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Sampleite

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Formula:
NaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O
Colour:
Light blue, bluish green; blue in transmitted light.
Lustre:
Pearly
Hardness:
4
Specific Gravity:
3.2
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
Named by Cornelius Hurlbut Jr. in honor of Mr. Matt Sample, Mine Superintendent for the Chile Exploration Company in 1921 (on staff as early as 1915) in Chuquicamata, Chile.
Lavendulan Group. The phosphate analogue of Lavendulan.
A polymorph is known (Giester et al., 2007).

An uncommon mineral in the oxidized zones of copper deposits in arid climates; also occurs as a rare mineral in caves.


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Classification of SampleiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
8.DG.05

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
D : Phosphates, etc. with additional anions, with H2O
G : With large and medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4< 0.5:1
42.9.4.1

42 : HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
9 : (AB)7(XO4)4Zq·xH2O
22.2.1

22 : Phosphates, Arsenates or Vanadates with other Anions
2 : Phosphates, arsenates or vanadates with chloride

Physical Properties of SampleiteHide

Pearly
Transparency:
Transparent
Comment:
Lustre pearly on {010}.
Colour:
Light blue, bluish green; blue in transmitted light.
Streak:
Light blue
Hardness:
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {010}, perfect; on {100} and {001}, good.
Density:
3.2 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.26 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of SampleiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.625 - 1.629 nβ = 1.674 - 1.677 nγ = 1.674 - 1.679
2V:
Measured: 5° to 23°, Calculated: 22°
Birefringence:
0.049
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.049 - 0.050
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
r > v
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X = b = Deep blue, blue-green
Y = a = Light blue, turquoise-blue
Z = c = Turquoise-blue, colourless
Comments:
X

Chemical Properties of SampleiteHide

Formula:
NaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2O

Crystallography of SampleiteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Cmmm
Setting:
C2/m 2/m 2/m
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.72 Å, b = 38.48 Å, c = 9.67 Å
β = 90.0°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.253 : 1 : 0.251
Unit Cell V:
3,616.83 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
8
Morphology:
Thin lath-like, pseudo-orthorhombic plates, flattened on {010}, elongated along [001]; rosettes; commonly aggregated into crusts.
Twinning:
Common.
Comment:
Pseudo-orthorhombic metrics. Old literature gives "orthorhombic" cell with a = 9.7, b = 38.7, c = 9.45 A. The polymorph described by Giester et al. (2007) has space group P21/c, a = 9.695(2), b = 9.673(2), c = 19.739(4) Å, beta = 102.61(3)°, V = 1806.5(6) Å3, Z = 4.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
9.60 (100)
6.85 (70)
4.30 (80)
3.89 (70)
3.04 (100)
1.79 (70)
1.71 (80)
1.45 (70)
Comments:
ICDD 11-349

Type Occurrence of SampleiteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: 95023, 95024. National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DC, USA: 137298.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Highly oxidized ore.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Other Language Names for SampleiteHide

German:Sampleit
Spanish:Sampleita

Relationship of Sampleite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
LavendulanNaCaCu5(AsO4)4Cl · 5H2OMon. 2/m
ZdenĕkiteNaPbCu5(AsO4)4Cl · 5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Atacamite19 photos of Sampleite associated with Atacamite on mindat.org.
Pseudomalachite5 photos of Sampleite associated with Pseudomalachite on mindat.org.
Connellite3 photos of Sampleite associated with Connellite on mindat.org.
Libethenite2 photos of Sampleite associated with Libethenite on mindat.org.
Goethite2 photos of Sampleite associated with Goethite on mindat.org.
Olivenite2 photos of Sampleite associated with Olivenite on mindat.org.
Gypsum2 photos of Sampleite associated with Gypsum on mindat.org.
Baryte1 photo of Sampleite associated with Baryte on mindat.org.
Muscovite1 photo of Sampleite associated with Muscovite on mindat.org.
Quartz1 photo of Sampleite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

