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Senaite

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Joaquim Cândido da Costa Sena
Formula:
Pb(Mn,Y,U)(Fe,Zn)2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH)38
System:
Trigonal
Colour:
Black; oil-green to ...
Lustre:
Sub-Metallic
Hardness:
6 - 6½
Name:
Named by Eugen Hussak and George Thurland Prior in 1898 in honor of Joaquim Candido da Costa Sena [13 August 1852 Conceição do Serro, Minas Gerais, Brazil - June 26, 1919 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil], Professor of Mineralogy, at the School of Mines in Ouro Preto, Brazil. Sena was Director of the School of Mines, as well as President of the State of Minas Gerais, but he is most well-known for his prodigious out-put in the geological, mining, and mineralogical literature. He was recognized internationally by significant honors including: Knight of the Order of the Rose, Official of the Legion of Honor, Commander of the Crown of Italy, Official of the French Academy. He belonged to international organizations including: Mineralogical Society of Paris, Mineralogy Imperial Society of St. Petersburg, Geological Society of Paris, Berlin Geological Society, Member of the Latin American Scientific Congress, and Member of the Mining Academy of Letters.

Classification of Senaite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.CC.40

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
C : Metal: Oxygen = 2: 3,3: 5, and similar
C : With large and medium-sized cations
8.5.1.4

8 : MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
5 : AB21O38
7.11.32

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
11 : Oxides of Sn and Pb

Physical Properties of Senaite

Sub-Metallic
Colour:
Black; oil-green to greenish black in transmitted light
Streak:
Brownish-black
Hardness (Mohs):
6 - 6½
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Density:
5.301 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Optical Data of Senaite

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nε = 2.500
Birefringence:
Low to moderate
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.000
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of Senaite

Formula:
Pb(Mn,Y,U)(Fe,Zn)2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH)38
Elements listed in formula:

Crystallography of Senaite

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.42Å, c = 20.86Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 2.002
Unit Cell Volume:
V 1,961.46 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Type Occurrence of Senaite

