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Ruthenium

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Formula:
(Ru,Ir)
Colour:
Silver-white
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
Crystal System:
Hexagonal
The Ru analogue of osmium, hexaferrum, hexamolybdenum, and garutiite.


Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of RutheniumHide

Approved
1.AF.05

1 : ELEMENTS (Metals and intermetallic alloys; metalloids and nonmetals; carbides, silicides, nitrides, phosphides)
A : Metals and Intermetallic Alloys
F : Platinum group elements
Dana 7th ed.:
1.2.2.2
1.2.2.2

1 : NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
2 : Platinum Group Metals and Alloys

Physical Properties of RutheniumHide

Metallic
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Silver-white
Hardness:
6½ on Mohs scale

Chemical Properties of RutheniumHide

Formula:
(Ru,Ir)
IMA Formula:
Ru
Common Impurities:
Ir,Pt,Rh,Os,Pd,Fe,Ni,Cu

Crystallography of RutheniumHide

Crystal System:
Hexagonal
Cell Parameters:
a = 2.7 Å, c = 4.28 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 1.585
Unit Cell V:
27.02 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Type Occurrence of RutheniumHide

Synonyms of RutheniumHide

Other Language Names for RutheniumHide

Afrikaans:Rutenium
Basque:Rutenio
Belarusian:Рутэній
Bosnian (Latin Script):Rutenijum
Catalan:Ruteni
Corsican:Ruteniu
Croatian:Rutenij
Czech:Ruthenium
Danish:Ruthenium
Dutch:Ruthenium
Esperanto:Rutenio
Estonian:Ruteenium
Finnish:Rutenium
French:Ruthénium
Friulian:Ruteni
Galician:Rutenio
German:Ruthenium
Hungarian:Ruténium
Icelandic:Rúþen
Indonesian:Rutenium
Italian:Rutenio
Javanese:Rutenium
Korean:루테늄
Kurdish (Latin Script):Rûtenyûm
Latin:Ruthenium
Latvian:Rutēnijs
Lithuanian:Rutenis
Lojban:rukyjinme
Luxembourgish:Ruthenium
Norwegian (Bokmål):Ruthenium
Norwegian (Nynorsk):Ruthenium
Occitan:Rutèni
Polish:Ruten
Portuguese:Rutênio
Romanian:Ruteniu
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Рутенијум
Serbo-Croatian:Rutenijum
Sicilian:Ruteniu
Simplified Chinese:自然钌
Slovak:Ruténium
Slovenian:Rutenij
Spanish:Rutenio
Swahili:Rutheni
Swedish:Rutenium
Tatar:Ruteni
Turkish:Rutenyum
Ukrainian:Рутеній
Uzbek (Latin Script):Ruteniy
Vietnamese:Rutheni

Varieties of RutheniumHide

IridrhodrutheniumA variety of ruthenium rich in rhodium and iridium. It also contains minor amounts of other platinum group elements (PGE).

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Laurite2 photos of Ruthenium associated with Laurite on mindat.org.
Osmium2 photos of Ruthenium associated with Osmium on mindat.org.
Isoferroplatinum2 photos of Ruthenium associated with Isoferroplatinum on mindat.org.
Palladodymite1 photo of Ruthenium associated with Palladodymite on mindat.org.
Hongshiite1 photo of Ruthenium associated with Hongshiite on mindat.org.
Polkanovite1 photo of Ruthenium associated with Polkanovite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

1.AF.05Osmium(Os,Ir,Ru)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.AF.05Rutheniridosmine(Ir,Os,Ru)Hex.
1.AF.10Iridium(Ir,Os,Ru)Iso.
1.AF.10Palladium(Pd,Pt)
1.AF.10PlatinumPtIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.AF.10Rhodium(Rh,Pt)Iso.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

1.2.2.1Osmium(Os,Ir,Ru)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.2.2.3Rutheniridosmine(Ir,Os,Ru)Hex.
1.2.2.4RheniumReHex.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for RutheniumHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Urashima et al (1974) Mineralogical Journal, 7, 438-444.
American Mineralogist (1975): 60: 946.
American Mineralogist (1976): 61: 177.

