Help|Log In|Register|
Home PageMindat NewsThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusManagement TeamContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatSponsor a PageSponsored PagesTop Available PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on Mindat
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryAdvanced Locality SearchRandom MineralSearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch ArticlesSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
StatisticsThe ElementsMember ListBooks & MagazinesMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryHow to Link to MindatDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day Gallery


This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
Joaquim Cândido da Costa Sena
Black; oil-green to greenish black in transmitted light
6 - 6½
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Named by Eugen Hussak and George Thurland Prior in 1898 in honor of Joaquim Candido da Costa Sena [13 August 1852 Conceição do Serro, Minas Gerais, Brazil - June 26, 1919 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil], Professor of Mineralogy, at the School of Mines in Ouro Preto, Brazil. Sena was Director of the School of Mines, as well as President of the State of Minas Gerais, but he is most well-known for his prodigious out-put in the geological, mining, and mineralogical literature. He was recognized internationally by significant honors including: Knight of the Order of the Rose, Official of the Legion of Honor, Commander of the Crown of Italy, Official of the French Academy. He belonged to international organizations including: Mineralogical Society of Paris, Mineralogy Imperial Society of St. Petersburg, Geological Society of Paris, Berlin Geological Society, Member of the Latin American Scientific Congress, and Member of the Mining Academy of Letters.
Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of SenaiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
C : Metal: Oxygen = 2: 3,3: 5, and similar
C : With large and medium-sized cations

5 : AB21O38

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
11 : Oxides of Sn and Pb

Physical Properties of SenaiteHide

Black; oil-green to greenish black in transmitted light
6 - 6½ on Mohs scale
5.301 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Optical Data of SenaiteHide

Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nε = 2.500
Low to moderate
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.000
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:

Chemical Properties of SenaiteHide


Crystallography of SenaiteHide

Crystal System:
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.42 Å, c = 20.86 Å
a:c = 1 : 2.002
Unit Cell V:
1,961.46 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Type Occurrence of SenaiteHide

Other Language Names for SenaiteHide

Simplified Chinese:铅锰钛铁矿
Traditional Chinese:鉛錳鈦鐵礦

Relationship of Senaite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
AlmeidaitePbZn2(Mn,Y)(Ti,Fe3+)18O37(OH,O)Trig. 3 : R3
Cleusonite(Pb,Sr)(U4+,U6+)(Fe2+,Zn)2(Ti,Fe2+,Fe3+)18(O,OH)38Trig. 3 : R3
CrichtoniteSr(Mn,Y,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH)38Trig. 3 : R3
Davidite-(Ce)(Ce,La)(Y,U,Fe)(Ti,Fe)20(O,OH)38Trig. 3 : R3
Davidite-(Y)(La,Ce,Na,Ca,Pb)(Y,Fe2+,◻)(Fe2+,Mn2+)2(Ti,Fe3+,Nb,Zr)18O38 (hypothetical)Trig.
Dessauite-(Y)(Sr,Pb)(Y,U)(Ti,Fe3+)20O38Trig. 3 : R3
Gramaccioliite-(Y)(Pb,Sr)(Y,Mn)Fe3+2(Ti,Fe3+)18O38Trig. 3
LandauiteNaMnZn2(Ti,Fe)6Ti12O38Trig. 3 : R3
Mapiquiroite(Sr,Pb)(U,Y)Fe2(Ti,Fe3+,Cr3+)18O38Trig. 3 : R3
Mathiasite(K, Ba, Sr)(Zr, Fe)(Mg,Fe)2 (Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38Trig.
Mianningite(◻,Pb,Ce,Na)(U4+,Mn,U6+)Fe3+2 (Ti,Fe3+)18O38Trig. 3 : R3
PaseroitePbMn2+(Mn2+,Fe3+)2(V5+,Ti,◻)18O38 Trig. 3 : R3
UM1987-03-O:FePbTiU~(U,Pb)(Ti,Fe3+,Fe2+,Mn)21O38Trig. 3 : R3
Unnamed (HBU UK-4)NaFe2+Zn2(Ti,Fe3+,Nb)6Ti12O38Trig. 3 : R3
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Richterite4 photos of Senaite associated with Richterite on
Cafarsite2 photos of Senaite associated with Cafarsite on
Smoky Quartz2 photos of Senaite associated with Smoky Quartz on
Rutile1 photo of Senaite associated with Rutile on