Relationship of Senaite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Crichtonite (see here)
Other Members of Group:
AlmeidaitePbZn2(Mn,Y)(Ti,Fe3+)18O37(OH,O)
Cleusonite(Pb,Sr)(U4+,U6+)(Fe2+,Zn)2(Ti,Fe2+,Fe3+)18(O,OH)38
CrichtoniteSr(Mn,Y,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH)38
Davidite-(Ce)(Ce,La)(Y,U,Fe)(Ti,Fe)20(O,OH)38
Davidite-(La)(La,Ce)(Y,U,Fe)(Ti,Fe)20(O,OH)38
Davidite-(Y)(La,Ce,Na,Ca,Pb)(Y,Fe2+,◻)(Fe2+,Mn2+)2(Ti,Fe3+,Nb,Zr)18O38 (hypothetical)
Dessauite-(Y)(Sr,Pb)(Y,U)(Ti,Fe3+)20O38
Gramaccioliite-(Y)(Pb,Sr)(Y,Mn)Fe23+(Ti,Fe3+)18O38
LandauiteNaMnZn2(Ti,Fe)6Ti12O38
Lindsleyite(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)2(Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38
Loveringite(Ca,Ce,La)(Zr,Fe)(Mg,Fe)2(Ti,Fe,Cr,Al)18O38
Mapiquiroite(Sr,Pb)(U,Y)Fe2(Ti,Fe3+,Cr3+)18O38
Mathiasite(K, Ba, Sr)(Zr, Fe)(Mg,Fe)2 (Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38
Mianningite(◻,Pb,Ce,Na)(U4+,Mn,U6+)Fe23+ (Ti,Fe3+)18O38
PaseroitePbMn2+(Mn2+,Fe3+)2(V5+,Ti,◻)18O38
UM1987-03-O:FePbTiU~(U,Pb)(Ti,Fe3+,Fe2+,Mn)21O38
Unnamed (HBU UK-4)NaFe2+Zn2(Ti,Fe3+,Nb)6Ti12O38
4.CC.AllendeiteSc4Zr3O12
4.CC.Yttriaite-(Y)Y2O3
4.CC.05ChrombismiteBi16CrO27
4.CC.10FreudenbergiteNa(Ti34+Fe3+)O8
4.CC.15GrossiteCaAl4O7
4.CC.20ChlormayeniteCa12Al14O32[◻4Cl2]
4.CC.25YafsoaniteCa3Te26+Zn3O12
4.CC.30LatrappiteCa2NbFe3+O6
4.CC.30LueshiteNaNbO3
4.CC.30NatroniobiteNaNbO3
4.CC.30PerovskiteCaTiO3
4.CC.30BarioperovskiteBaTiO3
4.CC.30LakargiiteCaZrO3
4.CC.30MegawiteCaSnO3
4.CC.35Loparite-(Ce)(Na,Ce,Sr)(Ce,Th)(Ti,Nb)2O6
4.CC.35MacedonitePbTiO3
4.CC.35TausoniteSrTiO3
4.CC.35IsolueshiteNaNbO3
4.CC.40CrichtoniteSr(Mn,Y,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH)38
4.CC.40Davidite-(Ce)Ce(Y,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH,F)38
4.CC.40Davidite-(La)La(Y,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH,F)38
4.CC.40Davidite-(Y)(La,Ce,Na,Ca,Pb)(Y,Fe2+,◻)(Fe2+,Mn2+)2(Ti,Fe3+,Nb,Zr)18O38 (hypothetical)
4.CC.40Landauite(Na,Pb)(Mn2+,Y)(Zn,Fe)2(Ti,Fe3+,Nb)18(O,OH,F)O38
4.CC.40Lindsleyite(Ba,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)2(Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38
4.CC.40Loveringite(Ca,Ce,La)(Zr,Fe)(Mg,Fe)2(Ti,Fe,Cr,Al)18O38
4.CC.40Mathiasite(Mg,Cr,Fe,Ca,K)2(Ti,Zr,Cr,Fe)5O12
4.CC.40Dessauite-(Y)Sr(Y,U,Mn)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH)38
4.CC.40CleusonitePb(U4+,U6+)Fe22+(Ti,Fe2+,Fe3+)18(O,OH)38
4.CC.40Gramaccioliite-(Y)(Pb,Sr)(Y,Mn)Fe23+(Ti,Fe3+)18O38
4.CC.45DiaoyudaoiteNaAl11O17
4.CC.45HawthorneiteBaMgTi3Cr4Fe22+Fe23+O19
4.CC.45Hibonite(Ca,Ce)(Al,Ti,Mg)12O19
4.CC.45LindqvistitePb2Mn2+Fe163+O27
4.CC.45MagnetoplumbitePbFe123+O19
4.CC.45PlumboferritePb2(Fe3+,Mn2+,Mg)11O19
4.CC.45YimengiteK(Cr,Ti,Fe,Mg)12O19
4.CC.45HaggertyiteBaFe42+Fe23+Ti5MgO19
4.CC.45NežilovitePbZn2Mn24+Fe83+O19
4.CC.45BatiferriteBaTi2Fe83+Fe22+O19
4.CC.45Hibonite-(Fe)(Fe,Mg)Al12O19
4.CC.45BarioferriteBaFe123+O19
4.CC.50Jeppeite(K,Ba)2(Ti,Fe3+)6O13
4.CC.55ZenzénitePb3Fe43+Mn34+O15
4.CC.60Mengxianminite (of Huang et al.)(Ca,Na)3(Fe,Mn)2Mg2(Sn,Zn)5Al8O29
7.11.1RomarchiteSnO
7.11.2CassiteriteSnO2
7.11.4SchoenfliesiteMgSn(OH)6
7.11.5BurtiteCaSn4+(OH)6
7.11.6VismirnoviteZnSn(OH)6
7.11.7WickmaniteMn2+Sn4+(OH)6
7.11.8TetrawickmaniteMn2+Sn4+(OH)6
7.11.9Jeanbandyite(Fe3+,Mn2+)Sn4+(OH,O)6
7.11.10NataniteFe2+Sn4+(OH)6
7.11.11MushistoniteCu2+Sn4+(OH)6
7.11.12Ferronigerite-2N1S(Al,Fe,Zn)2(Al,Sn)6O11(OH)
7.11.13Magnesionigerite
7.11.14ArgutiteGeO2
7.11.15BrunogeieriteFe22+Ge4+O4
7.11.16StottiteFe2+Ge4+(OH)6
7.11.17CarboiriteFe2+Al2GeO5(OH)2
7.11.18OtjisumeitePbGe4O9
7.11.19BartelkeitePbFeGe(Ge2O7)(OH)2 · H2O
7.11.20MassicotPbO
7.11.21LithargePbO
7.11.22MiniumPb22+Pb4+O4
7.11.23PlattneritePbO2
7.11.24ScrutinyitePbO2
7.11.25MurdochiteCu12Pb2O15Cl2
7.11.26MacedonitePbTiO3
7.11.27CesàrolitePbMn34+O6(OH)2
7.11.28CoronaditePb(Mn64+Mn23+)O16
7.11.29QuenselitePbMn3+O2(OH)
7.11.30PlumboferritePb2(Fe3+,Mn2+,Mg)11O19
7.11.31MagnetoplumbitePbFe123+O19

