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About StibiopalladiniteHide

Silver, white to steel-gray
4 - 5
Crystal System:
The name reflects its composition: antimony (Greek "stibi") and palladium.

Classification of StibiopalladiniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
A : Alloys
C : Alloys of metalloids with PGE

3 : AmBnXp, with (m+n):p = 5:2

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
12 : Sulphides etc. of the platinum metals

Physical Properties of StibiopalladiniteHide

Silver, white to steel-gray
4 - 5 on Mohs scale

Chemical Properties of StibiopalladiniteHide

Common Impurities:

Crystallography of StibiopalladiniteHide

Crystal System:
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.59 Å, c = 28.11 Å
a:c = 1 : 3.704
Unit Cell V:
1,402.41 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Type Occurrence of StibiopalladiniteHide

Synonyms of StibiopalladiniteHide

Other Language Names for StibiopalladiniteHide

Relationship of Stibiopalladinite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
ArsenopalladinitePd8(As,Sb)3Tric. 1 : P1

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Tischendorfite1 photo of Stibiopalladinite associated with Tischendorfite on
Tiemannite1 photo of Stibiopalladinite associated with Tiemannite on
Chrisstanleyite1 photo of Stibiopalladinite associated with Chrisstanleyite on
Clausthalite1 photo of Stibiopalladinite associated with Clausthalite on
Ankerite1 photo of Stibiopalladinite associated with Ankerite on

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.AC.05aAtheneitePd2As0.75Hg0.25Hex. 6 m2 : P62m
2.AC.10cArsenopalladinitePd8(As,Sb)3Tric. 1 : P1
2.AC.10bMertieite-IIPd8Sb2.5As0.5Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
2.AC.15aIsomertieitePd11Sb2As2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
2.AC.15aMiessiitePd11Te2Se2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
2.AC.20cMenshikovitePd3Ni2As3Hex. 6/m : P63/m
2.AC.25aPalladoarsenidePd2AsMon. 2/m : P2/m
2.AC.25dNaldrettitePd2SbOrth. mm2 : Cmc21
2.AC.35aGenkinite(Pt,Pd,Rh)4Sb3Tet. 4 2 2
2.AC.35bUngavaitePd4Sb3Tet. 4 2 2 : P41 21 2
2.AC.40PolaritePd(Bi,Pb)Orth. mm2 : Cmc21
2.AC.45cBorishanskiitePd1+x(As,Pb)2 , x = 0-0.2Orth. mm2
2.AC.45aFrooditeα-PdBi2Mon. 2/m : B2/m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide,As)2Hex.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

3.12.2LauriteRuS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.12.8Cuprorhodsite(Cu,Fe)Rh2S4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
3.12.9KonderiteCu3Pb(Rh,Pt,Ir)8S16Hex. 6/m : P6/m
3.12.10Bowieite(Rh,Ir,Pt)2S3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
3.12.11CherepanoviteRhAsOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.12.12Hollingworthite(Rh,Pt,Pd)AsSIso. m3 (2/m 3)
3.12.18TemagamitePd3HgTe3Trig. 3m : P3m1
3.12.23Merenskyite(Pd,Pt)(Te,Bi)2Trig. 3m : P3m1
3.12.24PalladoarsenidePd2AsMon. 2/m : P2/m
3.12.26AtheneitePd2As0.75Hg0.25Hex. 6 m2 : P62m
3.12.29ArsenopalladinitePd8(As,Sb)3Tric. 1 : P1
3.12.37IsomertieitePd11Sb2As2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
3.12.39Mertieite-IIPd8Sb2.5As0.5Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
3.12.41Frooditeα-PdBi2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
3.12.42PolaritePd(Bi,Pb)Orth. mm2 : Cmc21
3.12.44CooperitePtSTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mmc
3.12.46Kharaelakhite(Cu,Pt,Pb,Fe,Ni)9S8Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmm
3.12.50SperrylitePtAs2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.12.52GeversitePtSb2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.12.54Genkinite(Pt,Pd,Rh)4Sb3Tet. 4 2 2
3.12.57ErlichmaniteOsS2Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Pa3
3.12.62Cuproiridsite(Cu,Fe)Ir2S4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for StibiopalladiniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Cissarz, A. (1930): Allopalladium und Clausthalit von Tilkerode im Harz und das Verhältnis von Allopalladium zu Potarit. Z. Kristallogr. 74, 501-510. [as allopalladium]
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Seventh edition, Volume I: 175; (also on pages 113-114 as allopalladium).
American Mineralogist (1973): 58: 1-10.
Canadian Mineralogist (1975): 13: 321-335.
American Mineralogist (1976): 61: 1249-1254.
Genkin, A.D., Tischendorf, G., Laputina, I.P. (1977): Über „Allopalladium“
von Tilkerode im Harz, DDR. Z. Geol. Wiss. 5, 1003–1009. [as allopalladium]

