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Stibiotantalite

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Formula:
Sb(Ta,Nb)O4
Colour:
Yellow to dark brown, reddish or greenish brown
Lustre:
Adamantine, Resinous
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
5.98 - 7.34
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
The name reflects its antimony (Greek = stibi) content and similarity to tantalite.
Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of StibiotantaliteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
4.DE.30

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
E : With medium-sized cations; with various polyhedra
8.1.6.2

8 : MULTIPLE OXIDES CONTAINING NIOBIUM,TANTALUM OR TITANIUM
1 : ABO4
18.1.28

18 : Niobates and Tantalates
1 : Niobates and tantalates containing neither rare earths nor U

Physical Properties of StibiotantaliteHide

Adamantine, Resinous
Transparency:
Translucent
Colour:
Yellow to dark brown, reddish or greenish brown
Streak:
Light yellow, yellow-brown
Hardness:
5½ on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
{001} distinct; {100} indistinct.
Fracture:
Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
5.98 - 7.34 g/cm3 (Measured)    7.58 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
7.53 for synthetic material.

Optical Data of StibiotantaliteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 2.374 nβ = 2.404 nγ = 2.457
2V:
Measured: 75° , Calculated: 76°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.083
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
relatively strong r

Chemical Properties of StibiotantaliteHide

Formula:
Sb(Ta,Nb)O4
IMA Formula:
Sb3+TaO4
Common Impurities:
Nb

Crystallography of StibiotantaliteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mm2 - Pyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.911 Å, b = 11.814 Å, c = 5.535 Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.416 : 1 : 0.469
Unit Cell V:
321.13 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Prismatic [001]. {010} and {110} striated parallel to [001]. The crystals infreqently exhibit morphological evidence of hemimorphism.
Twinning:
Polysynthetic twinning with twin axis [010] and composition plane {001}; also individuals irregularly intergrown.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Type Occurrence of StibiotantaliteHide

Other Language Names for StibiotantaliteHide

Varieties of StibiotantaliteHide

Relationship of Stibiotantalite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
BismutocolumbiteBi(Nb,Ta)O4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
BismutotantaliteBi(Ta,Nb)O4Orth.
CervantiteSb3+Sb5+O4Orth.
ClinocervantiteSb3+Sb5+O4Mon.
StibiocolumbiteSb(Nb,Ta)O4Orth. mm2
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Elbaite16 photos of Stibiotantalite associated with Elbaite on mindat.org.
Quartz8 photos of Stibiotantalite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Albite7 photos of Stibiotantalite associated with Albite on mindat.org.
Tourmaline3 photos of Stibiotantalite associated with Tourmaline on mindat.org.
Lepidolite3 photos of Stibiotantalite associated with Lepidolite on mindat.org.
Microlite Group3 photos of Stibiotantalite associated with Microlite Group on mindat.org.
Tantalite-(Fe)2 photos of Stibiotantalite associated with Tantalite-(Fe) on mindat.org.
Rynersonite2 photos of Stibiotantalite associated with Rynersonite on mindat.org.
Indicolite2 photos of Stibiotantalite associated with Indicolite on mindat.org.
Tapiolite1 photo of Stibiotantalite associated with Tapiolite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.DE.05DowneyiteSeO2Tet.
4.DE.10Koragoite(Mn2+,Fe3+)3(Nb,Ta,Ti)2(Nb,Mn)2(W,Ta)2O20Mon. 2 : P21
4.DE.15KoechliniteBi2MoO6Orth. mm2 : Pna21
4.DE.15RusselliteBi2WO6Orth.
4.DE.15TungstibiteSb3+2WO6Orth. 2 2 2
4.DE.20TelluriteTeO2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.DE.25ParatelluriteTeO2Tet.
4.DE.30BismutotantaliteBi(Ta,Nb)O4Orth.
4.DE.30BismutocolumbiteBi(Nb,Ta)O4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.DE.30CervantiteSb3+Sb5+O4Orth.
4.DE.30StibiocolumbiteSb(Nb,Ta)O4Orth. mm2
4.DE.30ClinocervantiteSb3+Sb5+O4Mon.
4.DE.35BaddeleyiteZrO2Mon. 2/m : P21/b

