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About Rowlandite-(Y)Hide

Henry Augustus Rowland
(Y,Ce)4Fe2+(Si2O7)2F2 (?)
Pale dull green, greyish white
Vitreous, Waxy
5½ - 6½
Specific Gravity:
4.33 (Calculated)
Crystal System:
Named in honor of Henry Augustus Rowland (27 November 1848, Honesdale, Pennsylvania, USA - 16 April 1901, Baltimore, Maryland, USA), Professor of Physics, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, for his spectrographic work on rare-earth elements. He is also known for developing a diffraction grating that now bears his name. Originally named simply rowlandite, the suffix was added in 1987 to denote the dominant rare earth element.
Commonly metamict.

Classification of Rowlandite-(Y)Hide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First Published:

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
H : Unclassified silicates
G : With REE, Th

55 : SOROSILICATES Si2O7 Groups,Generally with no Additional Anions
2 : Si2O7 Groups, Generally with no Additional Anions with cations in [6] coordination

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
1 : Silicates with fluoride (not containing Al)

Physical Properties of Rowlandite-(Y)Hide

Vitreous, Waxy
Waxy when altered
Pale dull green, greyish white
alters to brick red
5½ - 6½ on Mohs scale
4.33 g/cm3 (Calculated)
4.30 - metamict, 4.55 when heated to 050 for hour, 4.85 when crystalline

Optical Data of Rowlandite-(Y)Hide

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.763 nγ = 1.769
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.006
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Isotropic when metamict (n=1.704; 1.76 when heated)

Chemical Properties of Rowlandite-(Y)Hide

(Y,Ce)4Fe2+(Si2O7)2F2 (?)
IMA Formula:

Crystallography of Rowlandite-(Y)Hide

Crystal System:
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.59 Å, b = 8.65 Å, c = 5.53 Å
α = 99.03°, β = 104.12°, γ = 91.47°
a:b:c = 0.762 : 1 : 0.639
Unit Cell V:
301.24 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Small irregular masses.
Commonly metamict.

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
Rare earth bearing pegmatites

Type Occurrence of Rowlandite-(Y)Hide

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Rare earth pegmatite
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:
Hidden, W.E., Hillebrand, W.F. (1893) Description of rowlandite. American Journal of Science: 146: 208-212.

Other Language Names for Rowlandite-(Y)Hide

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide


Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

55.2.1b.3Yttrialite-(Y)(Y,Th)2Si2O7Mon. 2/m : P21/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

17.1.4Fluorapophyllite-(Na)NaCa4(Si8O20)F · 8H2OOrth.
17.1.5Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/mnc
17.1.6Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2OTet.
17.1.7HsianghualiteCa3Li2(Be3Si3O12)F2Iso. 4 3 2 : I41 3 2
17.1.8LeucophaniteNaCaBeSi2O6FOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
17.1.9NorbergiteMg3(SiO4)(F,OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
17.1.10Chondrodite(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.1.11Humite(Mg,Fe2+)7(SiO4)3(F,OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
17.1.12ClinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4F2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.1.14Charoite(K,Sr)15-16(Ca,Na)32[Si6O11(O,OH)6]2[Si12O18(O,OH)12]2[Si17O25(O,OH)18]2(OH,F)4 · ~3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
17.1.15CuspidineCa4(Si2O7)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.1.16BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2OTric.
17.1.17ZeophylliteCa13Si10O28(OH)2F8 · 6H2OTrig. 3 : R3
17.1.21Mosandrite-(Ce)(Ca3REE)[(H2O)2Ca0.50.5]Ti(Si2O7)2(OH)2(H2O)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.1.22Hiortdahlite(Na,Ca)2Ca4Zr(Mn,Ti,Fe)(Si2O7)2(F,O)4Tric. 1 : P1
17.1.25Thorosteenstrupine(Ca,Th,Mn)3Si4O11F · 6H2O
17.1.27JinshajiangiteBaNaFe2+4Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2FTric. 1 : P1
17.1.28RosenbuschiteNa6Ca6Zr3Ti(Si2O7)4O2F6Tric. 1 : P1
17.1.30SonoliteMn2+9(SiO4)4(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b