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.CC.AllendeiteSc4Zr3O12Trig. 3 : R3
4.CC.15GrossiteCaAl4O7Mon. 2/m : B2/b
4.CC.20ChlormayeniteCa12Al14O32[◻4Cl2]Iso. 4 3m : I4 3d
4.CC.25YafsoaniteCa3Zn3(TeO6)2Iso. m3 (2/m 3)
4.CC.30LatrappiteCa2NbFe3+O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
4.CC.30LueshiteNaNbO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.CC.30PerovskiteCaTiO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
4.CC.30BarioperovskiteBaTiO3Orth. mm2 : Amm2
4.CC.30LakargiiteCa(Zr,Sn,Ti)O3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
4.CC.30MegawiteCaSnO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pban
4.CC.35MacedonitePbTiO3Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
4.CC.35TausoniteSrTiO3Iso. 4 3m
4.CC.35Isolueshite(Na,La)NbO3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Pm3m
4.CC.40CrichtoniteSr(Mn,Y,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH)38Trig. 3 : R3
4.CC.40Davidite-(Ce)(Ce,La)(Y,U,Fe)(Ti,Fe)20(O,OH)38Trig. 3 : R3
4.CC.40Davidite-(Y)(La,Ce,Na,Ca,Pb)(Y,Fe2+,◻)(Fe2+,Mn2+)2(Ti,Fe3+,Nb,Zr)18O38 (hypothetical)Trig.
4.CC.40LandauiteNaMnZn2(Ti,Fe)6Ti12O38Trig. 3 : R3
4.CC.40Mathiasite(K, Ba, Sr)(Zr, Fe)(Mg,Fe)2 (Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38Trig.
4.CC.40Dessauite-(Y)(Sr,Pb)(Y,U)(Ti,Fe3+)20O38Trig. 3 : R3
4.CC.40Cleusonite(Pb,Sr)(U4+,U6+)(Fe2+,Zn)2(Ti,Fe2+,Fe3+)18(O,OH)38Trig. 3 : R3
4.CC.40Gramaccioliite-(Y)(Pb,Sr)(Y,Mn)Fe3+2(Ti,Fe3+)18O38Trig. 3
4.CC.45HawthorneiteBaMgTi3Cr4Fe2+2Fe3+2O19Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
4.CC.45PlumboferritePb2(Fe3+,Mn2+,Mg)11O19Trig. 3 2
4.CC.45HaggertyiteBaFe2+4Fe3+2Ti5MgO19Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
4.CC.45NežilovitePbZn2Mn4+2Fe3+8O19Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
4.CC.45Hibonite-(Fe)(Fe,Mg)Al12O19Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
4.CC.45BarioferriteBaFe3+12O19Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
4.CC.60Mengxianminite (of Huang et al.)(Ca,Na)3(Fe,Mn)2Mg2(Sn,Zn)5Al8O29