Internet Links for RutheniumHide

Localities for RutheniumHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • Tasmania
    • West Coast municipality
      • Rosebery district
G. A. Albertson Data
  • Western Australia
    • Kalgoorlie-Boulder Shire
      • Ora Banda Goldfield
Butt, C.R.M., Robertson, I.D.M. (2003), Ora Banda Sill Platinum Prospect, CRC LEME, 2003
Bulgaria
 
  • Blagoevgrad Oblast
Цинцов, З. (1998). Състав, разпространение и транспорт на минералите на елементите от групата на платината в алувиалните седименти на Благоевградския грабен. Сп. БГД, 59(2), 59-65.
Canada
 
  • Newfoundland and Labrador
    • Newfoundland
      • Baie Verte Peninsula
        • Baie Verte
          • Advocate Ophiolite complex
Escayola, M., Garuti, G., Zaccarini, F., Proenza, J.A., Bédard, J.H. & Van Staal, C. (2011) Chromitite and platinum-group-element mineralization at Middle Arm Brook, Advocate Ophiolite complex, Baie Verte Peninsula, Newfoundland, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist 49, 1523-1547.
China
 
  • Hebei Province
    • Shijiazhuang Prefecture
      • Lingshou Co.
        • Shihu-Tuling gold field
Peng Qiming and Xu Hong (1994): Chinese Journal of Geochemistry 13(1), 55-60.
  • Liaoning Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
    • Huludao Prefecture
      • Suizhong Co.
Peng Qiming and Xu Hong (1994): Chinese Journal of Geochemistry 13(1), 55-60.
  • Tibet Autonomous Region
    • Nagchu Prefecture (Naqu Prefecture)
      • Amdo Co. (Anduo Co.)
        • Dongqiao ophiolite (Donqiao ophiolite)
Shuihe Mao and Xuecui Zhou (1989): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 9(2), 136-140
    • Shannan Prefecture (Lhokha Prefecture; Lhoka Prefecture)
      • Qusum Co. (Qusong Co.)
Wenji Bai, Jingsui Yang, Qingsong Fang, Binggang Yan, Zhongming Zhang, Yufeng Ren, Nicheng Shi, Zhesheng Ma, and Mingquan Dai (2004): Earth Science Frontiers 11(1), 179-187
Colombia
 
  • Cauca Department
    • Mun. de Guapí
Min Mag (1997) 61:367-375
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Hradec Králové Region
      • Nová Paka (Neupaka)
Pasava, J., Malec, J., Griffin, W. L., & González Jiménez, J. M. (2015). Re–Os isotopic constraints on the source of platinum-group minerals (PGMs) from the Vestřev pyrope-rich garnet placer deposit, Bohemian Massif.
Dominican Republic
 
  • Monseñor Nouel Province
    • Bonao
Zaccharini et al. (2009): Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie - Abhandlungen, 185, 335-349; Proenza, J. A., Zaccarini, F., Lewis, J. F., Longo, F., & Garuti, G. (2007). Chromian spinel composition and the platinum-group minerals of the PGE-rich Loma Peguera chromitites, Loma Caribe peridotite, Dominican Republic. The Canadian Mineralogist, 45(3), 631-648.; McDonald A M, Proenza J A, Zaccarini F, Rudashevsky N S, Cabri L J, Stanley C J, Rudashevsky V N, Melgarejo J C, Lewis J F, Longo F, Bakker R J (2010) Garutiite, (Ni,Fe,Ir), a new hexagonal polymorph of native Ni from Loma Peguera, Dominican Republic. European Journal of Mineralogy 22, 293-304
Ethiopia
 
  • Benshangul-Gumaz Region
    • Asosa region (Assosa region)
Pavel M. Kartashov data
France
 
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Bouches-du-Rhône
      • Aix-en-Provence
        • Peyrolles-en-Provence
5th International Platinum Symposium Bulletin of The Geological Society of Finland Number 61, Part 1,1989,1-64
Indonesia
 
  • Kalimantan (Borneo)
    • Kalimantan Selatan Province (South Kalimantan Province)
Japan (TL)
 
  • Hokkaido
    • Kamikawa Province
      • Uryu-gun
        • Uryugawa
Urashima et al (1974) Mineralogical Journal, 7, 438-444.
Mexico
 
  • Guerrero
    • Mun. de Atlixtac
      • Petatlán
González-Jiménez, J. M., Proenza, J. A., Martini, M., Camprubí, A., Griffin, W. L., O'Reilly, S. Y., & Pearson, N. J. (2015). Deposits associated with ultramafic–mafic complexes in Mexico: the Loma Baya case. Ore Geology Reviews.
Mongolia
 
