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Bluish-black to black, sometimes brownish-black, rarely greenish-black.
Vitreous, Resinous
Specific Gravity:
3.18 - 3.22
Crystal System:
The early history of the mineral schorl shows that the name "Schorl" was in use prior to the year 1400 (AD) because a village known today as Zschorlau (in Saxony, Germany) was then named "Schorl" (or minor variants of this name). This village had a nearby tin mine where, in addition to cassiterite, a lot of black tourmaline was found. First mentioned by Ulrich Rülein von Calw 1505. The first relatively detailed description of schorl with the name "schürl" and its occurrence (various tin mines in the Saxony Ore Mountains) was written by Johannes Mathesius (1504-1565) in 1562 under the title "Sarepta oder Bergpostill". Up to about 1600, additional names used in the German language were "Schurel", "Schörle", and "Schurl". From the 18th century on, the name "Schörl" was mainly used in the German-speaking area. In English, the names "shorl" and "shirl" were used in the 18th century for schorl. In the 19th century the names "common schorl", "schörl", "schorl" and "iron tourmaline" were used in the Anglo-Saxon area (Ertl, 2006).
Dimorph of:
The most common member of the Tourmaline Group.
Elbaite-Schorl Series, Dravite-Schorl Series.

See also fluor-schorl, which occurs in F-rich environment.

Visit for gemological information about Schorl.

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Classification of SchorlHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First Published:

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
C : Cyclosilicates
K : [Si6O18]12- 6-membered single rings, with insular complex anions
Dana 7th ed.:

61 : CYCLOSILICATES Six-Membered Rings
3 : Six-Membered Rings with borate groups

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
5 : Borosilicates

Physical Properties of SchorlHide

Vitreous, Resinous
Translucent, Opaque
Bluish-black to black, sometimes brownish-black, rarely greenish-black.
Greyish-white to bluish-white.
Very poor on {1120}, {1011}
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
3.18 - 3.22 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.244 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of SchorlHide

Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 1.660 - 1.672 nε = 1.635 - 1.650
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.025
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
O= yellow brown
E= pale yellow, pale brown
may be slightly biaxial under strain

Chemical Properties of SchorlHide

IMA Formula:
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of SchorlHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
3m - Ditrigonal Pyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 15.98(5) Å, c = 7.15(3) Å
a:c = 1 : 0.447
Unit Cell V:
1,581.21 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Prismatic to acicular
Rarely on {1010} and {4041}

Synonyms of SchorlHide

Other Language Names for SchorlHide

Simplified Chinese:铁电气石

Varieties of SchorlHide

Magnesian SchorlA magnesium-bearing schorl.

Relationship of Schorl to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
AdachiiteCaFe3Al6(Si5AlO18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
BosiiteNaFe3+3(Al4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
Chromo-alumino-povondraiteNa(Cr3)(Al4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
DarrellhenryiteNa(LiAl2)Al6(BO3)3Si6O18(OH)3O Trig. 3m : R3m
DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
FeruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-buergeriteNa(Fe3+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-draviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-elbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-liddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-schorlNa(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-tsilaisiteNa(Mn2+)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Fluor-uviteCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
Foitite(□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OHTrig. 3m : R3m
LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
LucchesiiteCaFe2+3 Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
Luinaite-(OH)Na(Fe2+)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Mon. m : Bm
MaruyamaiteK(MgAl2)(Al5Mg)(BO3)3(Si6O18)(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
Oxy-chromium-draviteNa(Cr)3(Cr4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O Trig. 3m : R3m
Oxy-draviteNa(MgAl2)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
Oxy-foitite□(Fe2+Al2)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
Oxy-schorlNa(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
Oxy-vanadium-draviteNa(V)3(V4Mg2)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
Rossmanite☐(LiAl2)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
TsilaisiteNa(Mn2+)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
UM2000-64-SiO:BFeHKMgK, Mg, Fe, Si, B, O, H
Unnamed (Pb-dominant Tourmaline)(Pb,Na)(Li,Al)3Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F,OH)
Uvite SeriesCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F/OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
Vanadio-oxy-chromium-draviteNa(V)3(Cr4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O Trig. 3m : R3m
Vanadio-oxy-draviteNaV3(Al4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Aquamarine799 photos of Schorl associated with Aquamarine on
Quartz744 photos of Schorl associated with Quartz on
Albite446 photos of Schorl associated with Albite on
Muscovite392 photos of Schorl associated with Muscovite on
Feldspar Group279 photos of Schorl associated with Feldspar Group on
Smoky Quartz265 photos of Schorl associated with Smoky Quartz on
Fluorite180 photos of Schorl associated with Fluorite on
Beryl165 photos of Schorl associated with Beryl on
Cleavelandite150 photos of Schorl associated with Cleavelandite on
Microcline149 photos of Schorl associated with Microcline on

