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Sonolite

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Formula:
Mn2+9(SiO4)4(OH)2
OH may be replaced by minor F.
Colour:
Red-orange, pinkish brown to dark brown
Lustre:
Vitreous, Dull
Hardness:
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
Named in 1963 by Mayumi Yoshinaga after its discovery locality, the Sono mine, Sohraku-gun, Kyoto Prefecture, Kinki Region, Honshu Island, Japan.
Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of SonoliteHide

Approved
8/B.04-110
9.AF.55

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
F : Nesosilicates with additional anions; cations in [4], [5] and/or only [6] coordination
52.3.2d.3

52 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
3 : Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] coordination only
17.1.30

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
1 : Silicates with fluoride (not containing Al)

Pronounciation of SonoliteHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of SonoliteHide

Vitreous, Dull
Colour:
Red-orange, pinkish brown to dark brown
Hardness:
5½ on Mohs scale

Optical Data of SonoliteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.765 nβ = 1.778 nγ = 1.787
2V:
Measured: 75° to 82°, Calculated: 78°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.022
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
none

Chemical Properties of SonoliteHide

Formula:
Mn2+9(SiO4)4(OH)2

OH may be replaced by minor F.
Common Impurities:
Ti,Al,Fe,Mg,Ca,H2O,C

Crystallography of SonoliteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.87 Å, b = 10.66 Å, c = 14.28 Å
β = 100.3°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.457 : 1 : 1.34
Unit Cell V:
729.39 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Type Occurrence of SonoliteHide

Other Language Names for SonoliteHide

German:Sonolith
Japanese:園石
Spanish:Sonolita

Relationship of Sonolite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
AlleghanyiteMn2+5(SiO4)2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
Manganhumite(Mn2+,Mg)7(SiO4)3(OH)2Orth.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Rhodochrosite7 photos of Sonolite associated with Rhodochrosite on mindat.org.
Katoptrite6 photos of Sonolite associated with Katoptrite on mindat.org.
Tephroite6 photos of Sonolite associated with Tephroite on mindat.org.
Zincite5 photos of Sonolite associated with Zincite on mindat.org.
Spessartine5 photos of Sonolite associated with Spessartine on mindat.org.
Franklinite3 photos of Sonolite associated with Franklinite on mindat.org.
Willemite3 photos of Sonolite associated with Willemite on mindat.org.
Manganosite2 photos of Sonolite associated with Manganosite on mindat.org.
Rhodonite2 photos of Sonolite associated with Rhodonite on mindat.org.
Alleghanyite2 photos of Sonolite associated with Alleghanyite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.AF.05SillimaniteAl2(SiO4)OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AF.10AndalusiteAl2(SiO4)OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
9.AF.10KanonaiteMn3+Al(SiO4)OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
9.AF.15KyaniteAl2(SiO4)OTric. 1 : P1
9.AF.20MulliteAl4+2xSi2-2xO10-xOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbam
9.AF.20Krieselite(Al,Ga)2(GeO4)(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
9.AF.23BoromulliteAl9BSi2O19Orth. mm2 : Cmc21
9.AF.25YoderiteMg(Al,Fe3+)3(SiO4)2O(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
9.AF.30MagnesiostauroliteMg(Mg,Li)3(Al,Mg)18Si8O44(OH)4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.AF.30StauroliteFe2+2Al9Si4O23(OH)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.AF.30ZincostauroliteZn2Al9Si4O23(OH)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.AF.35TopazAl2(SiO4)(F,OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AF.40NorbergiteMg3(SiO4)(F,OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AF.45AlleghanyiteMn2+5(SiO4)2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.45Chondrodite(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.45ReinhardbraunsiteCa5(SiO4)2(OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.45KumtyubeiteCa5(SiO4)2F2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.45HydroxylchondroditeMg5(SiO4)2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.50Humite(Mg,Fe2+)7(SiO4)3(F,OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AF.50Manganhumite(Mn2+,Mg)7(SiO4)3(OH)2Orth.
9.AF.50Unnamed (Ca-analogue of Humite)Ca7(SiO4)4F2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
9.AF.55ClinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4F2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.55HydroxylclinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4(OH)2Mon. 2/m
9.AF.60LeucophoeniciteMn2+7(SiO4)3(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AF.65Ribbeite(Mn2+,Mg)5(SiO4)2(OH)2Orth.
9.AF.70JerrygibbsiteMn2+9(SiO4)4(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
9.AF.75FranciscaniteMn2+6(V5+,☐)2(SiO4)2(O,OH)6Hex.
9.AF.75ÖrebroiteMn2+3(Sb5+,Fe3+)(SiO4)(O,OH)3Hex.
9.AF.75WeliniteMn2+6(W6+,Mg)2(SiO4)2(O,OH)6Trig. 3 : P3
9.AF.80EllenbergeriteMg6(Mg,Ti,Zr,◻)2(Al,Mg)6Si8O28(OH)10Hex.
9.AF.85Chloritoid(Fe2+,Mg,Mn2+)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.AF.85MagnesiochloritoidMgAl2(SiO4)O(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.AF.85Ottrélite(Mn2+,Fe2+,Mg)Al2(SiO4)O(OH)2Mon.
9.AF.90PoldervaartiteCaCa[SiO3(OH)](OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
9.AF.90OlmiiteCaMn2+[SiO3(OH)](OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