8.DG.05LavendulanNaCaCu5(AsO4)4Cl · 5H2OMon. 2/m
8.DG.05ShubnikoviteCa2Cu8(AsO4)6(OH)Cl · 7H2O
8.DG.05ZdenĕkiteNaPbCu5(AsO4)4Cl · 5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
8.DG.05LemanskiiteNaCaCu5(AsO4)4Cl · 5H2OTet. 4 2 2 : P41 2 2

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

42.9.4.2LavendulanNaCaCu5(AsO4)4Cl · 5H2OMon. 2/m
42.9.4.3ZdenĕkiteNaPbCu5(AsO4)4Cl · 5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

22.2.2LavendulanNaCaCu5(AsO4)4Cl · 5H2OMon. 2/m
22.2.3ChlorapatiteCa5(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
22.2.4TurneaureiteCa5(AsO4)3ClHex.
22.2.5ShubnikoviteCa2Cu8(AsO4)6(OH)Cl · 7H2O
22.2.6RichelsdorfiteCa2Cu5Sb(AsO4)4(OH)6Cl · 6H2OMon. 2/m
22.2.7AlforsiteBa5(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
22.2.8MorelanditeCa2Ba3(AsO4)3Cl
22.2.9PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
22.2.10MimetitePb5(AsO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
22.2.11Mimetite-MPb5(AsO4)3ClMon. 2/m : P21/b
22.2.12SahlinitePb14(AsO4)2O9Cl4Mon.
22.2.13GeorgiadèsitePb4(AsO3)Cl4(OH)Mon.
22.2.14VanadinitePb5(VO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
22.2.15KombatitePb14(VO4)2O9Cl4Mon.
22.2.16LeningraditePbCu3(VO4)2ClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Ibam
22.2.17HedyphaneCa2Pb3(AsO4)3ClHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
22.2.18NealitePb4Fe2+(As3+O3)2Cl4 · 2H2OTric. 1 : P1

Fluorescence of SampleiteHide

Not fluorescent

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for SampleiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Hurlbut, C.S, Jr. (1942) Sampleite, a new mineral from Chuquicamata, Chile. American Mineralogist: 27: 586–589.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 945-946.
Guillemin, C. (1956) Contribution a la
minéralogie des arséniates, phosphates et vanadates de cuivre: phosphates et vanadates de cuivre. II. Phosphates et vanadates de cuivre. Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 79: 219–275 (esp. 226–229) (in French).
Fabrizi, M., Ganiaris, H., Tarling, S.E., and Scott, D.A. (1989) The occurrence of sampleite, a complex copper phosphate, as a corrosion product on copper alloy objects from Memphis, Egypt. Studies in Conservation: 34: 45-51.
Giester, G., Kolitsch, U., Leverett, P., Turner, P. & Williams, P.A. (2007): The crystal structures of lavendulan, sampleite, and a new polymorph of sampleite. European Journal of Mineralogy 19, 75-93.

Internet Links for SampleiteHide

Localities for SampleiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Kennedy Co.
      • Goonumbla
A.L. McLean, J.Chapman, J.L. Sharpe and P.A. Williams (2004): The mineralogy of the oxidised zone of the E26 orebody at Northparkes, New South Wales. Australian Journal of Mineralogy 10, 53-57.
    • Yancowinna Co.
      • Broken Hill
Australian Min. 3:1 (1997)
        • Broken Hill South Mine (BHS Mine; South Mine)
Australian Min. 3:1 (1997)
  • South Australia
    • Flinders Ranges
      • South Flinders Ranges
        • Wilmington
Australian Journal of Mineralogy. Vol 2. No. 2. 1996. 57-70
  • Victoria
    • Swan Hill Rural City
      • Lake Boga
Henry, D. A. and Birch, W. D. (1988): Sampleite and associated minerals from the Lake Boga granite quarry, Victoria, Australia. Austral. Mineral. 3, 135-148; Giester, G., Kolitsch, U., Leverett, P., Turner, P. & Williams, P.A. (2007): The crystal structures of lavendulan, sampleite, and a new polymorph of sampleite. European Journal of Mineralogy 19, 75-93.; W.D. Birch & D.A.Henry 1993. Phosphate Minerals of Victoria, The Mineralogical Society of Victoria special publication No. 3, pp. 14-27; D.A.Henry & W.D.Birch 1998. Sampleite and associated minerals from Lake Boga granite quarry, Victoria, Australia. Australian Mineralogist Vol. 3 Oct.-Dec. 1988, pp. 135-148
  • Western Australia
    • Brookton Shire
      • Brookton
Bridge, P.J., Pryce, M.W., Clarke, R.M., and Costello, M.B. (1978) Sampleite from Jingemia Cave, Western Australia. Mineralogical Magazine: 42: 369-371.
    • Moora Shire
Bridge, P.J., Pryce, M.W., Clarke, R.M., and Costello, M.B. (1978): Sampleite from Jingemia Cave, Western Australia. Mineralogical Magazine (September 1978 Vol. 42) pp 369-371.
    • Upper Gascoyne Shire
http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/sampleite.pdf
Clarke, R.M., Williams, I.R. (1986) Moolooite, a naturally occurring hydrated copper oxalate from Western Australia, Mineralogical Magazine (June 1986) Vol.50, pp295-298.
Austria
 
