SUPPORT US. Covid-19 has significantly affected our fundraising. Please help!
Log InRegister
Home PageAbout MindatThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusWho We AreContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatCorporate SponsorshipSponsor a PageSponsored PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on Mindat
Learning CenterWhat is a mineral?The most common minerals on earthInformation for EducatorsMindat ArticlesThe ElementsBooks & Magazines
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryAdvanced Locality SearchRandom MineralRandom LocalitySearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch ArticlesSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
Keyword(s):
 
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
Mining CompaniesStatisticsUsersMineral MuseumsMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryDevice SettingsThe Mineral Quiz
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesSearch by ColorNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day GalleryMineral Photography

Ruthenium

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
Hide all sections | Show all sections

About RutheniumHide

Formula:
(Ru,Ir)
Colour:
Silver-white
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
Crystal System:
Hexagonal
Name:
The species is defined by Harris and Cabri (1973) and described in by Urashima et al. (1974), taking the name of the element. The element, in turn, was discovered in 1844 and named after Russia.
The Ru analogue of osmium, hexaferrum, hexamolybdenum, and garutiite.


Classification of RutheniumHide

Approved
1.AF.05

1 : ELEMENTS (Metals and intermetallic alloys; metalloids and nonmetals; carbides, silicides, nitrides, phosphides)
A : Metals and Intermetallic Alloys
F : Platinum group elements
Dana 7th ed.:
1.2.2.2
1.2.2.2

1 : NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
2 : Platinum Group Metals and Alloys

Physical Properties of RutheniumHide

Metallic
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Silver-white
Hardness:
6½ on Mohs scale

Chemical Properties of RutheniumHide

Formula:
(Ru,Ir)
IMA Formula:
Ru
Common Impurities:
Ir,Pt,Rh,Os,Pd,Fe,Ni,Cu

Crystallography of RutheniumHide

Crystal System:
Hexagonal
Cell Parameters:
a = 2.7 Å, c = 4.28 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 1.585
Unit Cell V:
27.02 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Crystal StructureHide

Load
Unit Cell | Unit Cell Packed
2x2x2 | 3x3x3 | 4x4x4
Show
Big Balls | Small Balls | Just Balls | Spacefill
Polyhedra Off | Si Polyhedra | All Polyhedra
Remove metal-metal sticks
Display Options
Black Background | White Background
Perspective On | Perspective Off
2D | Stereo | Red-Blue | Red-Cyan
View
CIF File    Best | x | y | z | a | b | c
Rotation
Stop | Start
Labels
Console Off | On | Grey | Yellow
IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0011191RutheniumWyckoff R W G (1963) Second edition. Interscience Publishers, New York, New York Hexagonal closest packed, hcp, structure Crystal Structures 1 7-8319630293
0020237RutheniumMochalov A G, Dmitrenko G G, Rudashevsky N S, Zhernovsky I V, Boldyreva M M (1998) Hexaferrum (Fe,Ru),(Fe,Os),(Fe,Ir) - a new mineral Zapiski Vserossijskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva 127 41-511998synthetic0293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

Type Occurrence of RutheniumHide

Synonyms of RutheniumHide

Other Language Names for RutheniumHide

Afrikaans:Rutenium
Basque:Rutenio
Belarusian:Рутэній
Bosnian:Rutenijum
Catalan:Ruteni
Corsican:Ruteniu
Croatian:Rutenij
Czech:Ruthenium
Danish:Ruthenium
Dutch:Ruthenium
Esperanto:Rutenio
Estonian:Ruteenium
Farsi/Persian:روتنیوم
Finnish:Rutenium
French:Ruthénium
Friulian:Ruteni
Galician:Rutenio
German:Ruthenium
Hungarian:Ruténium
Icelandic:Rúþen
Indonesian:Rutenium
Italian:Rutenio
Javanese:Rutenium
Korean:루테늄
Kurdish (Latin Script):Rûtenyûm
Latin:Ruthenium
Latvian:Rutēnijs
Lithuanian:Rutenis
Lojban:rukyjinme
Luxembourgish:Ruthenium
Norwegian:Ruthenium
Norwegian (Nynorsk):Ruthenium
Occitan:Rutèni
Polish:Ruten
Portuguese:Rutênio
Romanian:Ruteniu
Serbo-Croatian:Rutenijum
Sicilian:Ruteniu
Simplified Chinese:自然钌
Slovak:Ruténium
Slovenian:Rutenij
Spanish:Rutenio
Swahili:Rutheni
Swedish:Rutenium
Tatar:Ruteni
Turkish:Rutenyum
Ukrainian:Рутеній
Uzbek (Latin Script):Ruteniy
Vietnamese:Rutheni

Varieties of RutheniumHide

IridrhodrutheniumA variety of ruthenium rich in rhodium and iridium. It also contains minor amounts of other platinum group elements (PGE).