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.CK.Fluor-schorlNa(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.DarrellhenryiteNa(LiAl2)Al6(BO3)3Si6O18(OH)3O Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.AdachiiteCaFe3Al6(Si5AlO18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Fluor-buergeriteNa(Fe3+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3FTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05FeruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Foitite(□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OHTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Rossmanite☐(LiAl2)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Oxy-vanadium-draviteNa(V)3(V4Mg2)Si6O18(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Oxy-draviteNa(MgAl2)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Chromo-alumino-povondraiteNa(Cr3)(Al4Mg2)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Fluor-draviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.05Fluor-uviteCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3FTrig. 3m : R3m
9.CK.10Abenakiite-(Ce)Na26Ce6(Si6O18)(PO4)6(CO3)6(SO2)OTrig. 3 : R3
9.CK.15ScawtiteCa7(Si3O9)2CO3 · 2H2OMon. 2/m
9.CK.20Steenstrupine-(Ce)Na14Mn2+2(Fe3+,Mn3+)2Ce6(Zr,Th)(Si6O18)2(PO4)6(HPO4)(OH)2 · 2H2OTrig.
9.CK.20Thorosteenstrupine(Ca,Th,Mn)3Si4O11F · 6H2O

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide□,Na)(Fe2+2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3OHTrig. 3m : R3m 3m : R3m SeriesCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F/OH)Trig. 3m : R3m 3m : R3m 3m : R3m 3m : R3m 3m : R3m 3m : R3m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

17.5.3SearlesiteNa(H2BSi2O7)Mon. 2 : P21
17.5.5ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.8PoudretteiteKNa2B3Si12O30Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
17.5.9LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.10DatoliteCa(HBSiO5)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.5.11DanburiteCaB2Si2O8Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
17.5.12HowliteCa2B5SiO9(OH)5Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.5.13BakeriteCa4(H5B5Si3O20)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.5.14OyeliteCa10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2OOrth.
17.5.15KornerupineMg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
17.5.16HarkeriteCa12Mg4Al(BO3)3(SiO4)4(CO3)5 · H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
17.5.17SerendibiteCa4[Mg6Al6]O4[Si6B3Al3O36]Tric. 1 : P1
17.5.24Cappelenite-(Y)Ba(Y,Ce)6Si3B6O24F2Trig. 3 : P3
17.5.25Dumortierite(Al,Fe3+)7(SiO4)3(BO3)O3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
17.5.26Holtite(Ta0.60.4)Al6BSi3O18(O,OH)2.25Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
17.5.27DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.28 FerridraviteNaFe3+3(Mg2Fe3+4)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
17.5.30Uvite SeriesCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F/OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.32TienshaniteKNa3Na6Ca2Ba6Mn6(Ti4+,Nb)6B12Si36O114(O,OH,F)11Hex. 6/m : P6/m
17.5.34TaramelliteBa4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2ClxOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmn
17.5.36NagashimaliteBa4(V,Ti)4B2Si8O27(O,OH)2ClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmn
17.5.40Axinite-(Mn)Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
17.5.45Fluor-buergeriteNa(Fe3+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3FTrig. 3m : R3m
17.5.46FeruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.47Axinite-(Fe)Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OHTric. 1 : P1
17.5.49Grandidierite(Mg,Fe2+)(Al,Fe3+)3(SiO4)(BO3)O2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
17.5.50Hyalotekite(Pb,Ba,K)4(Ca,Y)2(B,Be)2(Si,B)2Si8O28(F,Cl)Tric. 1 : P1
17.5.51Hellandite-(Y)(Ca,REE)4Y2Al◻2(B4Si4O22) (OH)2Mon.