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

8.1.6.1StibiocolumbiteSb(Nb,Ta)O4Orth. mm2
8.1.6.3BismutotantaliteBi(Ta,Nb)O4Orth.
8.1.6.4BismutocolumbiteBi(Nb,Ta)O4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

18.1.1LithiotantiteLiTa3O8Mon.
18.1.2LueshiteNaNbO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
18.1.3NatroniobiteNaNbO3Mon.
18.1.4FranconiteNa(Nb2O5)(OH) · 3H2OMon.
18.1.5NatrotantiteNa2Ta4O11Mon.
18.1.6IrtyshiteNa2(Ta,Nb)4O11Hex.
18.1.7Rankamaite(Na,K)3(Ta,Nb,Al)11(O,OH)31Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmmm
18.1.8Hydropyrochlore(H2O,□)2Nb2(O,OH)6(H2O)Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
18.1.9CalciotantiteCaTa4O11Hex.
18.1.10RynersoniteCaTa2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
18.1.11Microlite GroupIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
18.1.12BelyankiniteCa1-2(Ti,Nb)5O12 · 9H2O (?)Amor.
18.1.13LatrappiteCa2NbFe3+O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
18.1.14Hochelagaite(Ca,Na,Sr)(Nb,Ti,Si,Al)4O11 · 8H2OMon.
18.1.15Bariomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
18.1.16ParabariomicroliteBaTa4O10(OH)2 · 2H2OTrig.
18.1.17Bariopyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)A2Nb2(O,OH)6ZIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
18.1.18AlumotantiteAlTaO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
18.1.19SimpsoniteAl4(Ta,Nb)3O13(OH,F)Trig. 3 : P3
18.1.20Sosedkoite(K,Na)5Al2(Ta,Nb)22O60Orth.
18.1.21Thoreaulite(Sn2+,Pb)(Ta,Nb)2O6Mon.
18.1.22Stannomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)
18.1.23FoorditeSn2+(Nb,Ta)2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
18.1.24ChangbaiitePbNb2O6Trig.
18.1.25Plumbopyrochlore (of Skorobogatova et al.)A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
18.1.26Plumbomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)
18.1.27StibiocolumbiteSb(Nb,Ta)O4Orth. mm2
18.1.29Natrobistantite
18.1.30Cesplumtantite(Cs,Na)2(Pb,Sb3+)3Ta8O24Tet.
18.1.31Stibiomicrolite (of Groat et al.)
18.1.32Cesstibtantite
18.1.34BismutotantaliteBi(Ta,Nb)O4Orth.
18.1.35Bismutomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
18.1.36Tantalite-(Mn)MnTa2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
18.1.37Gerasimovskite(Mn,Ca)(Nb,Ti)5O12 · 9H2O
18.1.38Tapiolite-(Mn)(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
18.1.39Columbite-(Mn)(Mn,Fe)(Nb,Ta)2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
18.1.40WodginiteMn2+Sn4+Ta2O8Mon.
18.1.41Ixiolite(Ta,Nb,Sn,Fe,Mn)4O8Orth.
18.1.42Columbite-(Fe)FeNb2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
18.1.43Tantalite-(Fe)FeTa2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
18.1.44ColumbiteOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
18.1.45Tantalite(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6
18.1.46Tapiolite(Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)2O6Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m)
18.1.47Tapiolite-(Fe)(Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)2O6Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
18.1.48Columbite-(Mg)(Mg,Fe,Mn)(Nb,Ta)2O6Orth.
18.1.50Strüverite(Ti,Ta,Fe)O2
18.1.51 Staringite(Fe,Mn)x(Ta,Nb)2xSn6-3xO12