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
2 photos of Ruthenium associated with LauriteRuS2
2 photos of Ruthenium associated with Osmium(Os,Ir,Ru)
2 photos of Ruthenium associated with IsoferroplatinumPt3Fe
1 photo of Ruthenium associated with Palladodymite(Pd,Rh)2As
1 photo of Ruthenium associated with HongshiitePtCu
1 photo of Ruthenium associated with PolkanoviteRh12As7

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

1.AF.05Osmium(Os,Ir,Ru)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.AF.05Rutheniridosmine(Ir,Os,Ru)Hex.
1.AF.10Iridium(Ir,Os,Ru)Iso.
1.AF.10Palladium(Pd,Pt)Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.AF.10PlatinumPtIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.AF.10Rhodium(Rh,Pt)Iso.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

1.2.2.1Osmium(Os,Ir,Ru)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.2.2.3Rutheniridosmine(Ir,Os,Ru)Hex.
1.2.2.4RheniumReHex.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for RutheniumHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Harris, D.C., Cabri, L.J. (1973) The nomenclature of the natural alloys of osmium, iridium and ruthenium based on new compositional data of alloys from world-wide occurrences. The Canadian Mineralogist: 12: 104-112.
Urashima, Y., Wakabayashi, T., Masaki, T., Terasaki, Y. (1974) Ruthenium, a new mineral from Horakanai, Hokkaido, Japan. Mineralogical Journal: 7: 438-444.
Fleischer, M., Mandarino, J.A. (1975) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 60: 945-947.
Fleischer, M., Pabst, A., Mandarino, J.A., Chao, G.Y., Cabri, L.J. (1976) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 61: 174-186.
Page, N.J., Pallister, J.S., Brown, M.A., Smewing, J.D., Haffty, J. (1982) Palladium, platinum, rhodium, iridium and ruthenium in chromite–rich rocks from the Samail ophiolite, Oman. The Canadian Mineralogist: 20: 537-548.
Page, N.J., Talkington, R.W. (1984) Palladium, platinum, rhodium, ruthenium and iridium in peridotites and chromitites from ophiolite complexes in Newfoundland. The Canadian Mineralogist: 22: 137-149.
Harris, D.C., Cabri, L.J. (1991) Nomenclature of platinum-group-element alloys: review and revision. The Canadian Mineralogist: 29: 231-237.
Jambor, J.L., Grew, E.S. (1992) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 77: 207-213.
Proenza, J.A., Zaccarini, F., Lewis, J.F., Longo, F., Garuti, G. (2007) Chromian spinel composition and the platinum-group minerals of the PGE-rich Loma Peguera chromitites, Loma Caribe peridotite, Dominican Republic. The Canadian Mineralogist: 45: 631-648.

Internet Links for RutheniumHide

Localities for RutheniumHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • Tasmania
    • West Coast municipality
      • Rosebery district
G. A. Albertson Data
  • Western Australia
    • Kalgoorlie-Boulder Shire
      • Ora Banda Goldfield
Butt, C.R.M., Robertson, I.D.M. (2003), Ora Banda Sill Platinum Prospect, CRC LEME, 2003
Austria
 
  • Styria
    • Leoben District
      • Sankt Stefan ob Leoben
        • Mitterberg
Malitch, K. N., & Knauf, V. V. (2002). Diversity of PGM assemblages at Kraubath: a case study of mantle-derived chromitites from the Eastern Alps, Austria. In 9th International Platinum Symposium (Abstracts).
Melcher+Mali (1998)
Bulgaria
 
  • Blagoevgrad Province
Цинцов, З. (1998). Състав, разпространение и транспорт на минералите на елементите от групата на платината в алувиалните седименти на Благоевградския грабен. Сп. БГД, 59(2), 59-65.
  • Kardzhali Province
    • Kirkovo
      • Varbitsa River
Tsintsov, Z. (2004): Sperrylite from alluvial placers of Vurbitsa River, SE Rhodopes. Bulgarian Geological Society, Annual Scientific Conference “Geology 2004”, 16 – 17 December 2004, abstract volume, 92-94. [http://www.bgd.bg/CONFERENCES/Conferencia_2004/pdf_files/Tsintsov.pdf]
Canada
 