Internet Links for StibiopalladiniteHide

Localities for StibiopalladiniteHide

ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Northern Territory
    • West Arnhem Region
      • South Alligator River
Cuzens, H. (2010) The Genesis and Spatial Distribution of Platinum-Group Elements in the Coronation Hill Deposit, Northern Territory, Australia. University of Western Australia.
  • Western Australia
    • Coolgardie Shire
      • Kambalda
        • Kambalda Nickel mines
Hudson, D.R. (1986) Platinum-group minerals from the Kambalda nickel deposits, Western Australia, Economic Geology, Vol 81, No.5 pp.1218-1225.
  • Styria
    • Leoben
Min.& Pet. 73:247-277
      • St Stefan ob Leoben
        • Mitterberg
Kollegger, P., Mogessie, A. & Mali, H. (2008): Geochemie und Vererzung im Kraubath-Massiv, südöstlich von Kraubath an der Mur, Steiermark, Österreich. Joannea Mineralogie 4, 53-97.
  • Goiás
    • Cavalcante
Botelho, N.F., Moura, M.A., Peterson, R.C., Stanley, C.J., Silva, D.V.G. (2006): "Kalungaite, PdAsSe, a new platinum-group mineral from the Buraco do Ouro gold mine, Cavalcante, Goiás State, Brazil", Mineralogical Magazine 70, 123-130
  • Minas Gerais
    • Mariana (Marianna de Itacolumy)
      • Passagem de Mariana district
Varajão, C. A. C., Colin, F., Vieillard, P., Melfi, A. J., & Nahon, D. (2000). Early weathering of palladium gold under lateritic conditions, Maquiné Mine, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Applied Geochemistry, 15(2), 245-263.
  • Ontario
    • Kenora District
      • Ring of Fire
        • BMA527861 Area
N Farhangi,CM Lesher,and MG Houlé
    • Sudbury District
      • McKim Township
Ames, D.E., Kjarsgaard, I.M., and Douma, S.L., 2003, Sudbury Ni-Cu-PGE Ore Mineralogy Compilation: Sudbury Targeted Geoscience Initiative (TGI): Geological Survey of Canada, Open File 1787
    • Thunder Bay District
      • Coldwell complex
Mcdonald, A.M., Cabri, L.J., Stanley, C.J., Good, D.J., Redpath, J., Lane, G., Spratt, J. & Ames, D.E. (2015) Coldwellite, Pd3Ag2S, a new mineral species from the Marathon deposit, Coldwell complex, Ontario, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist 53, 1-13.
      • Lac des Iles Area; Canadian Mineralogist 22:233-237
D. H. Watkinson and G. Dunning v(1979) Geology and platinum-group mineralization, Lac-des-Iles Complex, northwestern Ontario. Can Mineral 17:453-462
      • Seagull Lake Area
        • Seagull Lake complex
Wilson, G., & Harper, G. (2013). Nipigon Reefs Project: A New Look at the PGE-bearing Seagull Mafic-Ultramafic Complex. Field Guide to the Copper-Nickel-Platinum Group Element Deposits of the Lake Superior Region, Precambrian Research Center Guidebook, 13-01.
    • Timiskaming District
      • Boston Township
Econ Geol (1993) 88:817-836; CM 30, 109; STONE, W.E., FLEET, M.E.,CROCKET, J.H. & KINGSTON, D.M. (1992) Platinum group minerals in pyroxenite from the Boston Creek Flow basaltic komatite, Abitibi greenstone belt, Ontario. Canadian Mineralogist 30, 109-119.
  • Yukon
    • Whitehorse mining district
      • Kluane District
Barkov, A.Y., Laflamme, J.H.G., Cabri, L.J., and Martin, R.F. (2002) Platinum-group minerals from the Wellgreen Cu-Ni-PGE deposit, Yukon, Canada. Canadian Mineralogist: 40: 651-669.; 5th International Platinum Symposium Bulletin of The Geological Society of Finland Number 61, Part 1,1989,1-64
  • Gansu Province
    • Jinchang Prefecture
      • Jinchuan District
Wenfeng Zhu and Youbin Liang (2000): Geology and Prospecting 36(1), 26-28
  • Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
    • Liuzhou Prefecture
      • Rongshui Co.
        • Yuanbao Mts (Yuanbaoshan)
Jun Xu (1987): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 6(3), 193-204
  • Heilongjiang Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
    • Jixi Prefecture
      • Jidong Co.
  • Yunnan Province
    • Dali Autonomous Prefecture