Other Names for Senaite

Name in Other Languages:
German:Senait
Russian:Сенаит
Simplified Chinese:铅锰钛铁矿
Spanish:Senaita
Traditional Chinese:鉛錳鈦鐵礦

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Senaite

Reference List:
Hussak and Prior (1898), Mineralogical Magazine: 12: 30.

Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 540-541.

American Mineralogist (1968): 53: 869-877.

American Mineralogist (1976): 61: 1203-1212.

Mineralogical Record (1986: 17: 191-195.

Mineralogical Magazine: 48: 97-106.

Acta Crystallographica: B32: 1509-1513.

Internet Links for Senaite

mindat.org URL:
https://www.mindat.org/min-3617.html
Please feel free to link to this page.

Localities for Senaite

map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
Austria
 
  • Salzburg
    • Lungau
      • Murwinkel
        • Schellgaden
          • Gold mines
Niedermayr, G. et al. (2007): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LVI. Carinthia II, 197/117, 149-190.
      • Taurach valley
Kolitsch, U., Schachinger, T. and Bernhard, F. (2015): Ardennite-(As), ardennite-(V), gasparite-(Ce) and chernovite-(Y): first results of a mineralogical study of the metaradiolarite-hosted manganese ore mineralisations in the Fuchssee area, Radstadt Tauern, Salzburg, Austria. MinPet 2015, Leoben, Austria, September 10-13; abstract in Mitt. Österr. Mineral. Ges. 161, 67.
Brazil (TL)
 
  • Minas Gerais
Am Min 53 (1968), 869–879; Rocks&Min.(Jan.2000)
    • Diamantina
Diamond News, Part 1, Vol.5, No.17,2004,pp40-44; Diamond News, Part 2, Vol.5, No.18,2004,pp 13-19 [In Portuguese]
    • Presidente Kubitschek
Min Rec 17 (3) (1986); Hochleitner, R. (1987): Senait-Kristalle aus Brasilien. LAPIS 12 (2), 18-19
Canada
 
  • Québec
    • Montérégie
      • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
        • Mont Saint-Hilaire
Horváth, L and Gault, R.A. (1990), The mineralogy of Mont Saint-Hilaire Quebec. Mineralogical Record: 21: 284-359.
China
 
Dianxin Shao and Nicheng Shi (1987): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 7(2), 159-162
France
 
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Savoie
      • Tarentaise valley
        • La Léchère (Notre Dame de Briançon)
De Ascencao Guedes R., Meisser N. (2002), Les fentes à cristaux de Pierre Château, La Léchère, Tarentaise (Savoie), Le Règne Minéral, n°44, pp: 35-45
Greece
 
