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Stephanite

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Archduke Stephan Franz Victor von Habsburg-Lothringen
Formula:
Ag5SbS4
Colour:
Lead gray or black
Lustre:
Metallic
Hardness:
2 - 2½
Specific Gravity:
6.26
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
Named after the Austrian Mining Director/engineer and life-long mineral collector, Archduke Stephan Franz Victor von Habsburg-Lothringen (1817-1867).
This page provides mineralogical data about Stephanite.


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Classification of StephaniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
2.GB.10

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
G : Sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites
B : Neso-sulfarsenites, etc. with additional S
3.2.4.1

3 : SULFOSALTS
2 : ø = 4
5.2.11

5 : Sulphosalts - Sulpharsenites and Sulphobismuthites (those containing Sn, Ge,or V are in Section 6)
2 : Sulpharsenites etc. of Ag

Physical Properties of StephaniteHide

Metallic
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Lead gray or black
Streak:
Iron Black
Hardness:
2 - 2½ on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Imperfect/Fair
[010] Imperfect, [021] Poor
Fracture:
Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
6.26 g/cm3 (Measured)    6.28 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of StephaniteHide

Type:
Anisotropic
Anisotropism:
Strong
Colour in reflected light:
white-grey
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
white to pink-white

Chemical Properties of StephaniteHide

Formula:
Ag5SbS4
Common Impurities:
As,Cu,Fe

Crystallography of StephaniteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mm2 - Pyramidal
Space Group:
Cmc21
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.837(3) Å, b = 12.467(6) Å, c = 8.538(2) Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.629 : 1 : 0.685
Unit Cell V:
834.20 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals short prismatic to tabular
Twinning:
On {110}; less common on {130}{100}{010}.

Crystallographic forms of StephaniteHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Stephanite no.10 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Stephanite no.82 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.56 (30)
3.08 (100)
2.89 (60)
2.58 (90)
2.19 (40)
2.13 (50)
1.834 (40)

Type Occurrence of StephaniteHide

Synonyms of StephaniteHide

Other Language Names for StephaniteHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Quartz30 photos of Stephanite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Polybasite22 photos of Stephanite associated with Polybasite on mindat.org.
Acanthite14 photos of Stephanite associated with Acanthite on mindat.org.
Pyrargyrite12 photos of Stephanite associated with Pyrargyrite on mindat.org.
Pyrite9 photos of Stephanite associated with Pyrite on mindat.org.
Calcite7 photos of Stephanite associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Baryte7 photos of Stephanite associated with Baryte on mindat.org.
Fluorite6 photos of Stephanite associated with Fluorite on mindat.org.
Silver5 photos of Stephanite associated with Silver on mindat.org.
Argentopyrite4 photos of Stephanite associated with Argentopyrite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

2.GB.05ArgentotennantiteAg6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13Iso. 4 3m : I4 3m
2.GB.05FreibergiteAg6[Cu4Fe2]Sb4S13-xIso. 4 3m : I4 3m
2.GB.05GirauditeCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4Se13Iso. 4 3m : I4 3m
2.GB.05GoldfielditeCu10Te4S13Iso. 4 3m : I4 3m
2.GB.05HakiteCu6[Cu4Hg2]Sb4Se13Iso. 4 3m : I4 3m
2.GB.05TennantiteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13Iso. 4 3m : I4 3m
2.GB.05TetrahedriteCu6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]Sb4S13Iso. 4 3m : I4 3m
2.GB.10SelenostephaniteAg5Sb(Se,S)4Orth.
2.GB.15Pearceite[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
2.GB.15Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]Mon. 2/m : B2/m
2.GB.15UM2003-14-S:AgBiFeTeAg16FeBiTe3S8
2.GB.15Selenopolybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2(S,Se)7][Ag9Cu(S,Se)2Se2]Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
2.GB.15Cupropearceite[Cu6As2S7][Ag9CuS4]Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
2.GB.15Cupropolybasite[Cu6Sb2S7][Ag9CuS4]Trig. 3m : P3 1m
2.GB.15UM1979-17-S:BiCuFe~Cu18Fe4BiS16
2.GB.20Galkhaite(Cs,Tl)(Hg,Cu,Zn)6(As,Sb)4S12Iso. 4 3m : I4 3m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

3.2.4.2SelenostephaniteAg5Sb(Se,S)4Orth.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

5.2.1SmithiteAgAsS2Mon. 2/m
5.2.2TrechmanniteAgAsS2Trig.
5.2.3ProustiteAg3AsS3Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
5.2.4XanthoconiteAg3AsS3Mon. 2/m : B2/b
5.2.5Pearceite[Ag9CuS4][(Ag,Cu)6(As,Sb)2S7]Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
5.2.6Pearceite-T2acTrig. 3 2 : P3 2 1
5.2.7ArgentotennantiteAg6[Cu4(Fe,Zn)2]As4S13Iso. 4 3m : I4 3m
5.2.8MiargyriteAgSbS2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
5.2.9PyrargyriteAg3SbS3Trig. 3m : R3c
5.2.10PyrostilpniteAg3SbS3Mon.
5.2.12Polybasite[(Ag,Cu)6(Sb,As)2S7][Ag9CuS4]Mon. 2/m : B2/m
5.2.13BillingsleyiteAg7AsS6Iso. 2 3 : P21 3
5.2.14Polybasite-TacTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
5.2.15FreibergiteAg6[Cu4Fe2]Sb4S13-xIso. 4 3m : I4 3m
5.2.16AramayoiteAg3Sb2(Bi,Sb)S6Tric. 1 : P1
5.2.17MatilditeAgBiS2Hex.
5.2.18SchapbachiteAg0.4Pb0.2Bi0.4SIso.
5.2.19PavoniteAgBi3S5Mon. 2/m : B2/m
5.2.20ArcubisiteAg6CuBiS4
5.2.21BohdanowicziteAgBiSe2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
5.2.22SelenostephaniteAg5Sb(Se,S)4Orth.
5.2.23Benleonardite[Ag6(Sb,As)2S6Te] [Ag9Cu(S,Te)2Te2]Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
5.2.24VolynskiteAgBiTe2Orth.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
Silver ore

References for StephaniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
W. Haidinger (1845) Zweite Klasse: Geogenide. XIV. Ordnung. Glanze. VIII. Melanglanz. Stephanit. In: Handbuch der Bestimmenden Mineralogie. Braumüller und Seidel, Wien, p. 570 [http://rruff.info/uploads/HMB1845_563.pdf].
Fenoglio, M. (1928) Contributo allo studio cristallografico della stefanite del Sarrabus (Sardegna). Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova: 53: 30.
Murdoch, J. (1942) Crystallographic notes, cristobalite, stephanite, natrolite: American Mineralogist: 27: 500-506.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 358-360.
Ribar B., Nowacki W. (1970) Acta Crystallographica B26, 201.
Leitl, M., Pfitzner, A., Bindi, L. (2009) Preferred ion diffusion pathways and activation energies for Ag in the crystal structure of stephanite, Ag5SbS4. Mineralogical Magazine: 73: 17-26.

Internet Links for StephaniteHide

Localities for StephaniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListShow

Mineral and/or Locality  
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