  • Lower Austria
    • Waldviertel
      • Weinzierl am Walde
        • Maigen
Kolitsch, U. & Gröbner, J. (2008)
  • Salzburg
    • Abtenau
      • Webing
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989); Kirchner, E. C. (1978): Eine Paragenese seltener Kupferminerale auf Diabas von Webing bei Abtenau, Salzburg Translated Title: Paragenesis of some rare copper minerals in diabase from Webing near Abtenau, Salzburg. Der Aufschluss, Sonderheft. 29, 351-354.
    • Hohe Tauern
      • Untersulzbach valley
Lewandowski, K., Lerch, H. & Seemann, R. (2006): Chronik - Schaubergwerk Hochfeld "Bergbau im Untersulzbachtal – Eine fast vergessene Welt" Die 500-jährige Geschichte des Kupferbergbaus am Hochfeld im Untersulzbachtal. Zukunftskollegium Nationalpark Hohe Tauern, Neukirchen a. G., 288 pp.; Natural History Museum Vienna collection
    • Radstädter Tauern
      • Großarl valley
        • Hüttschlag
Adlassnig, W., Sassmann, S., Lendl, T., Wernitznig, S., Hofhansl, F., Lang, I., Lichtscheidl, I.K. (2013): Metal contamination and retention of the former mining site Schwarzwand (Salzburg, Austria). Applied Geochemistry 35, 196-206.
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta Region
    • Antofagasta Province
      • Baquedano
http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/sampleite.pdf
Kampf, A.R., Mills, S.J., Rumsey, M. S., Dini, M., Birch, W. D., Spratt, J., Pluth, J.J., Steele, I. M., Jenkins, R. A., and Pinch, W. W. (2012): The heteromolybdate family: structural relations, nomenclature scheme and new species. Mineralogical Magazine, 76(5), 1175-1207.
Knobler, R. and Joseph, W., 1962. Mining Engin. 14, 40-45; http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/sampleite.pdf
      • Santa Catalina
        • Guanaco (Huanaco)
http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/sampleite.pdf
      • Sierra Gorda District
        • Caracoles
http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/sampleite.pdf; Mr. Terry Szenics (found in 1993 and subsequently analysed; pers. comm. to Herwig Pelckmans, 1999); V. Sapienza collection.
    • El Loa Province
      • Calama
        • Chuquicamata District
Hurlbut, C.S., Jr. (1942) Sampleite, a new mineral from Chuquicamata, Chile. American Mineralogist: 27: 586-589; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 946.
    • Tocopilla Province
Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter (Hamburg University), Germany.
Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter (Hamburg University), Germany.
      • Pedro de Valdivia
No reference listed
  • Atacama Region
    • Copiapó Province
      • Tierra Amarilla
        • Las Pintadas district
          • Cerro Pintado
various added photos
David J. Eicher collection
Egypt
 