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for StibiotantaliteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Goyder (1892), Proceedings of the Chem. Society London: 9: 184.
Goyder (1893), Journal Chem. Soc. Trans., 53, 1076.
Penfield, Samuel Lewis & William Ebenezer Ford (1906), On stibiotantalite: American Journal of Science, 4th. series: 22: 61-77;…Zeitschr. Kristallographie, Band 43: 334-350 (1906).
Simpson (1907), Australasian Academy of Science, Report: 11: 455.
Ungemach, H. (1909), Sur la stibiotantalite: Soc. Franc. Mineralogie, Bull. 32: 92-103.
Foote and Langley (1910), American Journal of Science: 30: 399.
Ford, William Ebenezer (1911), Note on some analyses of stibiotantalite: American Journal of Science, 4th. Series: 32: 287-288.
Simpson (1936), Royal Society of Western Australia, Journal: 22: 1.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 767-769.
Foord, E.E. (1981), Bismuthian stibiocolumbite-tantalite and other minerals from the Little Three mine, Ramona, California: Mineral Society of America – Friends of Mineralogy, symposium abstracts.
Zapiski Vserossiyskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva (1981): 110: 341.

Internet Links for StibiotantaliteHide

Localities for StibiotantaliteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Afghanistan
 
  • Nuristan Province (Nurestan Province; Nooristan Province; Nuristan)
    • Du Ab District
      • Nilaw-Kolum pegmatite field
Herb Obodda
    • Kamdesh District
Lyckberg, P. (2011): Edelstein-Pegmatite in Afghanistan: Paprok. Mineralien-Welt. 22 (3): 46-57
Australia
 
  • Western Australia
    • Bridgetown-Greenbushes Shire
      • Greenbushes Tinfield
Mineralogical Magazine 1963 33 : 458-466
Jacobson, M., Calderwood, M., Grguric, B.(2007): Pegmatites of Western Australia
Mineralogical Magazine 1963 33 : 458-466
    • Ravensthorpe Shire
Calderwood, M.A., Grguric, B.A., Jacobson, M.I. (2007) Guidebook to the Pegmatites of Western Australia. Hesperian Press, Carlisle, Western Australia.
    • Yilgarn shire
      • Mount Holland pegmatite field
M. Jacobson, M. Calderwood, B. Grguric; Pegmatites of Western Australia; (Perth 2007) and conversations between writer (Kim Macdonald) and owner of lease Fred Rose in 2012.
Brazil
 
  • Minas Gerais
    • Galiléia
Alfredo Petrov specimen (on stokesite); XRD by Dr. Anthony Kampf.
  • Rio Grande do Norte
    • Borborema mineral province
      • Equador
http://rruff.geo.arizona.edu/doclib/hom/parabariomicrolite.pdf.; Canadian Mineralogist (1986): 24: 655-663.
Canada
 
  • Manitoba
    • Red Cross Lake
Cerny et al. 2012; Černý, O., Teertstra, D.K., Chapman, R., Selway, J.B., Hawthorne, F.C., Ferreira, K., Chackowsky, L.E., Wang, X.J. & and Meintzer, R.E. (2012)
  • Ontario
    • Kenora District
      • Pakeagama Lake Area
Andrew G. Tindle, Fred W. Breaks and Julie B. Selway (2002) Tourmaline in petalite-subtype granitic pegmatites; evidence of fractionation and contamination from the Paleagama Lake and Separation Lake areas of northwestern Ontario, Canada. The Canadian Mineralogist 40:753-78; Breaks, F. W., Tindle, A. G., & Smith, S. R. The Pakeagama Lake Pegmatite: Continued Field and Laboratory Investigation of Highly Evolved, Complex-Type, Petalite-Subtype Rare-Element Mineralization in the Berens River-Sachigo Subprovince Boundary Zone
China
 
  • Henan Province
    • Sanmenxia Prefecture
      • Lushi Co.
        • Guanpo
Ruiling He and Enkui Cao (1985): Geology of Shaanxi 3(2), 39-46.
Czech Republic
 
  • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
    • Vysočina Region
      • Velké Meziříčí
Novák, M., Staněk, J.: Lepidolitový pegmatit od Dobré Vody u Velkého Meziříčí, západní Morava. Acta Musei Moraviae, Scientiae geologicae, 1999, roč. 84, s. 3 - 44.
Egypt
 
  • Red Sea Governorate
    • Eastern Desert
      • Marsa Alam
Helba, H., Trumbull, R.B., Morteani, G., Khalil, S.O., and Arslan, A. (1997): Mineralium Deposita 32, 164-179.
Italy
 
