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Schorl

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Formula:
NaFe32+Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
System:
Trigonal
Colour:
Bluish-black to black, ...
Lustre:
Vitreous, Resinous
Hardness:
7
Name:
The early history of the mineral schorl shows that the name "Schorl" was in use prior to the year 1400 (AD) because a village known today as Zschorlau (in Saxony, Germany) was then named "Schorl" (or minor variants of this name). This village had a nearby tin mine where, in addition to cassiterite, a lot of black tourmaline was found. First mentioned by Ulrich Rülein von Calw 1505. The first relatively detailed description of schorl with the name "schürl" and its occurrence (various tin mines in the Saxony Ore Mountains) was written by Johannes Mathesius (1504-1565) in 1562 under the title "Sarepta oder Bergpostill". Up to about 1600, additional names used in the German language were "Schurel", "Schörle", and "Schurl". From the 18th century on, the name "Schörl" was mainly used in the German-speaking area. In English, the names "shorl" and "shirl" were used in the 18th century for schorl. In the 19th century the names "common schorl", "schörl", "schorl" and "iron tourmaline" were used in the Anglo-Saxon area (Ertl, 2006).
Dimorph of:
The most common member of the Tourmaline Group.
Elbaite-Schorl Series, Dravite-Schorl Series.

See also fluor-schorl, which occurs in F-rich environment.



Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Schorl.


Classification of Schorl

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First Published:
1524
9.CK.05

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
C : Cyclosilicates
K : [Si6O18]12- 6-membered single rings, with insular complex anions
Dana 7th ed.:
61.3.1.12
61.3.1.10

61 : CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
3 : Six-Membered Rings with borate groups
17.5.44

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
5 : Borosilicates

Physical Properties of Schorl

Vitreous, Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent, Opaque
Colour:
Bluish-black to black, sometimes brownish-black, rarely greenish-black.
Streak:
Greyish-white to bluish-white.
Hardness (Mohs):
7
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Poor/Indistinct
Very poor on {1120}, {1011}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
3.18 - 3.22 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.244 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Schorl

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.660 - 1.672 nε = 1.635 - 1.650
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.025
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Pleochroism:
Strong
Comments:
O= yellow brown
E= pale yellow, pale brown
Comments:
may be slightly biaxial under strain

Chemical Properties of Schorl

IMA Formula:
NaFe32+Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
Elements listed in formula:
Common Impurities:
Mn,Mg,Ca,Li,Cr,Ti,F,K

Crystallography of Schorl

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Class (H-M):
3m - Ditrigonal Pyramidal
Space Group:
R3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 15.98(5) Å, c = 7.15(3) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.447
Unit Cell Volume:
V 1,581.21 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
3
Morphology:
Prismatic to acicular
Twinning:
Rarely on {1010} and {4041}