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide,Fe)6Ti12O38Trig. 3 : R3,Ce,La)(Zr,Fe)(Mg,Fe)2(Ti,Fe,Cr,Al)18O38Trig.,Y,U)Fe2(Ti,Fe,Cr,V)18(O,OH)38Trig. 3 : R3,Ce)(Y,U,Fe)(Ti,Fe)20(O,OH)38Trig.,La)(Y,U,Fe)(Ti,Fe)20(O,OH)38Trig. 3 : R3, Ba, Sr)(Zr, Fe)(Mg,Fe)2 (Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38Trig.,Sr)(Zr,Ca)(Fe,Mg)2(Ti,Cr,Fe)18O38Trig.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.11.2CassiteriteSnO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
7.11.4SchoenfliesiteMg[Sn(OH)6]Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pn3
7.11.7WickmaniteMn2+[Sn(OH)6]Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pn3
7.11.8TetrawickmaniteMn2+[Sn4+(OH)6]Tet. 4/m : P42/n
7.11.9JeanbandyiteFe3+xFe2+1-xSn(OH)6-xOx (1 ≥ x > 0.5)Tet. 4/m : P42/n
7.11.10NataniteFe2+[Sn(OH)6]Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Pn3m
7.11.12Ferronigerite-2N1S(Al,Fe,Zn)2(Al,Sn)6O11(OH)Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
7.11.14ArgutiteGeO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
7.11.15BrunogeieriteFe2+2Ge4+O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.11.19BartelkeitePb(Fe2+Ge)[Ge2O7](OH)2 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
7.11.20MassicotPbOOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmmm
7.11.21LithargePbOTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
7.11.22MiniumPb3O4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mbc
7.11.23PlattneritePbO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m)
7.11.25MurdochitePbCu6O8-x(Cl,Br)2x where x<=0.5Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
7.11.26MacedonitePbTiO3Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
7.11.28CoronaditePb(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16Mon. 2/m
7.11.29QuenselitePbMnO2(OH)Mon. 2/m : P2/b
7.11.30PlumboferritePb2(Fe3+,Mn2+,Mg)11O19Trig. 3 2

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for SenaiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Hussak and Prior (1898), Mineralogical Magazine: 12: 30.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 540-541.
American Mineralogist (1968): 53: 869-877.
American Mineralogist (1976): 61: 1203-1212.
Mineralogical Record (1986: 17: 191-195.
Mineralogical Magazine: 48: 97-106.
Acta Crystallographica: B32: 1509-1513.