  • Lombardy
    • Brescia Province
      • Camonica Valley
        • Adamello-Brenta Natural Park
          • Adamello Massif
            • Mt. Foppa
Pezzotta, Federico and Guastoni, Alessandro, The New Discovery of a LCT Pegmatite in the Adamello Massif, Central Southern Alps, Italy; Museo Civico di Storia Naturale, Milan, Italy.
  • Piedmont
    • Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province
      • Ossola Valley
        • Beura-Cardezza
Piccoli, G.C., Maletto, G., Bosio, P., Lombardo, B. (2007). Minerali del Piemonte e della Valle d'Aosta. Associazione Amici del Museo "F. Eusebio" Alba, Ed., Alba (Cuneo) 607 pp.
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Kanto Region
      • Ibaraki Prefecture
        • Hitachiohta City
Matsubara et al (1995) Mineralogical Journal, 17, 338-345.
  • Kyushu Region
    • Fukuoka Prefecture
Banno et al (2001) JMPS, 96, 205-209.
Madagascar
 
  • Antananarivo Province
    • Vakinankaratra Region
      • Betafo District
        • Andrembesoa Commune
          • Tetezantsio-Andoabatokely Pegmatite Field
Pezzotta, Federico (2007): Ta-Nb borates and other rare accessory phases in granitic pegmatites of the Itremo region, central Madagascar. Bergverksmuseet Skrift 35,97-98
Pezzotta, Federico (2007): Ta-Nb borates and other rare accessory phases in granitic pegmatites of the Itremo region, central Madagascar. Bergverksmuseet Skrift 35,97-98
Mozambique
 
  • Zambezia Province
    • Alto Ligonha District
Dias, M. Bettencourt and Wilson, W. E., 2000, Mineralogical Record, 31:459-497.
Geotrade Bohemia;
Martinas de Pedra; Mineralogical Magazine 1963 33 : 458-466
Schappmann, J. (2005): Die gruben Morrua, Marropino und Maria III in der Pegmatitregion Alto Ligonha im Norden von Mozambique. Mineralien-Welt 16 (2): 34-46
Van King
Myanmar
 
  • Mandalay Region (Mandalay Division)
    • Pyin-Oo-Lwin District
      • Singu Township
        • Letpanhla
          • Male (Marle; Marla)
Crystal-Treasure.com
  • Shan State
    • Kyaukme District
      • Momeik Township
        • Molo quarter
          • Khetchel village (Cache village; Khat Che village)
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data (2010), Sieghard Ellenberger specimen
Nepal
 
  • Kosi Zone (Koshi Zone)
    • Sankhuwasabha District (Sankhuwa Sahba; Shankuwa-Sava)
Natural History Museum Vienna collection
Pakistan
 
  • Gilgit-Baltistan (Northern Areas)
    • Baltistan
      • Skardu District
        • Haramosh Mts.
Dudley Blauwet, Bill Smith and Carol Smith (2004) Table of mineral localities of the northern areas of Pakistan and other selected sites. (in "Pakistan: Minerals, Mountains & Majesty", Lapis International, East Hampton, Connecticut)
Lapis 1991, issue 3 (see also Scvill, J. (2007): Lapis 32 (4), 40-42.)
Poland
 
  • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
    • Ząbkowice District
      • Ząbkowice (Frankenstein)
        • Szklary (Gläsendorf)
Pieczka, A.; Grew, E.S.; Groat, L.A.; Evans, R.J. (2011): Holtite and dumortierite from the Szklary Pegmatite, Lower Silesia, Poland. Mineralogical Magazine 75, 303-315.
Russia
 
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaja Oblast'
      • Kola Peninsula
        • Voron'i Tundry
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
  • Urals Region
    • Middle Urals
      • Sverdlovskaya Oblast'
        • Rezh District
          • Lipovka pegmatite field
Igor.V. Pekov, Lyudmila R. Memetova (2008) Minerals of the Lipovka Granite Pegmatites, Central Urals, Russia. Mineralogical Almanac 13:6-45
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
        • Plast
          • Kochkar' District
            • Svetlyi
Alexandr E. Zadov data
Slovakia
 