Occurrences of Schorl

Relationship of Schorl to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Dravite (see here)
Forms a series with Elbaite (see here)
Other Members of Group:
AdachiiteCaFe3Al6(Si5AlO18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
BosiiteNaFe33+(Al4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
Chromium-draviteNa(Mg3)Cr63+(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Chromo-alumino-povondraiteNa(Cr3)(Al4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
DarrellhenryiteNa(LiAl2)Al6(BO3)3Si6O18(OH)3O
DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
FeruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Fluor-buergeriteNa(Fe33+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3F
Fluor-draviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Fluor-elbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Fluor-feruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Fluor-liddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Fluor-schorlNa(Fe32+)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Fluor-tsilaisiteNa(Mn2+)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Fluor-uviteCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
Foitite(□,Na)(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
LucchesiiteCaFe32+ Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
Luinaite-(OH)Na(Fe2+)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
Magnesio-foitite(□,Na)(Mg2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
MaruyamaiteK(MgAl2)(Al5Mg)(BO3)3(Si6O18)(OH)3O
OleniteNa(Al3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3(OH)
Oxy-chromium-draviteNa(Cr)3(Cr4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
Oxy-draviteNa(MgAl2)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
Oxy-foitite□(Fe2+Al2)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
Oxy-rossmanite☐(LiAl2)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
Oxy-schorlNa(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
Oxy-uviteCaMg3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
Oxy-vanadium-draviteNa(V)3(V4Mg2)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3O
PovondraiteNaFe33+(Mg2Fe43+)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
Rossmanite☐(LiAl2)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
TsilaisiteNa(Mn2+)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
UM2000-64-SiO:BFeHKMgK, Mg, Fe, Si, B, O, H
Unnamed (Pb-dominant Tourmaline)(Pb,Na)(Li,Al)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F,OH)
UviteCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F/OH)
Vanadio-oxy-chromium-draviteNa(V)3(Cr4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
Vanadio-oxy-draviteNaV3(Al4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
9.CK.Fluor-schorlNaFe32+Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
9.CK.DarrellhenryiteNaLiAl2Al6(BO3)3Si6O18(OH)3O
9.CK.AdachiiteCaFe32+Al6(Si5AlO18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
9.CK.05Fluor-buergeriteNaFe33+Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3F
9.CK.05Chromium-draviteNa(Mg3)Cr63+(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
9.CK.05DraviteNaMg3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
9.CK.05ElbaiteNa(Al1.5Li1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
9.CK.05FeruviteCaFe32+(Al5Mg)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
9.CK.05Foitite◻(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
9.CK.05LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
9.CK.05OleniteNaAl3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(O3)OH
9.CK.05PovondraiteNaFe33+(Fe43+Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
9.CK.05Magnesio-foitite◻(Mg2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
9.CK.05Rossmanite◻(LiAl2)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
9.CK.05Oxy-vanadium-draviteNa(V)3(V4Mg2)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3O
9.CK.05Oxy-draviteNa(Al2Mg)(Al5Mg)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