  • Dzavhan Aimag (Zavkhan Aimag)
    • Khan-Taishirin-Ula range
http://www.dmitrenkogg.narod.ru/Mongoliy.htm
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
www.cosis.net/abstracts/EAE03/14099/EAE03-A-14099.pdf.
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Kamchatka Oblast'
Tolstykh, N., Sidorov, E., & Kozlov, A. (2009). Platinum-group Minerals from the Olkhovaya–1 Placers Related to the Karaginsky Ophiolite Complex, Kamchatskiy Mys Peninsula, Russia. The Canadian Mineralogist, 47(5), 1057-1074.
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaya Oblast'
      • Monche-Tundra
        • Monchegorsk
Neradovsky, Y.N., and Savchenko, E.E. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(8), 746-748.
  • Urals Region
    • Middle Urals
      • Sverdlovskaya Oblast'
        • Neiva river
        • Nizhnii Tagil
          • Baranchinsky Massif
            • Aktai River
Jedwab J.(1990) Native ruthenium in tantalum carbide concentrates from the Ural mountains, USSR, - Miner. and Petrol., v.43, N2, pp. 137-146.
P.M. Kartashov analytical data
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
[AmMin 84:195]
South Africa
 
  • Limpopo Province
    • Bushveld Complex
      • Burgersfort
        • Sekhukhuneland
Melcher, F., & Lodziak, J. (2007). Platinum-group minerals of concentrates from the Driekop platinum pipe, Eastern Bushveld Complex Tribute to Eugen F. Stumpfl. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen: Journal of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 183(2), 173-195.
The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 43, pp. 1711-1734 (2005)
      • Waterberg District
        • Mokopane (Potgietersrus)
Zaccarini, F., Garuti, G., and Cawthorn, R.G. (2002) Platinum-group minerals in chromitite xenoliths from the Onverwacht and Tweefontein ultramafic pipes, eastern Bushveld Complex. Canadian Mineralogist: 40: 481-497.
  • Mpumalanga Province
    • Eastern Bushveld Complex
      • Lydenburg
Zaccarini, F., Garuti, G., & Cawthorn, R. G. (2002). Platinum-group minerals in chromitite xenoliths from the Onverwacht and Tweefontein ultramafic pipes, eastern Bushveld Complex, South Africa. The Canadian Mineralogist, 40(2), 481-497.
    • Ehlanzeni District
      • Barberton
        • Bon Accord
Zaccarini, F., Tredoux, M., Miller, D. E., Garuti, G., Aiglsperger, T., & Proenza, J. A. (2014). The occurrence of platinum-group element and gold minerals in the Bon Accord Ni-oxide body, South Africa. American Mineralogist, 99(8-9), 1774-1782.
Turkey
 
  • Aegean Region
    • Muğla Province
      • Muğla ophiolite
Uysal, İ., Tarkian, M., Sadiklar, M. B., Zaccarini, F., Meisel, T., Garuti, G., & Heidrich, S. (2009). Petrology of Al-and Cr-rich ophiolitic chromitites from the Muğla, SW Turkey: implications from composition of chromite, solid inclusions of platinum-group mineral, silicate, and base-metal mineral, and Os-isotope geochemistry. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 158(5), 659-674.
USA
 
  • Arkansas
    • Saline Co.
Howard, 1987. Mineral Species of Arkansas, addenda
  • California
    • Mariposa Co.
      • West Belt
        • Hornitos District
          • Quartzburg
            • Quartzburg School
Min Mag (1997) 61:367-375
    • Nevada Co.
      • North San Juan District
        • North San Juan
Sjoberg, J. and Gomes, J.M. (1980) Platinum-group minerals in California alluvial deposits. US Bureau of Mines, Reno Research Center, unpublished manuscript: 15, figure 1; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 45.
    • Trinity Co.
      • Klamath Mts
        • Salmon Mts
          • New River District
            • New River
Tony Nikischer
          • North Fork District
Alfredo Petrov collection; Excalibur Mineral Co. analyses
    • Yuba Co.
      • Hammonton District (Yuba River District; Yuba Gold Field; Yuba Dredge Field; Yuba Consolidated Gold Fields)
        • Hammonton
Sjoberg, J. and Gomes, J.M. (1980) Platinum-group minerals in California alluvial deposits. US Bureau of Mines, Reno Research Center, unpublished manuscript: 15; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 45.
  • Oregon
    • Jackson Co.
      • Applegate District
Min Mag (1997) 61:367-375
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