52.3.2d.1ClinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4F2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
52.3.2d.2JerrygibbsiteMn2+9(SiO4)4(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

17.1.1HectoriteNa0.3(Mg,Li)3(Si4O10)(F,OH)2Mon.
17.1.3AgrelliteNaCa2Si4O10FTric.
17.1.4Fluorapophyllite-(Na)NaCa4(Si8O20)F · 8H2OOrth.
17.1.5Fluorapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(F,OH) · 8H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/mnc
17.1.6Hydroxyapophyllite-(K)KCa4(Si8O20)(OH,F) · 8H2OTet.
17.1.7HsianghualiteCa3Li2(Be3Si3O12)F2
17.1.8LeucophaniteNaCaBeSi2O6FOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
17.1.9NorbergiteMg3(SiO4)(F,OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
17.1.10Chondrodite(Mg,Fe2+)5(SiO4)2(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.1.11Humite(Mg,Fe2+)7(SiO4)3(F,OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
17.1.12ClinohumiteMg9(SiO4)4F2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.1.13CanasiteK3Na3Ca5Si12O30(OH)4
17.1.14Charoite(K,Sr)15-16(Ca,Na)32[Si6O11(O,OH)6]2[Si12O18(O,OH)12]2[Si17O25(O,OH)18]2(OH,F)4 · ~3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
17.1.15CuspidineCa4(Si2O7)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.1.16BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2OTric.
17.1.17ZeophylliteCa13Si10O28(OH)2F8 · 6H2OTrig. 3 : R3
17.1.18Rowlandite-(Y)(Y,Ce)4Fe2+(Si2O7)2F2 (?)Tric.
17.1.19YuksporiteK4(Ca,Na)14(Sr,Ba)2(◻,Mn,Fe)(Ti,Nb)4(O,OH)4(Si6O17)2(Si2O7)3(H2O,OH)3Orth.
17.1.20Yftisite-(Y)(Y,Dy,Er)4(Ti,Sn)(SiO4)2O(F,OH)6
17.1.21Mosandrite-(Ce)(Ca3REE)[(H2O)2Ca0.50.5]Ti(Si2O7)2(OH)2(H2O)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.1.22Hiortdahlite(Na,Ca)2Ca4Zr(Mn,Ti,Fe)(Si2O7)2(F,O)4 Tric.
17.1.23BurpaliteNa2CaZr(Si2O7)F2Mon.
17.1.24SeidozeriteNa4MnZr2Ti(Si2O7)2O2F2Mon.
17.1.25Thorosteenstrupine(Ca,Th,Mn)3Si4O11F · 6H2O
17.1.26ZircophylliteK2NaFe2+7Zr2(Si4O12)2O2(OH)4FTric.
17.1.27JinshajiangiteBaNaFe2+4Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2FMon. 2/m
17.1.28RosenbuschiteNa6Ca6Zr3Ti(Si2O7)4O2F6Tric. 1 : P1
17.1.29NarsarsukiteNa4(Ti,Fe)2[Si8O20](O,OH,F)2Tet.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Sonolite in petrologyHide

An essential component of rock names highlighted in red, an accessory component in rock names highlighted in green.