9.CK.05Oxy-rossmanite☐(LiAl2)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
9.CK.05Chromo-alumino-povondraiteNaCr3(Al4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
9.CK.05Fluor-draviteNaMg3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
9.CK.05Fluor-uviteCaMg3(Al5Mg)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
9.CK.10Abenakiite-(Ce)Na26Ce6(SiO3)6(PO4)6(CO3)6(SO2)O
9.CK.15ScawtiteCa7(Si3O9)2(CO3) · 2H2O
9.CK.20Steenstrupine-(Ce)Na14Ce6Mn22+Fe23+Zr(PO4)7Si12O36(OH)2 · 3H2O
9.CK.20Thorosteenstrupine(Ca,Th,Mn)3Si4O11F · 6H2O
17.5.1ManandoniteLi2Al4(Si2AlB)O10(OH)8
17.5.2ReedmergneriteNaBSi3O8
17.5.3SearlesiteNaBSi2O5(OH)2
17.5.4OleniteNaAl3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(O3)OH
17.5.5ElbaiteNa(Al1.5Li1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
17.5.6KalborsiteK6Al4BSi6O20(OH)4Cl
17.5.7BoromuscoviteKAl2(Si3B)O10(OH)2
17.5.8PoudretteiteKNa2(B3Si12)O30
17.5.9LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
17.5.10DatoliteCaB(SiO4)(OH)
17.5.11DanburiteCaB2Si2O8
17.5.12HowliteCa2B5SiO9(OH)5
17.5.13BakeriteCa4(H5B5Si3O20)
17.5.14OyeliteCa10B2Si8O29 · 12H2O
17.5.15Kornerupine(Mg,Fe2+,Al,◻)10(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH,F)
17.5.16HarkeriteCa12Mg4Al(SiO4)4(BO3)3(CO3)5 · H2O
17.5.17SerendibiteCa4(Mg6Al6)O4[Si6B3Al3O36]
17.5.18Stillwellite-(Ce)CeBSiO5
17.5.19Tadzhikite-(Ce)
17.5.20Melanocerite-(Ce)Ce5(SiO4,BO4)3(OH,O)
17.5.21Okanoganite-(Y)(Y,REE,Ca,Na,Th)16(Fe3+,Ti)(Si,B,P)10(O,OH)38F10
17.5.22Tritomite-(Ce)Ce5(SiO4,BO4)3(OH,O)
17.5.23Tritomite-(Y)Y5(SiO4,BO4)3(O,OH,F)
17.5.24Cappelenite-(Y)BaY6B6Si3O24F2
17.5.25DumortieriteAlAl6BSi3O18
17.5.26Holtite(Ta0.60.4)Al6BSi3O18
17.5.27DraviteNaMg3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
17.5.28 FerridraviteNaFe33+(Mg2Fe43+)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
17.5.29Axinite-(Mg)Ca4Mg2Al4[B2Si8O30](OH)2
17.5.30UviteCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F/OH)
17.5.31GarrelsiteNaBa3B7Si2O16(OH)4
17.5.32TienshaniteK(Na,K,◻)9Ca2Ba6Mn62+Ti6B12Si36O114(O,OH,F)11
17.5.33LeucospheniteNa4BaTi2B2Si10O30
17.5.34TaramelliteBa4(Fe3+,Ti)4O2[B2Si8O27]Clx; x = 0 to 1
17.5.35TitantaramelliteBa4(Ti,Fe3+,Mg)4(O,OH)2[B2Si8O27]Clx
17.5.36NagashimaliteBa4(V3+,Ti)4(O,OH)2[B2Si8O27]Cl
17.5.37Chromium-draviteNa(Mg3)Cr63+(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
17.5.38WawayandaiteCa6Be9Mn22+BSi6O23(OH,Cl)15
17.5.39WerdingiteMg2Al14Si4B4O37
17.5.40Axinite-(Mn)Ca4Mn22+Al4[B2Si8O30](OH)2
17.5.41Axinite
17.5.42TinzeniteCa2Mn42+Al4[B2Si8O30](OH)2
17.5.45Fluor-buergeriteNaFe33+Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3F
17.5.46FeruviteCaFe32+(Al5Mg)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
17.5.47Axinite-(Fe)Ca4Fe22+Al4[B2Si8O30](OH)2
17.5.48HomiliteCa2Fe2+B2(SiO4)2O2
17.5.49GrandidieriteMgAl3O2(BO3)SiO4
17.5.50Hyalotekite(Ba,Pb,K)4(Ca,Y)2(B,Be)2(Si,B)2Si8O28F
17.5.51Hellandite-(Y)(Ca,REE)4Y2Al(Be,Li)2-xB4Si4O22(OH)2
61.3.1.1Foitite◻(Fe22+Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
61.3.1.2Magnesio-foitite◻(Mg2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
61.3.1.3Rossmanite◻(LiAl2)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
61.3.1.4LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
61.3.1.5UviteCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F/OH)
61.3.1.5Fluor-uviteCaMg3(Al5Mg)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3F
61.3.1.6FeruviteCaFe32+(Al5Mg)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
61.3.1.7Fluor-buergeriteNaFe33+Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3F
61.3.1.8PovondraiteNaFe33+(Fe43+Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
61.3.1.9OleniteNaAl3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(O3)OH
61.3.1.10ElbaiteNa(Al1.5Li1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
61.3.1.11DraviteNaMg3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OH
61.3.1.13Chromium-draviteNa(Mg3)Cr63+(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)
61.3.1.14Oxy-vanadium-draviteNa(V)3(V4Mg2)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3O

