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Spencerite

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About SpenceriteHide

Leonard James Spencer
Formula:
Zn4(PO4)2(OH)2 · 3H2O
Colour:
White, light green; colourless in transmitted light.
Lustre:
Vitreous, Pearly
Hardness:
3
Specific Gravity:
3.123 - 3.145
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
Named after Leonard James Spencer (1870-1959), Keeper of Minerals, British Museum of Natural History (London)
An uncommon secondary mineral occurring in some zinc-bearing hydrothermal deposits.


Classification of SpenceriteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
8.DA.40

8 : PHOSPHATES, ARSENATES, VANADATES
D : Phosphates, etc. with additional anions, with H2O
A : With small (and occasionally larger) cations
42.6.4.2

42 : HYDRATED PHOSPHATES, ETC.CONTAINING HYDROXYL OR HALOGEN
6 : A2(XO4)Zq·xH2O
19.6.2

19 : Phosphates
6 : Phosphates of Zn

Pronounciation of SpenceriteHide

Pronounciation:
PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of SpenceriteHide

Vitreous, Pearly
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Comment:
Lustre pearly on cleavages.
Colour:
White, light green; colourless in transmitted light.
Hardness:
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {100}, perfect; on {010}, good; on {001}, distinct.
Density:
3.123 - 3.145 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.282 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of SpenceriteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.586 nβ = 1.602 nγ = 1.606
2V:
Measured: 49°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.020
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
small

Chemical Properties of SpenceriteHide

Formula:
Zn4(PO4)2(OH)2 · 3H2O

Crystallography of SpenceriteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P2/b
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.43 Å, b = 5.27 Å, c = 11.19 Å
β = 116.8°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.979 : 1 : 2.123
Unit Cell V:
549.00 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Pseudo-orthorhombic. Crystals elongated [001], tabular on {100}, terminations commonly blunt and rectabgular with {102}, {001}, and {101}; lance-like at times with large {121} and {221}, with numerous additional forms. Commonly with a columnar to platy structure, stalactitic, massive.
Twinning:
Polysynthetic. Twin and composition plane {100}. The twinning results in {h0l being striated [010].

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Type Occurrence of SpenceriteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Royal Ontario Museum (ROM), Toronto, Canada: M9602, M9610, M9691, M9726. The Natural History Museum, London, England. Natural History Museum, Paris, France: 120.22. Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: 98956. National Museum of Natural Histo
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Cave in oxidized zinc ore.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of SpenceriteHide

Other Language Names for SpenceriteHide

Common AssociatesHide

CerussitePbCO3
HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
HopeiteZn3(PO4)2 · 4H2O
SmithsoniteZnCO3
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Hemimorphite2 photos of Spencerite associated with Hemimorphite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

8.DA.05BearsiteBe2(AsO4)(OH) · 4H2OMon.
8.DA.05MoraesiteBe2(PO4)(OH) · 4H2OMon.
8.DA.10RoscheriteCa2Mn2+5Be4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
8.DA.10ZanazziiteCa2Mg5Be4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
8.DA.10GreifensteiniteCa2Fe2+5Be4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 6H2OMon.
8.DA.10AtencioiteCa2Fe2+3Mg2Be4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 6H2O
8.DA.10RuifrancoiteCa2(◻,Mn)2(Fe3+,Mn,Mg)4Be4(PO4)6(OH)4(OH,H2O)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
8.DA.10GuimarãesiteCa2Be4Zn5(PO4)6(OH)4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
8.DA.10FootemineiteCa2Mn2+Mn2+2Mn2+2Be4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 6H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.DA.15UraloliteCa2Be4(PO4)3(OH)3 · 5H2OMon.
8.DA.20WeinebeneiteCaBe3(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
8.DA.25TiptopiteK2(Na,Ca)2Li3Be6(PO4)6(OH)2 · H2OHex.
8.DA.30Veszelyite(Cu,Zn)2Zn(PO4)2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
8.DA.35Kipushite(Cu,Zn)5Zn(PO4)2(OH)6 · H2OMon.
8.DA.35Philipsburgite(Cu,Zn)6(AsO4,PO4)2(OH)6 · H2OMon.
8.DA.45GlucineCaBe4(PO4)2(OH)4 · 0.5H2O
8.DA.50Ianbruceite[Zn2(OH)(H2O)(AsO4)](H2O)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

42.6.4.1LegranditeZn2(AsO4)(OH) · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

19.6.1TarbuttiteZn2(PO4)(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
19.6.3HopeiteZn3(PO4)2 · 4H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
19.6.4ParahopeiteZn3(PO4)2 · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
19.6.5Veszelyite(Cu,Zn)2Zn(PO4)2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
19.6.6Kipushite(Cu,Zn)5Zn(PO4)2(OH)6 · H2OMon.
19.6.7ScholziteCaZn2(PO4)2 · 2H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcm
19.6.8ParascholziteCaZn2(PO4)2 · 2H2OMon.
19.6.9EhrleiteCa4Be3Zn2(PO4)6 · 9H2OTric. 1 : P1
19.6.10Faustite(Zn,Cu)Al6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
19.6.11Aheylite(Fe2+,Zn)Al6(PO4)4(OH)8 · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
19.6.12JungiteCa2Zn4Fe3+8(PO4)9(OH)9 · 16H2OOrth.
19.6.13SchooneriteZnMn2+Fe2+2Fe3+(PO4)3(OH)2 · 9H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbam
19.6.14PhosphophylliteZn2Fe(PO4)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Readily soluble in acids.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for SpenceriteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Phillips (1916) American Journal of Science: 42: 275.
Walker (1916) Mineralogical Magazine: 18: 76-83.
Walker (1917) Journal of the Washington Academy of Science: 7: 456.
Walker (1918) University of Toronto Stud., Geology Series, no. 10: 5.
Walker and Parsons (1921) University of Toronto Stud., Geology Series: 58.
Larsen, E.S. and Berman, H. (1934) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, Second edition, USGS Bulletin 848: 167.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 931-933.
Fanfani, L., A. Nunzi, and P.F. Zanazzi (1972) Structure and twinning in spencerite. Mineralogical Magazine: 38: 687-692.
Canadian Mineralogist (1994): 32: 365.

Internet Links for SpenceriteHide

Localities for SpenceriteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Canada (TL)
 
  • British Columbia
    • Nelson Mining Division
      • Salmo
Nature (1916): 97, 375; Mineralogical Magazine (1917): 18, 76-83; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 734, 933.; Walker T L (1916) Spencerite, a new zinc phosphate from British Columbia, Mineralogical Magazine 18, 76-81 ; British Columbia Minfile 082FSW004; U.S. Geological Survey, 2005, Mineral Resources Data System: U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia.; Paradis, S., Keevil, H., Simandl, G. J., & Raudsepp, M. (2015). Carbonate-hosted nonsulphide Zn–Pb mineralization of southern British Columbia, Canada. Mineralium Deposita, 50(8), 923-951.
UK
 
  • England
    • North Yorkshire
      • North Pennines
        • Wharfedale
          • Grassington
            • Grassington Moor
Dunham, Sir K. C. Geology of the North Pennine Orefield, Volume 2 Stainmore to Craven (2nd Edition), pp 199.
Zambia
 
  • Central Province
    • Kabwe District
      • Kabwe (Broken Hill)
Braithwaite R.S.W., Spencerite from Kabwe, Zambia, and the infrared spectroscopy of Kabwe zinc phosphates, MinMag, March 1988, vol.82, pp.126-9.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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