References for SonoliteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Yoshinaga, M. (1963) Sonolite, a new manganese silicate mineral. Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu Imperial University, Series D: 14: 1-21.
Fleischer, M. (1963) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 48: 1413-1421.
International Mineralogical Association (1967) Commission on new minerals and mineral names. Mineralogical Magazine: 36: 131-136.
Winter, G.A., Essene, E.J., Peacor, D.R. (1983) Mn-humites from Bald Knob, North Carolina: Mineralogy and phase equilibria. American Mineralogist: 68: 951-959.
Dunn, P.J. (1985) Manganese humites and leucophoenicites from Franklin and Sterling Hill, New Jersey: Parageneses, compositions, and implications for solid solution limits. American Mineralogist: 70: 379-387.
Kato, T., Ito, Y., Hashimoto, N. (1989) The crystal structures of sonolite and jerrygibbsite. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte: 1989: 410-430.
Pautov, L.A., Ignatenko, K.I., Belakovskii, D.I. (1990) New data on sonolite. Zapiski Vserossiyskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva: 119: 98-101 (in Russian).
Grice, J.D., Dunn, P.J., (1994) Crystal Structure Refinement of Mg- and Zn-Rich Sonolite from Franklin and Sterling Hill, New Jersey. Mineralogical Magazine: 58: 333-336.
Francis, C.A., Postl, W., Tropper, P., Bernhard, F., Walter, F., Ettinger K. (2004) Über Sonolith und Tephroit von den Veitscher Manganerzvorkommen, Steiermark, Österreich. Joannea Mineralogie: 2: 85-100. [cell volume increases with Mn content]

Internet Links for SonoliteHide

Localities for SonoliteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Austria
 
  • Styria
    • Mitterdorf
      • Veitsch
        • Kleinveitsch
          • Kaiblinggraben
Francis, C.A., Postl, W., Tropper, P., Bernhard, F., Walter, F. & Ettinger K. (2004): Über Sonolith und Tephroit von den Veitscher Manganerzvorkommen, Steiermark, Österreich. Joannea Mineralogie, 2, 85-100. [https://www.museum-joanneum.at/upload/file/Min2_04_Francis_ua.pdf]
Francis, C.A. (2004)
  • Tyrol
    • East Tyrol
      • Virgen valley
        • Prägraten
          • Timmelbach valley
Kolitsch, U., Schachinger, T., Auer, C. (2017): 2026) Albit, Amphibol, Bementit(?), Braunit, ein Mn-Chlorit, As-haltiger Fluorapatit, Galaxit, Hämatit, Hübnerit, Iwakiit(?), Jakobsit, Kalifeldspat, Kutnahorit, Långbanit, Manganoxide, Nickelskutterudit, Pyrophanit, Quarz, Rhodochrosit, Rhodonit, Safflorit, Sarkinit, Sonolith, Spessartin, Tephroit, Uraninit und Zirkon aus Manganvererzungen von der Wunwand (Wunspitze) bei Prägraten, Osttirol. Pp. 241-246 in Walter, F. et al. (2017): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXVI. Carinthia II, 207./127., 217-284.
Finland
 
  • Western and Inner Finland Region
Heikkilä, Pasi 2003. Vittinki-ryhmän metaserttien geologia ja mineralogia Etelä-Pohjanmaalla. Pro gradu, matemaattis-luonnontieteellinen tiedekunta, Geologian laitos. Helsingin Yliopisto.
France
 
  • Occitanie
    • Hautes-Pyrénées
Le Règne Minéral 47: 5-21
        • Vielle-Aure
Ragu, A. (1994): Helvite from the French Pyrénées as evidence for granite-related hydrothermal activity. Canadian Mineralogist 32, 111-120.; DE ASCENCAO GUEDES R., TIXADOR Y., CASTERET A. & GOUJOU JC. (2002) La mine de Coustou, Vielle-Aure, Hautes-Pyrénées. Le Règne Minéral, 47, 23-31. (in french)
Japan
 
