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Silver

This page kindly sponsored by Alex Homenuke
Formula:
Ag
Colour:
Silver-white, tarnishes dark gray to black
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
2½ - 3
Specific Gravity:
10.1 - 11.1
Crystal System:
Isometric
Member of:
Name:
An Old English word "seolfor" whose original meaning is now lost. The current spelling "silver" was known as early as 1478. Known in ancient Roman times as argentum. The chemical element abbreviation Ag comes from argentum.
Copper Group. Gold-Silver Series and Palladium-Silver Series.

Silver is used in jewelry, tableware, coins, scientific equipment and in photographic processes. Silver tarnishes black with a surface layer of acanthite (silver sulphide), especially when placed in proximity to sulphurous compounds. It is primarily found as a constituent of hydrothermal veins. It is often found associated with copper. Unlike gold, it is soluble in any oxidizing mineral acid.


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Classification of SilverHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
1.AA.05

1 : ELEMENTS (Metals and intermetallic alloys; metalloids and nonmetals; carbides, silicides, nitrides, phosphides)
A : Metals and Intermetallic Alloys
A : Copper-cupalite family
Dana 7th ed.:
1.1.1.2
1.1.1.2

1 : NATIVE ELEMENTS AND ALLOYS
1 : Metals, other than the Platinum Group
1.2

1 : Elements and Alloys (including the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au)

Pronounciation of SilverHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of SilverHide

Metallic
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Silver-white, tarnishes dark gray to black
Streak:
Silver white
Hardness:
2½ - 3 on Mohs scale
Hardness:
VHN100=61 - 65 kg/mm2 - Vickers
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Malleable
Cleavage:
None Observed
None
Fracture:
None observed
Density:
10.1 - 11.1 g/cm3 (Measured)    10.497 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of SilverHide

Type:
Isotropic
Reflectivity:
400nmR=69.8%
420nmR=71.0%
440nmR=73.2%
480nmR=75.0%
500nmR=76.8%
520nmR=78.2%
540nmR=79.5%
560nmR=80.8%
580nmR=82.5%
600nmR=83.2%
620nmR=84.0%
640nmR=84.6%
660nmR=85.2%
680nmR=86.0%
700nmR=86.5%

Reflectance graph
Graph shows reflectance levels at different wavelengths (in nm). Top of box is 100%. Peak reflectance is 86.5%.
Colour in reflected light:
brilliant silver white
Internal Reflections:
none
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of SilverHide

Formula:
Ag
Common Impurities:
Au,Hg,Cu,Sb,Bi

Crystallography of SilverHide

Crystal System:
Isometric
Class (H-M):
m3m (4/m 3 2/m) - Hexoctahedral
Space Group:
Fm3m
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.0862 Å
Unit Cell V:
68.23 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals are cubic, octahedral, dodecahedral to a cm. Often elongated to many cms in herringbone twins and wires (crystals elongated along the [111] axis).
Twinning:
Penetration twins on (111) with cubes from Kongsberg and tetrahexahedrons from Michigan (bearpaws). Arborescent growths twinned on (100) and on (111).

Crystallographic forms of SilverHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Silver no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Silver no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Silver no.4 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
Epitaxi Comments:
"Halfbreeds" with Ag on Cu and more rarely Cu on Ag. The face centred lattice is continuous between the two minerals.
Wires with black Acanthite crystals and coating form by continuing the face centred cubic silver between the minerals.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
2.359 (100)
2.044 (40)
1.231 (26)
1.445 (25)
0.9375 (15)
1.8341 (13)
0.9137 (12)