Other Names for Schorl

Name in Other Languages:
Russian:Шерл
Simplified Chinese:铁电气石
黑电气石
Spanish:Afrisita

Other Information

Electrical:
Pyroelectric and piezoelectric.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Schorl

Reference List:
Rülein von Calw, U. (1505) Ein wolgeordnetz: unnd nuczlicho büchlin wie man bergwerck suchen und erfinden sol von allerlay mettal die denn die sieben planeten generieren und würcken yeglicher nach seiner natur ....-Augsburg, printed by Erhart Ratdolt (first description as "schorlein" or "schörlein", occurring in placers together with gold or tin ore in Saxony)

Mathesius, J. (1562) Sarepta oder Bergpostill sampt der Joachimßthalischen kurtzen Chroniken.- Nürnberg, Johann vom Berg and Ulrich Newber, 233 p. (description)

Linné, C. (1748) Systema Naturæ sistens regna tria naturæ, in classes et ordines, genera et species, redacta tabulisque æneis illustrata.- Lipsiæ, Godofr. Kiesewetteri, p. 181. [description of the crystals, first drawing of a schorl crystal]

Wiegleb, J.C. (1785) Crells Chemische Annalen: 246-253. [first quantitative chemical analysis of schorl, material from Burkhardsgrün near Zschorlau, Saxony]

Klaproth, M.H. (1810) Chemische Untersuchung des gemeinen Schörls. Beiträge zur Chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper: 5: 144-149. [quantitative chemical analysis]

Barsanov, G.P., Yakovleva, M.E. (1965) Tourmalines of schorl composition. Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Mineralogicheshkii Muzei, Moscow: 16: 3-44.

Neiva, A.M.R. (1974) Geochemistry of tourmaline (schorlite) from granites, aplites and pegmatites from northern Portugal. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 38: 1307-1317.

Fortier, S., Donnay, G. (1975) Schorl refinement showing composition dependence of the tourmaline structure. The Canadian Mineralogist: 13: 173-177.

Povondra, P. (1981) The crystal chemistry of tourmalines of the schorl-dravite series. Acta Univ. Carol., Geol. 3: 223-264.

Leavens, P.B., Rheingold, A.L., Dietrich, R.V. (1988) Crystal structure of a uvite-schorl tourmaline. V.M. Goldschmidt conference; program and abstracts: 56.

Foit, F.F., Jr. (1989): Crystal chemistry of alkali-deficient schorl and tourmaline structural relationships. American Mineralogist, 74, 422-431.

Aurisicchio, C., Ottolini, L., Pezzotta, F. (1999): Electron- and ion-microprobe analyses, and genetic interferences of tourmalines of the foitite-schorl solid solution, Elba Island (Italy). European Journal of Mineralogy, 11, 217-225.

Bloodaxe, E.S., Hughes, J.M., Dyar, M.D., Grew, E.S., Guidotti, C.V. (1999): Linking structure and chemistry in the schorl-dravite series. American Mineralogist, 84, 922-928.

Ertl, A., Pertlik, F., Bernhardt, H.-J. (2001) Ein hell-blauer Olenit-Schörl-Dravit Mischkristall von Ebersdorf, Niederösterreich: Strukturanalyse und Chemie. Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Mineralogischen Gesellschaft: 146: 75-77.

Grew, E.S., Anovitz, L.M. (1996) BORON: Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, second edition, as revised (2002).

Ondrus, P., Vrana, S., Maslan, M. (2002) Chemical composition and crystal structure refinement of schorl from the Lundazi pegmatite field, Zambia. Vestnik Ceskeho Geologickeho Ustavu: 77: 23-28.

Bosi, F., Lucchesi, S. (2004): Crystal chemistry of the schorl-dravite series. European Journal of Mineralogy, 16, 335-344.

Ertl, A. (2006) Über die Etymologie und die Typlokalitäten des Minerals Schörl [About the etymology and the type-localities of schorl] Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Mineralogischen Gesellschaft, 152, 7–16 (in German with English abstract). [Abs. in Mineral. Abs., 06M/3855].

Bosi, F., Andreozzi, G. B., Hålenius, U., Skogby, H. (2015): Experimental evidence for partial Fe2+ disorder at the Y and Z sites of tourmaline: a combined EMP, SREF, MS, IR and OAS study of schorl. Mineral. Mag. 79, 515-528. [neglects publications contradicting the presence of any negligible Fe2+ on the Z site.]

Bačík, P. (2015): Cation ordering at octahedral sites in schorl-dravite series tourmalines. The Canadian Mineralogist, 53, 571-590.

Ertl, A., Kolitsch, U., Dyar, M.D., Meyer, H.-P., Rossman, G.R., Henry, D.J., Prem, M., Ludwig, T., Nasdala, L., Lengauer, C.L., Tillmanns, E. and Niedermayr, G. (2016): Fluor-schorl, a new member of the tourmaline supergroup, and new data on schorl from the cotype localities. European Journal of Mineralogy, 28, 163-177.


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Internet Links for Schorl

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Localities for Schorl

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