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Newfoundland
      • Baie Verte Peninsula
        • Baie Verte
          • Advocate Ophiolite complex
Escayola, M., Garuti, G., Zaccarini, F., Proenza, J.A., Bédard, J.H. & Van Staal, C. (2011) Chromitite and platinum-group-element mineralization at Middle Arm Brook, Advocate Ophiolite complex, Baie Verte Peninsula, Newfoundland, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist 49, 1523-1547.
China
 
  • Hebei
    • Shijiazhuang
      • Lingshou Co.
        • Shihu-Tuling gold field
Peng Qiming and Xu Hong (1994): Chinese Journal of Geochemistry 13(1), 55-60.
  • Liaoning
    • Huludao
      • Suizhong County
Peng Qiming and Xu Hong (1994): Chinese Journal of Geochemistry 13(1), 55-60.
  • Tibet
    • Nagchu Prefecture (Naqu Prefecture)
      • Amdo Co. (Anduo Co.)
        • Dongqiao ophiolite (Donqiao ophiolite)
Shuihe Mao and Xuecui Zhou (1989): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 9(2), 136-140
    • Shannan Prefecture (Lhokha Prefecture; Lhoka Prefecture)
      • Qusum Co. (Qusong Co.)
Wenji Bai, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Binggang Yan, Zhongming Zhang, Yufeng Ren, Nicheng Shi, Zhesheng Ma, and Mingquan Dai (2004): Earth Science Frontiers 11(1), 179-187
Colombia
 
  • Cauca Department
    • Guapí Municipality
Min Mag (1997) 61:367-375
  • Chocó Department
    • Riosucio Municipality
Robert C. Smith, II, Ph.D., P.G. My collection. Quantitative SEM/EDS. Purchased David Burgess collection
Czech Republic
 
  • Hradec Králové Region
    • Trutnov District
      • Dolní Olešnice
        • Vestřev
Pasava, J., Malec, J., Griffin, W. L., & González Jiménez, J. M. (2015). Re–Os isotopic constraints on the source of platinum-group minerals (PGMs) from the Vestřev pyrope-rich garnet placer deposit, Bohemian Massif.
Dominican Republic
 
  • Monseñor Nouel Province
    • Bonao
      • Falcondo Mines
Zaccharini et al. (2009): Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen, 185, 335-349; Proenza, J. A., Zaccarini, F., Lewis, J. F., Longo, F., & Garuti, G. (2007). Chromian spinel composition and the platinum-group minerals of the PGE-rich Loma Peguera chromitites, Loma Caribe peridotite, Dominican Republic. The Canadian Mineralogist, 45(3), 631-648.; McDonald A M, Proenza J A, Zaccarini F, Rudashevsky N S, Cabri L J, Stanley C J, Rudashevsky V N, Melgarejo J C, Lewis J F, Longo F, Bakker R J (2010) Garutiite, (Ni,Fe,Ir), a new hexagonal polymorph of native Ni from Loma Peguera, Dominican Republic. European Journal of Mineralogy 22, 293-304
Ethiopia
 
  • Benishangul-Gumuz Region
    • Asosa Zone
Pavel M. Kartashov data
France
 
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Ain
      • Bourg-en-Bresse
        • Lescheroux
Lorand, J.-P., Ducluzaux, B., & Pont, S. (2018). Une nouvelle découverte de pépites de minéraux du groupe du platine (platine, osmium, iridium) en France : les cailloutis et alluvions de la Reyssouze (Ain). Le Règne Minéral 143, 5-16.
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Bouches-du-Rhône
      • Aix-en-Provence
        • Peyrolles-en-Provence
5th International Platinum Symposium Bulletin of The Geological Society of Finland Number 61, Part 1,1989,1-64
Indonesia
 
  • South Kalimantan Province
    • Banjar Regency
Japan (TL)
 
  • Hokkaidō Prefecture
    • Kamikawa Subprefecture
      • Uryu District
        • Uryugawa
Urashima et al (1974) Mineralogical Journal, 7, 438-444.
    • Rumoi Subprefecture
      • Tomamae District
        • Tomamae
Dr Daisuke Nishio-Hamane, SEM analysis, University of Tokyo Electron Microprobe Section.
Mexico
 
  • Guerrero
    • Atlixtac Municipality
      • Petatlán
González-Jiménez, J. M., Proenza, J. A., Martini, M., Camprubí, A., Griffin, W. L., O'Reilly, S. Y., & Pearson, N. J. (2015). Deposits associated with ultramafic–mafic complexes in Mexico: the Loma Baya case. Ore Geology Reviews.
Mongolia
 