      • Midu Co.
Min Liu (2002): Multipurpose Utilization of Mineral Resources 10(5), 28-32; Huanbin Song, Mingqin He, Shangzhong Zhang, and Fenghuang Yi (2008): Chinese Journal of Geochemistry 27, 104-108
  • Oromia Region (Oromiya Region)
    • Gimbi
Econ Geol (1986) 81:1278-1285
        • Bir Bir River
Cabri, L. J., Criddle, A. J., Laflamme, J. H. G., Bearne, G. S., & Harris, D. C. (1981). Mineralogical study of complex Pt-Fe nuggets from Ethiopia. Bulletin de Mineralogie, 104(4), 508-525.
Törnroos Ragnar, Johanson Bo, Kojonen Kari, 1998. Alluvial nuggets of platinum group minerals and alloys from Finnish Lapland. Geological survey of Finland, Special Paper
    • Inari
      • Lemmenjoki
33rd International Geological Congress (2008) session MPM-04 Platinum-group mineralogy: Pt-Pd selenides from river placers, northern Finland
    • Penikat complex
Huhtelin, T. A., Alapieti, T. T., & Lahtinen, J. J. (1990). The Paasivaara PGE reef in the Penikat layered intrusion, northern Finland. Mineralogy and Petrology, 42(1-4), 57-70.; 5th International Platinum Symposium Bulletin of The Geological Society of Finland Number 61, Part 1,1989,1-64
    • Sodankylä
Gervilla, F., Kojonen, K. and Merkle, R.K.W., 2005. Platinum-group minerals in the Proterozoic Keivitsa mafic-ultramafic intrusion, Sodankylä, northern Finland. Extended Abstract, 10th International Platinum Symposium, Abstract volume
      • Kevitsansarvi (Keivitsansarvi)
mutanen Tapani 1997. Geology and ore petrology of Akanvaara nd Koitelainen mafic layered intrusions and the Keivitsa -satovaara layered complex, Northern Finland. Geological Survey of Finland, bulletin 395. 233s.; Lips, ALW (2006) A review of non-ferrous mineral deposits in Europe - Finalised initial database BRGM/RP -54957 - FR
  • Northern Finland Region
    • Suomussalmi
Geological Survey of Finland (2017) Mineral deposit Report 10/20/2017
  • New Caledonia
    • Southern Province
      • Yaté Commune
Auge, T., & Maurizot, P. (1995). Stratiform and alluvial platinum mineralization in New Caledonia ophiolite complex. The Canadian Mineralogist, 33(5), 1023-1045.
  • Lower Saxony
    • Harz
      • Bad Sachsa
        • Zorge
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Harz
      • Tilkerode (Abberode)
Lapis 2002(11), 42-43; Stanley, C. J., Criddle, A. J., Förster, H. J., & Roberts, A. C. (2002). Tischendorfite, Pd8Hg3Se9, a new mineral species from Tilkerode, Harz Mountains, Germany. The Canadian Mineralogist, 40(2), 739-745.
  • Karnataka
    • Shimoga schist belt
T. T. Alapieti, T. C. Devaraju, R. J. Kaukonen (2005) Sem-eds Study of the Platinum-group Minerals in the PGE mineralized Hanumalapura Segment of the Layeredmafic-ultramafic Complex of Channagiri, Davangere District, Karnataka. Jour. Geol. Soc. India, 65:745-752.
  • Kerman Province
    • Esfandagheh
Jannessary, M. R., Melcher, F., Lodziak, J., & Meisel, T. C. (2012). Review of platinum-group element distribution and mineralogy in chromitite ores from southern Iran. Ore Geology Reviews, 48, 278-305.
  • Hokkaido
    • Kamikawa Province
Urashima and Nedachi (1978) Watanabe Manjiro Sensei Beiju Kinen Ronshu, 115-121.; Urashima, Y., & Wakabayashi, T. (1972). Mineral compositions of placer platinum from Teshio in Hokkaido, Japan(Quantitative analysis and identification of chemical properties of minerals in Japanese placer platinoids). Kagoshima Daigaku Rika Hokoku,(Kagoshima), (21), 119-135.
    • Sorachi Province
Urashima and Nedachi (1978) Watanabe Manjiro Sensei Beiju Kinen Ronshu, 115-121.
  • Honshu Island
    • Chugoku Region
      • Tottori Prefecture
Arai et al (1999) Mineralogical Magazine, 63, 369-377.
  • Finnmark
    • Porsanger
Nilsson, L. P. & Larsen, R. B. (1998): Edle mineraler i mafiske og ultramafiske bergarter- en oppsummering av platina-gruppe mineraler (PGM) funnet i Norge i de senere år. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 14: 40-49