Synonyms of SilverHide

Other Language Names for SilverHide

Afrikaans:Silwer
Albanian:Argjendi
Amharic:ብር
Arabic:فضة
Armenian:Արծաթ
Asturian:Plata
Azeri:Gümüş
Basque:Zilar
Belarusian:Серабро
Bengali:রূপা
Bishnupriya Manipuri:প্রাটা
Bosnian (Latin Script):Srebro
Bulgarian:Сребро
Catalan:Plata
Cebuano:Silver
Chuvash:Кĕмĕл
Corsican:Argentu
Croatian:Srebro
Czech:Stříbro
Danish:Sølv
Dutch:Zilver
Erzya:Сия
Esperanto:Arĝento
Estonian:Hõbe
Finnish:Hopea
French:Argent
Friulian:Arint
Galician:Prata
Guarani:Itatĩ
Haitian:Ajan
Hakka:Ngiùn
Hebrew:כסף
Hungarian:Ezüst
Icelandic:Silfur
Indonesian:Perak
Irish Gaelic:Airgead
Italian:Argento
Japanese:自然 銀
Javanese:Perak
Kapampangan:Pilak
Korean:
Kurdish (Latin Script):Zîv
Latin:Argentum
Latvian:Sudrabs
Limburgian:Zèlver
Lithuanian:Sidabras
Lojban:rijno
Low Saxon:Sülver
Luxembourgish:Sëlwer
Malay:Perak
Manx:Argid
Maori:Kawata
Min Nan:Ag
Norman:Ergent
Norwegian (Bokmål):Sølv
Norwegian (Nynorsk):Sølv
Occitan:Argent
Persian:نقره
Polish:Srebro
Portuguese:Prata
Ripuarian:Silber
Romanian:Argint
Scottish Gaelic:Airgead
Serbian (Cyrillic Script):Сребро
Serbo-Croatian:Srebro
Sicilian:Argentu
Simplified Chinese:自然银
Slovak:Striebro
Slovenian:Srebro
Spanish:Plata
Swahili:Agenti
Tajik (Cyrillic Script):Нуқра
Tatar:Kömeş
Traditional Chinese:自然銀
Turkish:Gümüş
Ukrainian:Срібло
Uzbek (Latin Script):Kumush
Venetian:Arxento
Vietnamese:Bạc
Welsh:Arian
Yiddish:זילבער
Zhuang:Ngaenz
Zulu:Isiliva

Varieties of SilverHide

Antimonial Silver
Antimonian SilverA variety of Silver containing up to about 5% of antimony.
Arsenian SilverA variety of Silver containing up to about 7% of Arsenic.
Auriferous Silver
ChileniteBismuth-bearing variety of Silver.
KongsbergiteA variety of Silver with about 5% Hg.
Originally described from Kongsberg, Buskerud, Norway.
KüsteliteGold-Silver Series . A variety of silver defined as containing 10% - 30% of Gold.

Relationship of Silver to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
CopperCuIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
GoldAuIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
LeadPbIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
MaldoniteAu2BiIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Acanthite682 photos of Silver associated with Acanthite on mindat.org.
Calcite501 photos of Silver associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Copper338 photos of Silver associated with Copper on mindat.org.
Quartz185 photos of Silver associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Arsenic116 photos of Silver associated with Arsenic on mindat.org.
Dyscrasite91 photos of Silver associated with Dyscrasite on mindat.org.
Safflorite87 photos of Silver associated with Safflorite on mindat.org.
Cuprite67 photos of Silver associated with Cuprite on mindat.org.
Galena65 photos of Silver associated with Galena on mindat.org.
Allargentum64 photos of Silver associated with Allargentum on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

1.AA.05AluminiumAlIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.AA.05CopperCuIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.AA.05Electrum(Au, Ag)
1.AA.05GoldAuIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.AA.05LeadPbIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.AA.05NickelNiIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.AA.05UM2004-08-E:AuCuPd(Cu,Pd,Au)
1.AA.05UM1991-06-E:AuCuAu3Cu
1.AA.10aAuricuprideCu3AuOrth.
1.AA.10bTetra-auricuprideAuCuTet.
1.AA.10aCuproaurideCu3Au
1.AA.15AnyuiiteAuPb2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I4/mcm
1.AA.15Khatyrkite(Cu,Zn)Al2Tet.
1.AA.15IodineI2
1.AA.15NovodnepriteAuPb3Tet. 4 2m : I4 2m
1.AA.15UM1985-02-E:AlZn(Zn,Cu)Al2
1.AA.20Cupalite(Cu,Zn)AlOrth.
1.AA.25HunchuniteAu2PbIso.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

1.1.1.1GoldAuIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.1.1.3CopperCuIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.1.1.4LeadPbIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.1.1.5AluminiumAlIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