  • Hokkaido
    • Oshima peninsula
      • Kumaishi
Kobayashi H (1977) Kanoite, (Mn2+,Mg)2[Si2O6], a new clinopyroxene in the metamorphic rock from Tatehira, Oshima Peninsula, Hokkaido, Japan. Journal of the Geological Society of Japan 83, 537-542
  • Honshu Island
    • Chubu Region
      • Aichi Prefecture
        • Kita-Shidara-gun
          • Shidara-cho
Mayumi Yoshinaga (1963) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 14, 1, 1-22.
      • Fukui Prefecture
        • Mikata-kaminaka-gun
          • Wakasa-cho
Kato, A. (2010) Mumeikai Group meeting, No. 30.; 加藤昭, & 松原聰. (1980). 本邦産マンガン硼酸塩鉱物. 鉱物学雜誌, 14(Special3), 86-97.
      • Nagano Prefecture
        • Kami-Ina-gun
          • Hamayokokawa mine (Hamayokogawa mine)
Akira Kato (2011) Explanations of distributed specimens at the Ordinary Meeting of Mumeikai Group, No. 34 (January, 20011).
Akira Kato (2011) Explanations of distributed specimens at the Ordinary Meeting of Mumeikai Group, No. 34 (January, 20011).
    • Chugoku Region
      • Yamaguchi Prefecture
        • Iwakuni City
Mayumi Yoshinaga (1963) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 14, 1, 1-22.
Mayumi Yoshinaga (1963) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 14, 1, 1-22.
Mayumi Yoshinaga (1963) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 14, 1, 1-22.
Fukuoka, M. (1981) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 24, #4, 207-252.
    • Kanto Region
      • Gunma Prefecture
        • Midori City
          • Seta
Dr. Kameki Kinoshita collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan); 加藤昭, & 松原聰. (1980). 本邦産マンガン硼酸塩鉱物. 鉱物学雜誌, 14(Special3), 86-97.
Dr. Kameki Kinoshita collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
      • Ibaraki Prefecture
        • Takanomine mine
Mayumi Yoshinaga (1963) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 14, 1, 1-22.
      • Saitama Prefecture
        • Hannou
Kato, A. (2010) Mumeikai Group meeting, No. 30.
      • Tochigi Prefecture
Fukuoka, M. (1981) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 24, #4, 207-252.; 加藤昭, & 松原聰. (1980). 本邦産マンガン硼酸塩鉱物. 鉱物学雜誌, 14(Special3), 86-97.
加藤昭, & 松原聰. (1980). 本邦産マンガン硼酸塩鉱物. 鉱物学雜誌, 14(Special3), 86-97.
        • Kanuma City
Akira Kato (undated manuscript): Country rock and Minerals of the Kaso mine, Kanuma City, Tochigi Prefecture. (in japanese); Yoshinaga, Mayumi. "Sonolite, a new manganese silicate mineral." Mem Fac Sci Kyushu Univ Ser D Geol 14 (1963): 1-21.; 加藤昭, & 松原聰. (1980). 本邦産マンガン硼酸塩鉱物. 鉱物学雜誌, 14(Special3), 86-97.
Kato, A. (2010) Ordinary Meeting of Mumeikai Group No. 30, 488.
    • Kinki Region
      • Kyoto Prefecture
        • Kizugawa City
Am Min 85:242-250
Mayumi Yoshinaga (1963) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 14, 1, 1-22.
        • Nantan City
Toyofumi Yoshimura, "Manganese deposits in Japan - Addendum, PartII", Science reports, Department of Geology, Kyushu University (1969)
        • Sohraku-gun
          • Wazuka-cho
ZVMO 119/2 (1990), 98; Yoshinaga, Mayumi. "Sonolite, a new manganese silicate mineral." Mem Fac Sci Kyushu Univ Ser D Geol 14 (1963): 1-21.
      • Shiga Prefecture
        • Ritto City
Yoshinaga, Mayumi. "Sonolite, a new manganese silicate mineral." Mem Fac Sci Kyushu Univ Ser D Geol 14 (1963): 1-21.
    • Tohoku Region
      • Fukushima Prefecture
        • Iwaki City
Mineralogical Journal Vol. 18 (1996) , No. 4 pp 155-160
      • Iwate Prefecture
        • Miyako City
Yoshinaga, Mayumi. "Sonolite, a new manganese silicate mineral." Mem Fac Sci Kyushu Univ Ser D Geol 14 (1963): 1-21.
  • Shikoku Island
    • Kochi Prefecture
      • Kami City
加藤昭, & 松原聰. (1980). 本邦産マンガン硼酸塩鉱物. 鉱物学雜誌, 14(Special3), 86-97.
Kyrgyzstan
 