  • Trøndelag
    • Grong
      • Grong ore field
Nilsson, L. P. & Larsen, R. B. (1998): Edle mineraler i mafiske og ultramafiske bergarter- en oppsummering av platina-gruppe mineraler (PGM) funnet i Norge i de senere år. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 14: 40-49
    • Leka
Nilsson, L. P. & Larsen, R. B. (1998): Edle mineraler i mafiske og ultramafiske bergarter- en oppsummering av platina-gruppe mineraler (PGM) funnet i Norge i de senere år. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 14: 40-49; Econ Geol (1993) 88:782-803
    • Røros
      • Feragen
Nilson, L. P. (1990): Platinum-group mineral inclusions in chromitite from the Osthammeren ultramafic tectonite body, South Central Norway. Mineralogy and Petrology 42: 249-263
  • Luzon
    • Cordillera Administrative Region
      • Benguet Province
        • Benguet Property
          • Tuba
Piestrzyński, A., Schmidt, S.Th., Franco, H. (1994): Pd-minerals in the Sto. Tomas II, porphyry copper deposit, Tuba Benguet, Philippines. Mineralogia Polonica: 25(2): 21-31
  • Kamchatka Krai
[Canadian Mineralogist 38 p1251-1264 "The association of platinum-group minerals in placers of the Pustaya River, Kamchatka, Russia"]
  • Krasnoyarsk Krai
    • Taymyrskiy Autonomous Okrug
      • Taimyr Peninsula
        • Putoran Plateau
Econ Geol (1986) 81:1203-1212
            • Talnakh Cu-Ni Deposit
Vymazalová, A., Laufek, F., Sluzhenikin, S.F., Stanley, C.J., Kozlov, V.V., Chareev, D.A., Lukashova, M.L. (2017): Kravtsovite, PdAg2S, a new mineral from the Noril’sk-Talnakh deposit, Krasnoyarskiy kray, Russia. European Journal of Mineralogy: 29: 597-602.
              • Oktyabrsky Mine (Oktyabr'skoe Cu-Ni deposit; Oktyabr'skoye; Oktyabr'sky)
2014 Ultramafic-mafic intrusions, volcanic rocks and PGE-Cu-Ni sulfide deposits of the Noril’sk Province, Polar Siberia . 12th International Platinum Symposium
  • Murmansk Oblast
    • Monche-Tundra
      • Monche tundra intrusion
Grokhovskaya, T. L., Lapina, M. I., & Mokhov, A. V. (2009). Assemblages and genesis of platinum-group minerals in low-sulfide ores of the Monchetundra deposit, Kola peninsula, Russia. Geology of Ore Deposits, 51(6), 467-485.
      • Monchegorsk
33 IGC excursion No 48, August 15 – 21, 2008; Grokhovskaya, T.L., Griboedova, I.G. & Karimova, O.V. (2014) Diversity of PGM Assemblages in Pge Deposits of the Monchegorsk Igneous Complex, Russia. 12th International Platinum Symposium p249
  • Republic of Karelia
    • Northern Karelia
      • Oulanka plutonic complex
        • Olanga River (Oulanka River)
          • Lukkulaisvaara ultrabasic Massif (Lukkulaisvaara pluton; Lukkulaisvaara layered intrusion)
Mineralogical Magazine 1996 60 : 973-978.
  • Sakha Republic (Yakutia)
    • Aldan Shield
Jambor, J.L. and Roberts, A.C. (2001) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 86: 197-200.; American Mineralogist: 85: 199.
  • Tuva
    • Sayan Mts
      • Eastern Sayan
Alexander V. Dedeev et al (2002) The PGE-Bearing Sulphide Ores of the Kingash Mafic-Ultramafic Differentiated Intrusion and Ore Processing Characteristics, East Sajan, Russia. 9th annual platinum symposium
  • Zabaykalsky Krai
    • Chitinskaya Oblast
      • Chiney massif
Can Min (2002) 40, (2), 679-692
South Africa
  • Free State Province
    • Lejweleputswa District
Minerals of South Africa
Minerals of South Africa
  • Limpopo Province
      • Burgersfort
        • Sekhukhuneland
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; Oberthür, T., Melcher, F., Sitnikova, M., Rudashevsky, N. S., Rudashevsky, V. N., Cabri, L. J., ... & Gast, L. (2008). Combination of novel mineralogical methods in the study of noble metal ores–focus on pristine (Bushveld, Great Dyke) and placer platinum mineralisation. In Ninth International Congress for Applied Mineralogy ICAM (pp. 187-194).; Melcher, F., & Lodziak, J. (2007). Platinum-group minerals of concentrates from the Driekop platinum pipe, Eastern Bushveld Complex Tribute to Eugen F. Stumpfl. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Abhandlungen: Journal of Mineralogy and Geochemistry, 183(2), 173-195.