Other InformationHide

Pyroelectric and piezoelectric.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for SchorlHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Rülein von Calw, U. (1505) Ein wolgeordnetz: unnd nuczlicho büchlin wie man bergwerck suchen und erfinden sol von allerlay mettal die denn die sieben planeten generieren und würcken yeglicher nach seiner natur ....-Augsburg, printed by Erhart Ratdolt (first description as "schorlein" or "schörlein", occurring in placers together with gold or tin ore in Saxony)
Mathesius, J. (1562) Sarepta oder Bergpostill sampt der Joachimßthalischen kurtzen Chroniken.- Nürnberg, Johann vom Berg and Ulrich Newber, 233 p. (description)
Linné, C. (1748) Systema Naturæ sistens regna tria naturæ, in classes et ordines, genera et species, redacta tabulisque æneis illustrata.- Lipsiæ, Godofr. Kiesewetteri, p. 181. [description of the crystals, first drawing of a schorl crystal]
Wiegleb, J.C. (1785) Crells Chemische Annalen: 246-253. [first quantitative chemical analysis of schorl, material from Burkhardsgrün near Zschorlau, Saxony]
Klaproth, M.H. (1810) Chemische Untersuchung des gemeinen Schörls. Beiträge zur Chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper: 5: 144-149. [quantitative chemical analysis]
Barsanov, G.P., Yakovleva, M.E. (1965) Tourmalines of schorl composition. Akademiya Nauk SSSR, Mineralogicheshkii Muzei, Moscow: 16: 3-44.
Neiva, A.M.R. (1974) Geochemistry of tourmaline (schorlite) from granites, aplites and pegmatites from northern Portugal. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 38: 1307-1317.
Fortier, S., Donnay, G. (1975) Schorl refinement showing composition dependence of the tourmaline structure. The Canadian Mineralogist: 13: 173-177.
Povondra, P. (1981) The crystal chemistry of tourmalines of the schorl-dravite series. Acta Univ. Carol., Geol. 3: 223-264.
Leavens, P.B., Rheingold, A.L., Dietrich, R.V. (1988) Crystal structure of a uvite-schorl tourmaline. V.M. Goldschmidt conference; program and abstracts: 56.
Foit, F.F., Jr. (1989): Crystal chemistry of alkali-deficient schorl and tourmaline structural relationships. American Mineralogist, 74, 422-431.
Aurisicchio, C., Ottolini, L., Pezzotta, F. (1999): Electron- and ion-microprobe analyses, and genetic interferences of tourmalines of the foitite-schorl solid solution, Elba Island (Italy). European Journal of Mineralogy, 11, 217-225.
Bloodaxe, E.S., Hughes, J.M., Dyar, M.D., Grew, E.S., Guidotti, C.V. (1999): Linking structure and chemistry in the schorl-dravite series. American Mineralogist, 84, 922-928.
Ertl, A., Pertlik, F., Bernhardt, H.-J. (2001) Ein hell-blauer Olenit-Schörl-Dravit Mischkristall von Ebersdorf, Niederösterreich: Strukturanalyse und Chemie. Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Mineralogischen Gesellschaft: 146: 75-77.
Grew, E.S., Anovitz, L.M. (1996) BORON: Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, second edition, as revised (2002).
Ondrus, P., Vrana, S., Maslan, M. (2002) Chemical composition and crystal structure refinement of schorl from the Lundazi pegmatite field, Zambia. Vestnik Ceskeho Geologickeho Ustavu: 77: 23-28.
Bosi, F., Lucchesi, S. (2004): Crystal chemistry of the schorl-dravite series. European Journal of Mineralogy, 16, 335-344.
Ertl, A. (2006) Über die Etymologie und die Typlokalitäten des Minerals Schörl [About the etymology and the type-localities of schorl] Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Mineralogischen Gesellschaft, 152, 7–16 (in German with English abstract). [Abs. in Mineral. Abs., 06M/3855].
Bosi, F., Andreozzi, G. B., Hålenius, U., Skogby, H. (2015): Experimental evidence for partial Fe2+ disorder at the Y and Z sites of tourmaline: a combined EMP, SREF, MS, IR and OAS study of schorl. Mineral. Mag. 79, 515-528. [neglects publications contradicting the presence of any negligible Fe2+ on the Z site.]
Bačík, P. (2015): Cation ordering at octahedral sites in schorl-dravite series tourmalines. The Canadian Mineralogist, 53, 571-590.
Ertl, A., Kolitsch, U., Dyar, M.D., Meyer, H.-P., Rossman, G.R., Henry, D.J., Prem, M., Ludwig, T., Nasdala, L., Lengauer, C.L., Tillmanns, E. and Niedermayr, G. (2016): Fluor-schorl, a new member of the tourmaline supergroup, and new data on schorl from the cotype localities. European Journal of Mineralogy, 28, 163-177.

Internet Links for SchorlHide

Localities for SchorlHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

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