Other InformationHide

Commonly metamict
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Rowlandite-(Y)Hide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Hidden, W.E. (1891) Preliminary notice of a new yttrium-silicate. American Journal of Science: 142: 430-431.
Hidden, W.E., Hillebrand, W.F. (1893) Description of rowlandite. American Journal of Science: 146: 208-212.
Frondel, C. (1961) Two yttrium minerals: spencite and rowlandite. Canadian Mineralogist: 6: 576-58l.
Shipovalov, Y.V., Stepanov, A.V. (1971) X-ray structural study of rowlandite. Issled. Oblast. Khim. Fiz. Metod. Anal. Min. Syr'ya: 189-192 (in Russian).
Peacor, D.R., Simmons, W.B., Jr., Essene, E.J., Heinrich, E.W. (1982) New data on and discreditation of "texasite," "albrittonite," "cuproartinite," "cuprohydromagnesite," and "yttromicrolite," with corrected data on nickelbischofite, rowlandite, and yttrocrasite. American Mineralogist: 67: 156-169.
Nickel, E.H., Mandarino, J.A. (1987) Procedures involving the IMA Commission on New Minerals and Mineral Names and guidelines on mineral nomenclature. American Mineralogist: 72: 1031-1042.

Internet Links for Rowlandite-(Y)Hide

Localities for Rowlandite-(Y)Hide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Québec
    • Outaouais
      • Les Collines-de-l'Outaouais RCM
        • Val-des-Monts
          • Lac Saint-Pierre (Wakefield Lake) (reference unsubstantiated);
  • Pirkanmaa
    • Valkeakoski
Siivola, J. 1975. The lanthanoid conted of some minerals from the Pyörönmaa pegmatite in Kangasala, Finland. Geological Survey of Finland, Bulletin 276, 17 s.
Shipovalov, Yu.V. and Stepanov, A.V. (1971) X–ray structural study of rowlandite. Issledovaniya v Oblasti Khimicheskikh i Fizicheskikh Metodov Analiza Mineralnogo. Syr’ya, 189– 192 (in Russian).
  • Nordland
    • Hamarøy
      • Drag
        • Lapplægeret
Husdal, T. (2008): The minerals of the pegmatites within the Tysfjord granite, northern Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 38: 5-28
    • Narvik
Husdal, T. (2019) Nyfunn av mineraler fra Tysfjord-pegmatittene, Nordland. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2019: 31-46
Husdal, T. (2008): The minerals of the pegmatites within the Tysfjord granite, northern Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum, skrift 38, 5-28.
  • Telemark
    • Drangedal
      • Tørdal
Larsen, K.E. (2017): Noen funn av mineraler i Norge 2016-2017. Stein 44 (3): 4-14; Kristiansen, R. (2018) Nye mineralfunn fra Heftetjern-pegmatitten. Norsk Mineralsymposium 2018: 79-92.
  • Norrbotten County
    • Jokkmokk
      • Varjisträsk
Berg & Mineral 9 (23), 27
  • Colorado
    • Jefferson Co.
      • South Platte Pegmatite Mining District
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
  • Texas
    • Burnet Co.
Crook, Wilson W. III (1977) Texasite, a new mineral: the first example of a differentiated rare-earth species. American Mineralogist: 62: 1006-1008.; Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols (xxx) Handbook of Mineralogy.
    • Llano Co.
      • Bluffton
Frondel, C. (1961) Two yttrium minerals; spencite and rowlandite. The Canadian Mineralogist: 6: 576-581.; Landes, K.K. (1932) The Barringer Hill, Texas, pegmatite. The American Mineralogist: 17(8): 381-390.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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