The Canadian Mineralogist Vol. 43, pp. 1711-1734 (2005)
McDonald, I., Vaughan, D. J., & Tredoux, M. (1995). Platinum mineralization in quartz veins near Naboomspruit, central Transvaal. S. Afr. J. Geol, 98, 168-175.
      • Waterberg District
        • Mokopane (Potgietersrus)
Ramdohr, Paul, 1969, The Ore Minerals and their Intergrowths, Pergamon Press, p. 414.
Holwell, D. A., McDonald, I., & Armitage, P. E. B. (2006). Platinum-group mineral assemblages in the Platreef at the Sandsloot Mine, northern Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 70(1), 83-101.; HOLWELL D.A., MCDONALD I. & ARMITAGE, P.E.B. (2006). Platinum-group mineral assemblages in the Platreef at the South Central Pit, Sandsloot Mine, northern Bushveld Complex, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine, 70, 83-101.
Cabri, L. J. & Chen, T.T. (1976) : Stibiopalladinite from the type locality. American Mineralogist. 61, 1249-1254
  • Mpumalanga Province
    • Eastern Bushveld Complex
      • Lydenburg
Ramdohr, Paul, 1969, The Ore Minerals and their Intergrowths, Pergamon Press, p. 344.
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990; Cabri, L. J., Laflamme, J. G., & Stewart, J. M. (1977). Platinum-group minerals from Onverwacht; II, Platarsite, a new sulfarsenide of platinum. The Canadian Mineralogist, 15(3), 385-388.
  • North West Province
    • Bojanala Platinum District
      • Western Bushveld Complex
        • Rustenburg (Rustenburg District)
Brynard, H. J., De Villiers, J. P. R., & Viljoen, E. A. (1976). A mineralogical investigation of the Merensky Reef at the Western Platinum mine, near Marikana, South Africa. Economic Geology, 71(7), 1299-1307.
    • Dr Kenneth Kaunda District
      • Witwatersrand field
        • Klerksdorp
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
  • Andalusia
    • Málaga
Gervilla, F., Gutiérrez-Narbona, R., & Fenoll-Hach-Alí, P. (2002). The origin of different types of magmatic mineralizations from small-volume melts in the lherzolite massifs of the Serranía de Ronda. Boletín de la Sociedad Espanola de Mineralogía, 25, 79-96.
  • Catalonia
    • Tarragona
      • Conca de Barberà
        • Vimbodí
          • Poblet Monastery
C.. Canet et al. , The Canadian Mineralogist, 2003, V41, pp. 581-595
  • Scotland
    • Shetland Islands
      • Unst
A G Gunn, R C Leake and M T Styles (1985) Platinum-group element mineralisation in the Unst ophiolite, Shetland British Geological Survey Mineral Reconnaissance report 73
  • Alaska
    • Bethel Borough
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 1, 1990
    • Prince of Wales-Outer Ketchikan Borough
      • Ketchikan District
        • Prince of Wales Island
          • Kasaan Peninsula
Econ Geol(1992) 87:185-184; US Geological Survey, 2005, Alaska Resource Data File (ARDF)
  • Minnesota
    • St. Louis Co.
      • Western Margin Duluth Complex
Raič, S., Mogessie, A., Benkó, Z., Molnár, F., Hauck, S., & Severson, M. (2015). Arsenic-rich Cu-Ni-PGE mineralization in Wetlegs, Duluth complex, St. Louis county, Minnesota, USA. The Canadian Mineralogist, 53:105-132
  • Montana
    • Sweet Grass Co.
      • Stillwater Complex
Econ Geol (1986) 81:1953-1975
  • Pennsylvania
    • Chester Co.
      • State Line Chromite District
Smith and Barnes (2011) Pennsylvania Geology v. 41, no. 3/4.
  • Masvingo
    • Chiredzi mining district (Hartley mining district)
      • Chiredzi
LIU, J., JIN, S. and WANG, Y. (2014), The Occurrence of Useful Components in Platinum-Palladium Deposit in the Great Dyke, Zimbabwe. Acta Geologica Sinica, 88: 1466–1467
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