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Schwartzembergite

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About SchwartzembergiteHide

Formula:
Pb5H2(IO2)O4Cl3
Colour:
yellow to yellow-brown, reddish brown
Lustre:
Adamantine
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
7.39
Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Name:
Named after a "Dr. Schwartzemberg" = Dr. Adolf Emilio Schwarzenberg [1826-1907], assayer at Copiapó, Chile.
A secondary lead mineral found in oxidized zones of lead-bearing deposits in arid regions.
Schwartzembergite is a highly unusual mineral since it contains trivalent iodine.


Classification of SchwartzembergiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.KB.10

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
K : Iodates: Trigonal [IO3] pyramids (mostly).
B : Iodates with additional anions, without H2O
Dana 7th ed.:
22.1.3.1
22.1.3.1

22 : IODATES CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
1 : Miscellaneous
29.7

29 : Iodates

Physical Properties of SchwartzembergiteHide

Adamantine
Colour:
yellow to yellow-brown, reddish brown
Streak:
Light yellow
Hardness:
2½ on Mohs scale
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
On {001}.
Density:
7.39 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Optical Data of SchwartzembergiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 2.250 nβ = 2.350 nγ = 2.360
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.110
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
r > v extreme
Comments:
Crystals are divided into variously oriented biaxial sectors with variable 2V.

Chemical Properties of SchwartzembergiteHide

Formula:
Pb5H2(IO2)O4Cl3
IMA Formula:
Pb2+5H2I3+O6Cl3

Crystallography of SchwartzembergiteHide

Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Class (H-M):
4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
I4/mmm
Cell Parameters:
a = 3.977(1) Å, c = 12.566(4) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 3.16
Unit Cell V:
198.75 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Crystals flat-pyramidal, rounded. Compact to earthy crusts and masses.
Comment:
Electron diffraction suggests a C- or I-centered orthorhombic supercell with a = 2as, b = 6bs, c = cs (s = subcell), i.e., an 8 x 24 A supercell (Welch, 2001).

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Type Occurrence of SchwartzembergiteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Crust on Galena.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of SchwartzembergiteHide

Other Language Names for SchwartzembergiteHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Phoenicochroite7 photos of Schwartzembergite associated with Phoenicochroite on mindat.org.
Seeligerite3 photos of Schwartzembergite associated with Seeligerite on mindat.org.
Anhydrite2 photos of Schwartzembergite associated with Anhydrite on mindat.org.
Pseudoboleite2 photos of Schwartzembergite associated with Pseudoboleite on mindat.org.
Percylite1 photo of Schwartzembergite associated with Percylite on mindat.org.
Chromian Wulfenite1 photo of Schwartzembergite associated with Chromian Wulfenite on mindat.org.
Crocoite1 photo of Schwartzembergite associated with Crocoite on mindat.org.
Wulfenite1 photo of Schwartzembergite associated with Wulfenite on mindat.org.
Iranite1 photo of Schwartzembergite associated with Iranite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.KB.05SalesiteCu(IO3)(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
4.KB.15SeeligeritePb3(IO3)OCl3Orth. mm2 : Cmm2

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

29.1SalesiteCu(IO3)(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
29.2BellingeriteCu3(IO3)6 · 2H2OTric. 1 : P1
29.3LautariteCa(IO3)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
29.4BrüggeniteCa(IO3)2 · H2OMon.
29.5DietzeiteCa2(IO3)2(CrO4) · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
29.6SeeligeritePb3(IO3)OCl3Orth. mm2 : Cmm2
29.8HectorfloresiteNa9(SO4)4(IO3)Mon. 2/m : P21/b

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Soluble in HCl with evolution of Cl.
Health Risks:
Emits toxic chlorine gas when contacted by hydrochloric acid.

References for SchwartzembergiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Domeyko (1864) Annales des mines: 5: 453 (as Oxychloroïodure de plomb).
Dana, J.D. (1868) System of Mineralogy, 5th. Edition, New York: 120.
Adam, M. (1869) Tableau minéralogique, Paris: 67 (as Plumbiodite).
Domeyko, I. (1879) Elementos de Mineralogia, 3rd. edition: 319, 705 (as Plomo oxichloro-ioduro).
Bertrand (1881) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 4: 87.
Smith and Prior (1911) Mineralogical Magazine: 16: 77.
Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 132.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 317-318.
Canadian Mineralogist (1999): 37: 785-795.
Welch, M. D., Hawthorne, F. C., Cooper, M. A. and Kyser, T. K. (2001): Trivalent iodine in the crystal structure of schwartzembergite, Pb2+5I3+O6H2Cl3. Can. Mineral. 39, 785-795.

Internet Links for SchwartzembergiteHide

Localities for SchwartzembergiteHide

ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta Region
    • Antofagasta Province
      • Antofagasta
Lukas Kruszewski collection
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 317; NJMM (1970), 467; Canadian Mineralogist (2001): 39: 785; American Mineralogist (2002): 87: 358.
      • Cerro Palestina
        • Estación Cerro Negro
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 317.
Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter (Hamburg University), Germany.
Peebles F./Ruiz Fuller C.(1988); "Yacimientos Metalíferos de Chile", Fondecyt, Stgo. de Chile.
Schwartzembergite was identified by Tony Kampf of the Los Angeles Co. Museum
      • Cuevitas
        • San Cristóbal
Sample from the collection of Copiapó School of Mine
      • Reventon District
No reference listed
      • Sierra Gorda District
        • Caracoles
Brugger J, Meisser N, Ansermat S, Krivovichev S V, Kahlenberg V, Belton D, Ryan C G (2012) Leucostaurite, Pb2[B5O9]Cl·0.5H2O, from the Atacama Desert: The first Pb-dominant member of the hilgardite group, and micro-determination of boron minerals by PIGE. American Mineralogist 97, 1206-1212
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 75.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 75.
Collected by Terry Szenic and in the collection of Brent Thorne.
Vajdak, Josef (2006) Mineral News: 22: 2.
Domeyko, I. (1864): Schwartzembergit. Ann. Mines V, 453.
Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter (Hamburg University), Germany.
        • Caracoles mining district
          • La Deseada sector
            • Sierra San José
. Tartakowsky: "Visita a la Mina Araucana, Sierra San José, Caracoles, Antofagasta"; IIG, Stgo de Chile, 1921.
          • Quebrada Honda
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 65, 317.
Rob Lavinky samples; analysed by XRD methods in USA
Jewel Tunnel Imports specimens
  • Atacama Region
    • Copiapó Province
      • Cachiyuyo de Llampos district
Robert Jenkins collections; material analysed by Mr. Jenkins
  • Tarapacá Region
    • El Tamarugal Province
      • Challacollo
Remy Phillippe personal communication
    • Iquique Province
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 317.
Mexico
 
  • Sonora
    • Mun. de Arizpe
      • Arizpe
Panczner(1987):83-359.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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