  • Zavkhan Province
    • Khan-Taishirin-Ula range
http://www.dmitrenkogg.narod.ru/Mongoliy.htm
North Macedonia
 
  • Skopje
    • Saraj Municipality
      • Raduša
Augé, T., Morin, G., Bailly, L., & Serafimovsky, T. (2017). Platinum-group minerals and their host chromitites in Macedonian ophiolites. European Journal of Mineralogy, 29(4), 585-596.
Philippines
 
  • Visayas
    • Eastern Visayas Region
      • Samar Island
Oberthür, T., Melcher, F., & Weiser, T. W. (2017). Detrital Platinum-Group Minerals and Gold In Placers of Southeastern Samar Island, Philippines. The Canadian Mineralogist, 55(1), 45-62.
Russia
 
  • Bashkortostan
    • Uchalinsky District
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data 2018
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
[AmMin 84:195]
Zaykov, V. V., Melekestseva, I. Y., Zaykova, E. V., Kotlyarov, V. A., & Kraynev, Y. D. (2017). Gold and platinum group minerals in placers of the South Urals: Composition, microinclusions of ore minerals and primary sources. Ore Geology Reviews, 85, 299-320.
Zaykov, V. V., Melekestseva, I. Y., Zaykova, E. V., Kotlyarov, V. A., & Kraynev, Y. D. (2017). Gold and platinum group minerals in placers of the South Urals: Composition, microinclusions of ore minerals and primary sources. Ore Geology Reviews, 85, 299-320.
  • Irkutsk Oblast
    • Uda–Biryusa district
Podlipsky, M. Y., Mekhonoshin, A. S., Tolstykh, N. D., Vishnevskiy, A. V., & Polyakov, G. V. (2015). Mineralogy and geochemistry of the Tartai massif, East Siberian metallogenic province. Geology of Ore Deposits, 57(3), 172-196.
  • Kamchatka Krai
Tolstykh, N., Sidorov, E., & Kozlov, A. (2009). Platinum-group Minerals from the Olkhovaya–1 Placers Related to the Karaginsky Ophiolite Complex, Kamchatskiy Mys Peninsula, Russia. The Canadian Mineralogist, 47(5), 1057-1074.
www.cosis.net/abstracts/EAE03/14099/EAE03-A-14099.pdf.
    • Western Sayan range
Tolstyk, N., Krivenko, A., Pospelova, L. (1997): New compounds of Ir, Os and Ru with selenium, arsenic and tellurium. Eur. J. Mineral.: 9: 457–465; in: Jambor, J.L., Roberts, A.C. (1997): New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 82: 1263
  • Murmansk Oblast
    • Monchegorsk
Neradovsky, Y.N., and Savchenko, E.E. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 746-748.
  • Sayan Mountains
Kiseleva, O. N., Zhmodik, S. M., Damdinov, B. B., Agafonov, L. V., & Belyanin, D. K. (2014). Composition and evolution of PGE mineralization in chromite ores from the Il’chir ophiolite complex (Ospa–Kitoi and Khara-Nur areas, East Sayan). Russian Geology and Geophysics, 55(2), 259-272.
  • Sverdlovsk Oblast
    • Nizhnii Tagil
      • Baranchinsky Massif
        • Aktai River
Jedwab J.(1990) Native ruthenium in tantalum carbide concentrates from the Ural mountains, USSR, - Miner. and Petrol., v.43, N2, pp. 137-146.
P.M. Kartashov analytical data
    • Prigorodny District
Johan, Z. (2006): Platinum-group minerals from placers related to the Nizhni Tagil (Middle Urals, Russia) Uralian-Alaskan-type ultramafic complex: ore-mineralogy and study of silicate inclusions in (Pt, Fe) alloys. Mineral. Petrol.: 87(1): 1-30
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data, 2018
  • Tuva
    • Kaa-Khemsky District
      • Kaakhem ophiolite belt
Oidup, C. K., Mongush, A. A., & Khuragan, C. M. (2012). Typomorphic features of platinum group minerals in the Kundus Placer gold (Kaakhem Ophiolite Belt, Tuva). Lithology and Mineral Resources, 47(5), 437-445.
  • Zabaykalsky Krai
    • Buriatia Republic (Buryatia)
      • Okinsky District
Kiseleva, O.N.; Airiyants, E.V.; Belyanin, D.K.; Zhmodik, S.M. (2020) Podiform Chromitites and PGE Mineralization in the Ulan-Sar’dag Ophiolite (East Sayan, Russia). Minerals 10, 141.
South Africa
 