Internet Links for SenaiteHide

Localities for SenaiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Salzburg
    • Lungau
      • Murwinkel
        • Schellgaden
          • Gold mines
Niedermayr, G. et al. (2007): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LVI. Carinthia II, 197/117, 149-190.
      • Taurach valley
Kolitsch, U., Schachinger, T. and Bernhard, F. (2015): Ardennite-(As), ardennite-(V), gasparite-(Ce) and chernovite-(Y): first results of a mineralogical study of the metaradiolarite-hosted manganese ore mineralisations in the Fuchssee area, Radstadt Tauern, Salzburg, Austria. MinPet 2015, Leoben, Austria, September 10-13; abstract in Mitt. Österr. Mineral. Ges. 161, 67.
Brazil (TL)
  • Minas Gerais
Am Min 53 (1968), 869–879; Rocks&Min.(Jan.2000)
    • Diamantina
Diamond News, Part 1, Vol.5, No.17,2004,pp40-44; Diamond News, Part 2, Vol.5, No.18,2004,pp 13-19 [In Portuguese]
    • Presidente Kubitschek
Min Rec 17 (3) (1986); Hochleitner, R. (1987): Senait-Kristalle aus Brasilien. LAPIS 12 (2), 18-19
  • Québec
    • Montérégie
      • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
        • Mont Saint-Hilaire
Horváth, L and Gault, R.A. (1990), The mineralogy of Mont Saint-Hilaire Quebec. Mineralogical Record: 21: 284-359.
Dianxin Shao and Nicheng Shi (1987): Acta Mineralogica Sinica 7(2), 159-162
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Savoie
      • Tarentaise valley
        • La Léchère (Notre Dame de Briançon)
De Ascencao Guedes R., Meisser N. (2002), Les fentes à cristaux de Pierre Château, La Léchère, Tarentaise (Savoie), Le Règne Minéral, n°44, pp: 35-45
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
      • Lavrion District Mines
        • Plaka
          • Plaka Mines
No reference listed
  • Liguria
    • Genova Province
      • Ne
        • Graveglia Valley
Balestra, C., Ciriotti, M.E., Bracco, R. (2011): Su alcune novità mineralogiche liguri caratterizzate dal SIUK dell'AMI. Micro, 2/2011, 46-53
  • Piedmont
    • Cuneo Province
      • Stura Valley
        • Sambuco
P. Orlandi, G.C. Piccoli: Riv. Mineral. Ital. 28(1):16-18 (2004)
    • Torino Province
      • Susa Valley
        • Cesana Torinese
Brizio, P., Ambrino, P., Ciriotti, M.E., Blass, G. (2010). L'affioramento a Mn, SiO, Fe, S di Roccia Rossa, Cesana, Torino. Micro (località) 1/2010, 313-328
    • Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province
      • Ossola Valley
        • Antigorio Valley
          • Devero Valley
            • Baceno
              • Devero Alp Cervandone article& personal collection
        • Formazza Valley
          • Formazza
Piccoli G.C., Maletto G., Bosio P., Lombardo B. (2007): Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba, 607 pp.; Vanini F., Kartashov P.M., Ciriotti M.E., Bonacina E. (2008): I minerali della Cima della Freghera (Formazza, Verbano-Cusio-Ossola). Micro (località), 2/2008, 251-260.
  • Hovd Aimag (Khovd Aimag)
    • Altai Mts
P.M. Kartashov data
  • Vestfold
    • Larvik
      • Tvedalen
Larsen, A.O. (1989): Senaite from syenite pegmatite at Tvedalen in the southern part of the Oslo Region, Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift. 69, 235-238
Republic of Macedonia
  • Veles
Ilijevski, Kole (2012) Minerogenetic Features of the White Marble Deposit “Sivec”. Masters thesis, University Goce Delcev Shtip.
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
      • Buriatia (Buryatia)
        • Mama River Basin
          • Maigunda River
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data (2013)
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaya Oblast'
      • Pechengsky District
        • Pechenga Ni-Cu ore field
Компанченко А.А., Волошин А.В., Базай А.В. Ванадиевая минерализация в колчеданных проявлениях - новый тип для Южно-Печенгской структурной зоны, Кольский регион, - Месторождения стратегических металлов: закономерности размещения, источники вещества, условия и механизмы образования. Всероссийская конференция, посвящённая 85-летию ИГЕМ РАН.Москва, 25-27 ноября 2015 г. Материалы докладов. М.: ИГЕМ РАН, 2015. 336 с.
Saudi Arabia
  • Mintaqah Tabuk
    • Midyan
Staatz H.M. and Brownfield I.K. 1986, Tarce- and minor-element mineralogy of the microgranite at ghurayyah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. US-Geological Survey Open-File report 86.105
  • Värmland
    • Filipstad
Kjell Gatedal
  • Västmanland
    • Lindesberg
Holtstam, D. (1994): Senaite from Mangruvan, Örebro, Sweden. GFF. 116, 17–21
  • Bern
    • Hasli Valley
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz. Wepf (Basel), p. 125.
  • Wallis (Valais)
    • Anniviers Valley
      • Saint-Luc
Ansermet, S. (2012): Mines et minéraux du Valais - II. Anniviers et Tourtemagne. With contributions by N. Meisser, Ed. Porte-plumes (Ayer)
    • Binn Valley
      • Chummibort
See references at locality description - cuchet et al. 2014, Schweizer Strahler. I am co-author - M. Crumbach
      • Kriegalp Valley (Chriegalp Valley)
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz. Wepf (Basel), p. 125.
    • Martigny
      • Mont Chemin
  • Colorado
    • El Paso Co.
      • Cheyenne District (St. Peters Dome District)
        • St Peters Dome
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
Mineral and/or Locality is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization.
Copyright © and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2017, except where stated. relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: October 21, 2017 17:06:05 Page generated: October 16, 2017 17:35:25
Go to top of page