1.1CopperCuIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.5GoldAuIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.6AuricuprideCu3AuOrth.
1.7Tetra-auricuprideAuCuTet.
1.8ZincZnHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.9CadmiumCdHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.10DanbaiteCuZn2Iso.
1.11ZhanghengiteCuZnIso.
1.12MercuryHgTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
1.13KolymiteCu7Hg6Iso.
1.14MoschellandsbergiteAg2Hg3Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
1.15EugeniteAg11Hg2Iso.
1.16SchachneriteAg1.1Hg0.9Hex.
1.17ParaschachneriteAg3Hg2Orth.
1.18LuanheiteAg3HgHex.
1.19Weishanite(Au,Ag)3Hg2Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.20IndiumInTet.
1.21AluminiumAlIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.22Khatyrkite(Cu,Zn)Al2Tet.
1.23Cupalite(Cu,Zn)AlOrth.
1.24DiamondCIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
1.25GraphiteCHex. 6mm : P63mc
1.26ChaoiteCHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mmm
1.27LonsdaleiteCHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.28SiliconSi
1.29TinSnTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd
1.30LeadPbIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.31AnyuiiteAuPb2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I4/mcm
1.31NovodnepriteAuPb3Tet. 4 2m : I4 2m
1.32LeadamalgamPb0.7Hg0.3Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I4/mmm
1.33ArsenicAsTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
1.34ArsenolampriteAsOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
1.35PaxiteCuAs2Mon.
1.36KoutekiteCu5As2Hex.
1.37DomeykiteCu3AsIso. 4 3m : I4 3d
1.38Algodonite(Cu1-xAsx)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.39NovákiteCu20AgAs10Mon.
1.40KutinaiteAg6Cu14As7 Iso.
1.41AntimonySbTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
1.42StibarsenAsSbTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
1.43ParadocrasiteSb3AsMon. 2 : B2
1.44HorsforditeCu, Sb
1.45CuprostibiteCu2(Sb,Tl)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
1.46Allargentum(Ag1-xSbx)Hex.
1.47AurostibiteAuSb2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
1.48DyscrasiteAg3SbOrth. mm2 : Pmm2
1.49BismuthBiTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
1.50MaldoniteAu2BiIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
1.51SulphurS8Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Fddd
1.52RosickýiteSMon. 2/m : P2/b
1.53SeleniumSeTrig. 3 2 : P31 2 1
1.54TelluriumTeHex.
1.55ChromiumCrIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Im3m
1.56RheniumReHex.
1.57IronFeIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Im3m
1.58ChromferideFe3Cr1-x (x=0.6)Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Pm3m
1.59FerchromideCr3Fe1-xIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Pm3m
1.60WairauiteCoFe
1.61NickelNiIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.62Kamacite(Fe,Ni)Iso.
1.63Taenite(Fe,Ni)Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.64TetrataeniteFeNiTet.
1.65AwaruiteNi3FeIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.66Palladium(Pd,Pt)
1.67PotaritePdHgTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/mmm
1.68PaolovitePd2SnOrth.
1.69Stannopalladinite(Pd,Cu)3Sn2Hex.
1.70CabriitePd2CuSnOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmm
1.71Taimyrite(Pd,Cu,Pt)3SnOrth.
1.72Atokite(Pd,Pt)3SnIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.73Rustenburgite(Pt,Pd)3Sn
1.74ZvyagintsevitePd3PbIso.
1.75PlumbopalladinitePd3Pb2Hex.
1.76Osmium(Os,Ir,Ru)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
1.77Iridium(Ir,Os,Ru)Iso.
1.82PlatinumPtIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
1.83HongshiitePtCuTrig.
1.84NiggliitePtSnHex.
1.85IsoferroplatinumPt3FeIso.
1.86TetraferroplatinumPtFeTet.
1.87TulameenitePt2CuFeTet.
1.88FerronickelplatinumPt2FeNiTet.
1.89Rhodium(Rh,Pt)Iso.

Fluorescence of SilverHide

Other InformationHide

Magnetism:
Paramagnetic
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
An electrical conductor, in photoactive chemicals in film and light darkening glass, jewelry, coinage.

Silver in petrologyHide

Common component of (items highlighted in red)

References for SilverHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Guertler (1912) Metallographie. Berlin: 1: 769.
McKeehan (1922) Physical Review, a Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Physics: 20: 424.
Goldschmidt, Victor Mordechai (1923) Atlas der Krystallformen, Verlag Winters, Heidelberg: Vol. 8: 38.
Holgersson and Sedström (1924) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 75: 143.
Murphy (1931) Journal of the Institute of Metals, London, Proceedings: 46: 507.
Broderick and Ehret (1931) Journal of Physical Chemistry: 35: 3322.
Stenbeck (1933) Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, Hamburg, Leipzig: 214: 16.
Drier and Walker (1933) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 16: 294.
Lindgren, Waldemar (1933) 600.
Vegard and Kloster (1934) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 89: 560.
Owen and Rogers (1935) Journal of the Institute of Metals, London: 57: 257.
Montoro, V. (1938) Studio sulla orientazione preferenziale delle cristalliti nella varietà filiforme di argento nativo. Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma pp. 55-59.
Peacock (1940) University of Toronto Studies, Geology Series: 44: 31.
Palache, C., Berman, H., and Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Seventh edition, Volume I: 96-99.
Zapiski Vserossiyskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva (1979) 108: 552-563.
American Mineralogist (1980) 65: 1069.
Extra Lapis No. 8 (1995).
Morris, Neil (2005) Gold and Silver. Appleseed Editions Ltd., East Sussex.

Internet Links for SilverHide

Localities for SilverHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

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