  • Žilina Region
    • Liptovský Mikuláš Co.
Uher P., 2000: Stibiotantalit v pegmatite Sb ložiska Dúbrava - produkt hydrotermálnej alterácie kolumbitu-tantalitu. Min.Slovaca, Bratislava, 32, 109-114
Sri Lanka
 
  • Sabaragamuwa Province
    • Ratnapura District
      • Ratnapura
Ceylon Aluvial Mine, (Book, Co. 2002)
Sweden
 
  • Västerbotten
    • Skellefteå
Cerny et al. (2004) Am. Min. 89, 505-518; Mineralogical Magazine 1963 33 : 458-466
USA
 
  • California
    • Riverside Co.
      • Cahuilla District
        • Cahuilla Mountain
Phil Osborn collection, circa 1981.
      • Jurupa Mts
        • Jurupa
MinRec 15:273-290
    • San Diego Co.
      • Mesa Grande District
        • Gem Hill
Fisher, J., E. E. Foord, and G. A. Bricker, 1999. The geology, mineralogy, and history of the Himalaya mine, Mesa Grande, San Diego County, California. California Geology 52(1):3-18.; Mineralogical Magazine 1963 33 : 458-466; Jesse Fisher (2011) Mines and Minerals of the Southern California Pegmatite Province. Rocks & Minerals 86:14-34.
Foord, Eugene E. and Mrose, Mary E. (1978), Rynersonite, a new mineral from San Diego County, California. American Mineralogist, Volume 63, pages 709-714.
Rynerson, F. J. (1967), Exploring and mining for Gems and Gold in the West. Happy Camp, California: Naturegraph Publishers, Inc., p. 38-41.
      • Pala District
        • Pala
Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. (1951), Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: 31; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 349.
Jahns, R. H. and Wright, L. A. (1951), Gem and Lithium-bearing pegmatites of the Pala District, San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines special report 7A: 31, 40.
Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 178.
          • Tourmaline Queen Mountain (Pala Mtn; Queen Mtn)
No reference listed
      • Ramona District
        • Ramona
Weber, F. H. 1963. Geology and mineral resources of San Diego County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology, County Report 3: pages 108; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 178.
Foord, Eugene E., Spaulding, Louis B. Jr., Martin, Robert F. & Mason, Roger A. (1989), Mineralogy and Paragenesis of the Little Three Mine Pegmatites, Ramona District, San Diego County, California. Mineralogical Record, 20(2): p. 123.
San Diego Mining Company, 1995-1997.
      • Warner Springs District
        • Chihuahua Valley
Ritchie, S. 2000. History of the Carmelita Gem Mine in the 20th Century. Southern California Gem Industries web publication: July.
        • Warner Springs
Rocks & Minerals, May-June 2003 ; Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, Vol. 36, No. 5, p. 44
  • Colorado
    • Gunnison Co.
      • Quartz Creek Pegmatite District
Rocks & Min. Vol.71, No.3, p.193; Mineralogical Magazine 1963 33 : 458-466
Van King
  • Maine
    • Sagadahoc Co.
      • Topsham
Palache & Gonyer 1940, Microlite and stibiotantalite from Topsham, Maine. Am.Min. vol 25, pp. 411-417.
  • Nevada
    • Clark Co.
      • Gold Butte District
NBMG Bull 62 Geology and Mineral Deposits of Clark County, Nevada
  • Wisconsin
    • Florence Co.
      • Fern
        • Pine River pegmatites
Falster, A. , W.B. Simmons & P.B. Moore (1996) The mineralogy and geochemistry of the Animikie Red Ace pegmatite in Florence County, Wisconsin: Recent Research Developments in Mineralogy: 1: 7-67.
Zimbabwe
 
  • Mashonaland East
    • Mudzi District
Hornung. G. PhD thesis. Pegmatites of th N. Mtoko Region. University of Leeds, Research Institute of African Geology. !961
Mineralogical Magazine 1963 33 : 458-466
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