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
      • Lavrion District Mines
        • Plaka
          • Plaka Mines
No reference listed
Italy
 
  • Liguria
    • Genova Province
      • Ne
        • Graveglia Valley
Balestra, C., Ciriotti, M.E., Bracco, R. (2011): Su alcune novità mineralogiche liguri caratterizzate dal SIUK dell'AMI. Micro, 2/2011, 46-53
  • Piedmont
    • Cuneo Province
      • Stura Valley
        • Sambuco
P. Orlandi, G.C. Piccoli: Riv. Mineral. Ital. 28(1):16-18 (2004)
    • Torino Province
      • Susa Valley
        • Cesana Torinese
Brizio, P., Ambrino, P., Ciriotti, M.E., Blass, G. (2010). L'affioramento a Mn, SiO, Fe, S di Roccia Rossa, Cesana, Torino. Micro (località) 1/2010, 313-328
    • Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province
      • Ossola Valley
        • Antigorio Valley
          • Devero Valley
            • Baceno
              • Devero Alp
http://www.webmineralshop.com/ Cervandone article& personal collection
        • Formazza Valley
          • Formazza
Piccoli G.C., Maletto G., Bosio P., Lombardo B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba, 607 pp.; Vanini F., Kartashov P.M., Ciriotti M.E., Bonacina E. (2008): I minerali della Cima della Freghera (Formazza, Verbano-Cusio-Ossola). Micro (località), 2/2008, 251-260.
Mongolia
 
  • Hovd Aimag (Khovd Aimag)
    • Altai Mts
P.M. Kartashov data
Norway
 
  • Vestfold
    • Larvik
      • Tvedalen
Larsen, A.O. (1989): Senaite from syenite pegmatite at Tvedalen in the southern part of the Oslo Region, Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift. 69, 235-238
Republic of Macedonia
 
  • Veles
Ilijevski, Kole (2012) Minerogenetic Features of the White Marble Deposit “Sivec”. Masters thesis, University Goce Delcev Shtip.
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
      • Buriatia (Buryatia)
        • Mama River Basin
          • Maigunda River
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data (2013)
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaja Oblast'
      • Kola Peninsula
        • Pechengsky District
          • Pechenga Ni-Cu ore field
Компанченко А.А., Волошин А.В., Базай А.В. Ванадиевая минерализация в колчеданных проявлениях - новый тип для Южно-Печенгской структурной зоны, Кольский регион, - Месторождения стратегических металлов: закономерности размещения, источники вещества, условия и механизмы образования. Всероссийская конференция, посвящённая 85-летию ИГЕМ РАН.Москва, 25-27 ноября 2015 г. Материалы докладов. М.: ИГЕМ РАН, 2015. 336 с.
Saudi Arabia
 
  • Mintaqah Tabuk
    • Midyan
Staatz H.M. and Brownfield I.K. 1986, Tarce- and minor-element mineralogy of the microgranite at ghurayyah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. US-Geological Survey Open-File report 86.105
Sweden
 
  • Värmland
    • Filipstad
Kjell Gatedal
  • Västmanland
    • Lindesberg
Holtstam, D. (1994): Senaite from Mangruvan, Örebro, Sweden. GFF. 116, 17–21
Switzerland
 
  • Bern
    • Hasli Valley
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz. Wepf (Basel), p. 125.
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Anniviers Valley
      • Saint-Luc
Ansermet, S. (2012): Mines et minéraux du Valais - II. Anniviers et Tourtemagne. With contributions by N. Meisser, Ed. Porte-plumes (Ayer)
    • Binn Valley
      • Chummibort
See references at locality description - cuchet et al. 2014, Schweizer Strahler. I am co-author - M. Crumbach
      • Kriegalp Valley (Chriegalp Valley)
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz. Wepf (Basel), p. 125.
    • Martigny
      • Mont Chemin
USA
 
  • Colorado
    • El Paso Co.
      • Cheyenne District (St. Peters Dome District)
        • St Peters Dome
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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