  • Limpopo
    • Sekhukhune District
      • Burgersfort
The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 43, pp. 1711-1734 (2005)
        • Sekhukhuneland
Melcher, F., & Lodziak, J. (2007). Platinum-group minerals of concentrates from the Driekop platinum pipe, Eastern Bushveld Complex Tribute to Eugen F. Stumpfl. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen: Journal of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 183(2), 173-195.
      • Steelpoort
Zaccarini, F., Garuti, G., & Cawthorn, R. G. (2002). Platinum-group minerals in chromitite xenoliths from the Onverwacht and Tweefontein ultramafic pipes, eastern Bushveld Complex, South Africa. The Canadian Mineralogist, 40(2), 481-497.
    • Waterberg District
      • Mogalakwena
        • Mokopane (Potgietersrus)
Zaccarini, F., Garuti, G., and Cawthorn, R.G. (2002) Platinum-group minerals in chromitite xenoliths from the Onverwacht and Tweefontein ultramafic pipes, eastern Bushveld Complex. Canadian Mineralogist: 40: 481-497.
  • Mpumalanga
    • Ehlanzeni District
      • Barberton
Zaccarini, F., Tredoux, M., Miller, D. E., Garuti, G., Aiglsperger, T., & Proenza, J. A. (2014). The occurrence of platinum-group element and gold minerals in the Bon Accord Ni-oxide body, South Africa. American Mineralogist, 99(8-9), 1774-1782.
Spain
 
  • Andalusia
    • Málaga
Gervilla, F., Gutiérrez-Narbona, R., & Fenoll-Hach-Alí, P. (2002). The origin of different types of magmatic mineralizations from small-volume melts in the lherzolite massifs of the Serranía de Ronda. Boletín de la Sociedad Espanola de Mineralogía, 25, 79-96.
Turkey
 
  • Muğla Province
    • Menteşe District
      • Muğla ophiolite
Uysal, İ., Tarkian, M., Sadiklar, M. B., Zaccarini, F., Meisel, T., Garuti, G., & Heidrich, S. (2009). Petrology of Al-and Cr-rich ophiolitic chromitites from the Muğla, SW Turkey: implications from composition of chromite, solid inclusions of platinum-group mineral, silicate, and base-metal mineral, and Os-isotope geochemistry. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 158(5), 659-674.
USA
 
  • Arkansas
    • Saline Co.
Howard, 1987. Mineral Species of Arkansas, addenda
  • California
    • Mariposa Co.
      • West Belt
        • Hornitos Mining District
          • Quartzburg
            • Quartzburg School
Min Mag (1997) 61:367-375
    • Nevada Co.
      • North San Juan Mining District
        • North San Juan
Sjoberg, J. and Gomes, J.M. (1980) Platinum-group minerals in California alluvial deposits. US Bureau of Mines, Reno Research Center, unpublished manuscript: 15, figure 1; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 45.
    • Trinity Co.
      • Klamath Mountains
        • Salmon Mountains
          • New River Mining District
            • New River
Tony Nikischer
          • North Fork Mining District
Alfredo Petrov collection; Excalibur Mineral Co. analyses
    • Yuba Co.
      • Hammonton Mining District (Yuba River Mining District)
        • Hammonton
Sjoberg, J. and Gomes, J.M. (1980) Platinum-group minerals in California alluvial deposits. US Bureau of Mines, Reno Research Center, unpublished manuscript: 15; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 45.
  • Oregon
    • Jackson Co.
      • Applegate Mining District
Lyon, I.C., Tamana, H., Vaughan, D.J., Criddle, A.J., Saxton, J.M., van Lierde , P. (1997) Techniques and methodology used in a mineralogical and osmium isotope study of platinum group minerals from alluvial deposits in Colombia, California, Oregon and Alaska. Mineralogical Magazine: 61: 367-375.
 
Mineral and/or Locality  
Mindat Discussions Facebook Logo Instagram Logo Discord Logo
Mindat.org is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization. Public Relations by Blytheweigh.
Copyright © mindat.org and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2021, except where stated. Most political location boundaries are © OpenStreetMap contributors. Mindat.org relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us - Report a bug/vulnerability Current server date and time: March 7, 2021 05:16:07 Page generated: March 4, 2021 20:51:58
Go to top of page