  • Issyk-Kul'skaya Oblast
    • Inyl'chek Range
      • Muzeinyi Valley
Pautov L.A., Ignatenko K.I., Belakovskii D.I. New data on sonolite, - ZVMO, 1990, N3, p.98-101.
Romania
 
  • Maramureș Co.
http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu; Udubasa, G., Hartopanu, P., Ilinca, G. (1996). The Regionally metamorphosed Fe-Mn Ore Deposit at Razoare, Preluca Mts., Romania. Romanian Journal of Mineralogy, 77, 3-20.
  • Suceava Co.
    • Suceava district
      • Iacobeni (Jakobeny; Jacobeny; Jakabfalva)
http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
Russia
 
  • Urals Region
    • Middle Urals
      • Sverdlovskaya Oblast'
        • Ekaterinburg (Sverdlovsk)
          • Sedel'nikovo
Brusnitsyn A.I. (2000) Rhodonite deposits of Middle Ural, - S.-Peterburg Univercity press, p. 200 (in Rus.).
Sweden
 
  • Värmland
    • Filipstad
Nysten, P., Holtstam, D. and Jonsson, E. (1999) The Långban minerals. In Långban - The mines,their minerals, geology and explorers (D. Holtstam and J. Langhof, eds.), Swedish Museum of Natural History and Raster Förlag, Stockholm & Chr. Weise Verlag, Munich, pp. 89-183. ; K:Gatedal
      • Nordmark district
        • Jakobsberg ore field
Kjell Gatedal
      • Nordmark Odal Field (Nordmarksberg)
Mineralogical Magazine(1978) 42, 133-136
Mineralogical Magazine (1998) 62 (3), 395-407
      • Persberg district
        • Pajsberg
Nysten, P. (1994): Sonolite from Harstigen, Värmland County, central Sweden. GFF 116, 132; Nysten, P. (2004): Harstigen ett mineralogisk eldorado i Bergslagen. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 28: 5-13.
  • Västmanland
    • Hällefors
      • Grythyttan
Moore, P. B. (1967). Welinite, a new mineral from LAngban. Arkiv fOr Mineralogi och Geologi, 4, 407-411.
Switzerland
 
  • Grischun (Grisons; Graubünden)
    • Engadin
      • Piz Corvatsch
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 379.
Taiwan
 
  • Taiwan Province
    • Yilan Co. (Ilan Co.)
      • Suao
Mayumi Yoshinaga (1963) Memoirs of the Faculty of Science, Kyushu University, Series D, Geology, 14, 1, 1-22.
USA
 
  • California
    • Nevada Co.
      • Spenceville District
        • Higgins Corner
Huebner, J. Stephen; Flohr, Marta J. (1990) Microbanded manganese formations; protoliths in the Franciscan Complex, California; USGS Professional Paper 1502.
    • Santa Clara Co.
      • Diablo Range
        • Black Wonder District
          • Mount Hamilton
            • San Antonio Valley
Pete J. Dunn, Donald R. Peacor, Richard C. Erd, and Robert A. Ramik (1986) Franciscanite and örebroite, two new minerals from California and Sweden, related to redefined welinite. American Mineralogist, 71:1522-1526.
  • Massachusetts
    • Hampshire Co.
      • Plainfield
"Western Massachusetts Mineral Localities" by Alan Plante, Valley Geology Press, 1992.
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Franklin
Cook, D.K.: Am.Min.:54:1392-1398 (1969); Dunn, P.J.: Am.Min.:70:379-387 (1985); Grice, J.D. & Dunn, P.J.: Mineralogical Magazine:58:333-336 (1994); Dunn(1995):Pt3:349-350.
FOMS Millsite Committee (1986) (circa), List of Mineral Species Found on the Franklin Mill Site, Franklin-Ogdensburg Mineralogical Society (unpublished).
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
Grice, J.D. & Dunn, P.J.: Mineralogical Magazine:58:333-336 (1994); Dunn(1995):Pt3:349-350.
  • North Carolina
    • Alleghany Co.
      • Sparta
        • Bald Knob
Rocks & Min.: 60:130-135.
  • Virginia
    • Pittsylvania Co.
      • James River-Roanoke River Mn-Fe-Ba District
AmMin 88:740-747 (2003)
Mineral and/or Locality  
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