  • Al Jizah Governorate (Giza Governorate)
    • Al Jizah (Giza)
Fabrizi, M., Ganiaris, H., Tarling, S.E., and Scott, D.A. (1989) The occurrence of sampleite, a complex copper phosphate, as a corrosion product on copper alloy objects from Memphis, Egypt. Studies in Conservation: 34: 45-51.
Germany
 
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Eifel
      • Mechernich
        • Kall
Blaß, G. & Graf, H. W. (1995): Neufunde von Schlackenhalden in der nördlichen Eifel (II). Mineralien-Welt, 6 (3), 28-31.
Italy
 
  • Calabria
    • Cosenza Province
      • Sant'Agata di Esaro
Larocca F. (2012): Grotta della Monaca (Calabria, Italia Meridionale): Una miniera neolitica per l’estrazione dell’ocra. In: Borrell M. et al., (eds.), (2012), Xarxes al Neolític. Circulació i intercanvi de materiès, productes i idees a la Mediterrània occidental (VII-III millenni aC). Actes Congrés Internacional, Gavà/Bellaterra, 2-4 febrer 2011. Rubricatum, 5, 249-256.
  • Sardinia
    • Medio Campidano Province
      • Furtei
        • Furtei mine
Ruggieri, G., Lattanzi, P., Luxoro, S., Dessi, R., Benvenuti. M, & Tanelli, G., 1997. Geology, Mineralogy and Fluid Inclusion Data of the Furtei High Sulfidation Gold Deposit, Sardinia, Italy. Economic Geology, 92 (1), 1-19.
Ruggieri, G., Lattanzi, P., Luxoro, S., Dessi, R., Benvenuti. M, & Tanelli, G., 1997. Geology, Mineralogy and Fluid Inclusion Data of the Furtei High Sulfidation Gold Deposit, Sardinia, Italy. Economic Geology, 92 (1), 1-19.
      • Gonnosfanadiga
        • Fenugu Sibiri Mine
Brizzi, G., Olmi, F., Sabelli, C. (1994): Gli arseniati di Pira Inferida, Gonnofanadiga (CA). Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 17, 3 (3-1994), 193-206.
Mexico
 
  • Durango
    • Mun. de Durango
Peter Megaw and MAG Silver exploration team
Morocco
 
  • Drâa-Tafilalet Region
    • Ouarzazate Province
      • Tazenakht
Favreau, G. (2012): Les minéralisations à phosphates de la pegmatite d'Angarf-Sud (Maroc).Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, 3-2012, 3-70.
Namibia
 
  • Erongo Region
    • Karibib District
      • Tsaobismund Farm 85
Jahn, S. (2001): Schon gesehen? Sampleit. Mineralien-Welt 12 (4), 10-11.
Portugal
 
  • Guarda District
    • Gouveia
      • Folgosinho
Alves, P (2016). Folgosinho: Fosfatos secundarios de la mina Sitio do Castelo. Revista de Minerales 2015/2, 6-27. (in Spanish).
Romania
 
  • Hunedoara Co.
    • Hunedoara
      • Boșorod
Onac, B.P., Breban, R., Kearns, J., and Tamas, T. (2002) Unusual minerals related to phosphate deposits in Cioclovina Cave, Şureanu Mts. (Romania). Theoretical and Applied Karstology: 15: 27-34.
Russia
 
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Sakhalinskaya Oblast'
      • Kuril Islands (Kurile Islands)
        • Paramushir Island
Bortnikova, S. B., Bessonova, E. P., & Zelenskii, M. E. (2005). Hydrogeochemistry of thermal springs at Ebeco volcano (Kuril Islands). In Proceedings World Geothermal Congress 2005. Antalia, Turkey, 24-29 April.
South Africa
Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995), Minerals of South Africa.
  • Mpumalanga Province
    • Ehlanzeni District
      • Nelspruit
Martini, J.E.J. et al (1997), "Mbobo Mkulu Cave, South Africa", in "Cave Minerals of the World" (1997);
Spain
 
  • Asturias
    • Cabrales
      • Arenas
No reference listed
Mineral and/or Locality  
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