O17)2(OH,O)5 · 13-14H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmmm
9.DG.50Haineaultite(Na,Ca)5Ca(Ti,Nb)5(Si6O17)2(OH,F)8 · 5H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : C2 2 2
9.DG.55EpididymiteNa2Be2Si6O15 · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
9.DG.60EudidymiteNa2Be2Si6O15 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DG.65ElpiditeNa2ZrSi6O15 · 3H2OOrth.
9.DG.75SenkevichiteCsKNaCa2Ti[O|Si7O18(OH)]Tric. 1 : P1
9.DG.80FluorcanasiteK3Na3Ca5Si12O30F4 · H2OMon. m : Bm
9.DG.85MiseriteK1.5-x(Ca,Y,REE)5(Si6O15)(Si2O7)(OH,F)2 · yH2OTric.
9.DG.90FrankameniteK3Na3Ca5(Si12O30)(F,OH)4 · H2OTric.
9.DG.92Charoite(K,Sr)15-16(Ca,Na)32[Si6O11(O,OH)6]2[Si12O18(O,OH)12]2[Si17O25(O,OH)18]2(OH,F)4 · ~3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
9.DG.97Eveslogite(Na,K,Ca,Sr,Ba)48 [(Ti,Nb,Mn,Fe2+)12Si48O144(OH)12](F,OH,Cl)14Mon. 2/m : P2/m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O]·(Ca·3H2O)Orth.[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O]·(Ca·3H2O)Mon.èrite[Ca4Si6O16(OH)2 · 2H2O]·(Ca·5H2O)Orth. · 18H2OTric. 1 : P1 (OH)36Mon.·7H2OTric. 1 : P1 · 12.5H2OOrth.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

14.5.1WollastoniteCaSiO3Tric. 1 : P1
14.5.4RankiniteCa3Si2O7Mon. 2/m : P21/b
14.5.11AfwilliteCa3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2OMon. m : Bb
14.5.12XonotliteCa6(Si6O17)(OH)2Mon. 2/m
14.5.14HillebranditeCa2(SiO3)(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
14.5.15JaffeiteCa6(Si2O7)(OH)6Trig. 3 : P3
14.5.16SuoluniteCa2(H2Si2O7) · H2OOrth.
14.5.18OkeniteCa10Si18O46 · 18H2OTric. 1 : P1
14.5.20TrabzoniteCa4(Si3O9)(OH)2Orth. mm2 : Ama2
14.5.21GyroliteNaCa16Si23AlO60(OH)8 · 14H2OTric.
14.5.22FoshallasiteCa3[Si2O7] · 3H2O(?)
14.5.23Tobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O]·(Ca·3H2O)Orth.
14.5.24Clinotobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O]·(Ca·3H2O)Mon.
14.5.25NekoiteCa3Si6O15·7H2OTric. 1 : P1
14.5.26Plombièrite[Ca4Si6O16(OH)2 · 2H2O]·(Ca·5H2O)Orth.
14.5.27JenniteCa9(Si3O9)2(OH)8 · 8H2OTric.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for RiversideiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Taylor, H.F.W. (1953): Crestmoreite and riversideite. Mineralogical Magazine: 30: 155-165.
McConnell, J.D.C. (1954): The hydrated calcium silicates riversideite, tobermorite and plombierite: Mineralogical Magazine: 30: 293-305.
American Mineralogist (1954): 39: 1038.
American Mineralogist (1999): 84: 1613-1621.
Ferraris, G., Makovicky, E., and Merlino, S. (2004): Crystallography of Modular Materials. IUCr Monographs on Crystallography, Vol. 15. Oxford University Press, Oxford (UK), pp. 164-166.
Biagioni, C., Merlino, S., Bonaccorsi, E. (2015): The tobermorite supergroup: a new nomenclature. Mineralogical Magazine, 79, 485-495.

Internet Links for RiversideiteHide

Localities for RiversideiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Styria
    • Bad Radkersburg
      • Klöch
Postl, W., Bernhard, F., Bojar, H.-P., Kolitsch, U. & Brandstätter, F. (2012): 1775) Magnesiochromit, Phillipsit-Ca, Chabasit-Ca und Vertumnit sowie eine Ergänzung zur Phase Ca3Ti(Fe,Al)2O8 (= Shulamitit) in einem Ca-reichen Xenolith aus dem Basaltsteinbruch in Klöch, Steiermark. Pp. 172-174 in Niedermayr, G. et al. (2012): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXI. Carinthia II, 202./122., 123-180.
  • Bavaria
    • Franconia
      • Maroldsweisach
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
  • Lower Saxony
    • Osnabrück
      • Georgsmarienhütte
Schnorrer, G., Stahlmann, W., Mollenkamp, A. (2001): Sekundärmineralisation in den Hochofenschlacken des Hüttenwerkes in Georgsmarienhütte, heutige Georgsmarienhütte GmbH. Aufschluss 52, 99-108.
  • Negev
Gross, S. (1977): The Mineralogy of the Hatrurim Formation, Israel. Geological Survey of Israel, Bulletin no. 70, 80 pp.
  • Hunedoara Co.
    • Hunedoara
Marincea, Ş., Bilal, E., Verkaeren, J., Pascal, M.-L., and Fonteilles, M. (2001) Superposed paragenesis in spurrite-, tilleyite- and gehlenite-bearing skarns from Cornet Hill, Apuseni Mountains, Romania. Canadian Mineralogist: 39: 1435-1453.; Marincea, Ş., Dumitraş, D. G., Călin, N., Anason, A. M., Fransolet, A. M., & Hatert, F. (2013). Spurrite, tilleyite and associated minerals in the exoskarn zone from Cornet Hill (Metaliferi Massif, Apuseni Mountains, Romania). The Canadian Mineralogist, 51(3), 359-375.
  • California
    • Riverside Co.
      • Crestmore
[Bull.Dept.Geol.Univ. California (1917) 10, 327-360 (347).
          • Sky Blue Hill
Eakle, Arthur Starr (1917), Minerals associated with the crystalline limestone at Crestmore, Riverside County, California: University of California Department of Geological Sciences Bulletin: 10: 347; Woodford, A.O., Crippen, R.A., and Garner, K.B. (1941) Section Across Commercial Quarry, Crestmore, California. American Mineralogist: 26: 367; Heller, L. & H.F.W. Taylor (1956), Crystallographic data for the calcium silicates, H.M. Stationery Office, 79 pp.: 34; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 477.
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