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Stishovite

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Formula:
SiO2
Colour:
Colourless
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
7½ - 8
Specific Gravity:
4.35
Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Member of:
Name:
Named after Sergei Mikhailovich Stishov, Crystallographer, Institute of Crystallography, Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russia) who synthesized the compound.
Rutile Group.

A high-pressure polymorph of SiO2. Found as microscopic grains in impact craters and in ultra-high pressure rocks.


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Classification of StishoviteHide

Approved
4.DA.40

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
A : With small cations: Silica family
4.4.1.9

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
4 : AX2
7.8.4

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
8 : Oxides of Si

Physical Properties of StishoviteHide

Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
Colourless
Hardness:
7½ - 8 on Mohs scale
Hardness:
VHN100=1700 - 2800 kg/mm2 - Vickers
Comment:
Synthetic; 2080 parallel to [001], 1700 perpendicular [001]
Density:
4.35 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.29 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Comment:
Synthetic material

Optical Data of StishoviteHide

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.799 - 1.800 nε = 1.826 - 1.845
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.027
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High

Chemical Properties of StishoviteHide

Formula:
SiO2

Crystallography of StishoviteHide

Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Class (H-M):
4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
P42/mnm
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.1772(7) Å, c = 2.6651(4) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.638
Unit Cell V:
46.50 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
2
Morphology:
Aggregates of submicron particles.
Comment:
Synthetic material

Type Occurrence of StishoviteHide

Synonyms of StishoviteHide

Other Language Names for StishoviteHide

Relationship of Stishovite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
ArgutiteGeO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
CassiteriteSnO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
ParatelluriteTeO2Tet.
PlattneritePbO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m)
PyrolusiteMnO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
RutileTiO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
TripuhyiteFe3+Sb5+O4Tet.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Magadiite3 photos of Stishovite associated with Magadiite on mindat.org.
Kenyaite3 photos of Stishovite associated with Kenyaite on mindat.org.
Coesite3 photos of Stishovite associated with Coesite on mindat.org.
Taenite2 photos of Stishovite associated with Taenite on mindat.org.
Kamacite2 photos of Stishovite associated with Kamacite on mindat.org.
Troilite2 photos of Stishovite associated with Troilite on mindat.org.
Pyroxene Group1 photo of Stishovite associated with Pyroxene Group on mindat.org.
Titanite1 photo of Stishovite associated with Titanite on mindat.org.
Pigeonite1 photo of Stishovite associated with Pigeonite on mindat.org.
Augite1 photo of Stishovite associated with Augite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.DA.Carbon Dioxide IceCO2
4.DA.05QuartzSiO2Trig. 3 2 : P31 2 1
4.DA.10OpalSiO2 · nH2O
4.DA.10TridymiteSiO2Tric. 1
4.DA.15CristobaliteSiO2Tet. 4 2 2 : P41 21 2
4.DA.20MogániteSiO2Mon.
4.DA.25Melanophlogite46SiO2 · 6(N2,CO2) · 2(CH4,N2)Tet.
4.DA.30LechatelieriteSiO2
4.DA.35CoesiteSiO2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
4.DA.45KeatiteSiO2
4.DA.50SeifertiteSiO2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

4.4.1.1RutileTiO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.4.1.2IlmenorutileFex(Nb,Ta)2x · 4Ti1-xO2Tet.
4.4.1.3Strüverite(Ti,Ta,Fe)O2
4.4.1.4PyrolusiteMnO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.4.1.5CassiteriteSnO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.4.1.6PlattneritePbO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m)
4.4.1.7ArgutiteGeO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.8.1QuartzSiO2Trig. 3 2 : P31 2 1
7.8.2CoesiteSiO2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
7.8.3TridymiteSiO2Tric. 1
7.8.5CristobaliteSiO2Tet. 4 2 2 : P41 21 2
7.8.6LechatelieriteSiO2
7.8.7Silhydrite3SiO2 · H2OOrth.
7.8.8OpalSiO2 · nH2O
7.8.9MogániteSiO2Mon.

Other InformationHide

Thermal Behaviour:
Forms at > 1200C and ~100 kilobars. Metastable, alters above 300C.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for StishoviteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Stishov, S.M., Popova, S.V. (1961) A new modification of silica. Geochemistry: 10: 923-926.
Chao, E.C.T., Fahey, J.J., Littler, J., Milton, E.J. (1962) Stishovite, a very high pressure new mineral from Meteor Crater, AZ. Journal of Geophysical Research: 67: 419-421.
Fleischer, M. (1962) New mineral names - stishovite. American Mineralogist: 47: 807.
Preisinger, A. (1962) Struktur des Stishovits, Höchstdruck-SiO2. Naturwissenschaften: 49: 345.
Fahey J.J. (1964) Recovery of coesite and stishovite from Coconino Sandstone of Meteor Crater, AZ. American Mineralogist: 49: 1643-1647.
Bohn, E. Stöber, W. (1966) Coesit und Stishovit als isolierte natürliche Mineralien. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte: 1966: 89-96.
Holm, J.L., Kleppa, O.J., Westrum, E.F. (1967) Thermodynamics of polymorphic transformations in silica. Thermal properties from 5 to 1070°K and pressure-temperature stability fields for coesite and stishovite. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 31: 2289-2307.
Sinclair, W., Ringwood, A.E. (1978) Single crystal analysis of the structure of stishovite. Nature: 272: 714-715.
Hemley, R.J., Mao, H.-K., Chao, E.C.T. (1986) Raman spectrum of natural and synthetic stishovite. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 13: 285-290.
Ross, N.L., Shu, J.F., Hazen, R.M., Gasparik, T. (1990) High-pressure crystal chemistry of stishovite. American Mineralogist: 75: 739-747.
Hofmeister, A.M., Xu, J., Akimoto, S. (1990) Infrared spectroscopy of synthetic and natural stishovite. American Mineralogist: 75: 951.
Pawley, A.R., Mcillan, P.F., Holloway, J.R. (1993) Hydrogen in stishovite, with implications for mantle water content. Science: 261: 1024-1026.
Xue, X., Stebbins, J.F., Kanzaki, M. (1993) A 29Si MAS NMR study of sub-Tg amorphization of stishovite at ambient pressure. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 19: 480-485.
Mao, H.-K., Shu, J., Hu, J., Hemley, R.J. (1994) Single-crystal X-ray diffraction of stishovite to 65 GPa. Eos Transactions of the American Geophysical Union: 75: 662.
Kingma, K.J., Cohen, R.E., Hemley, R.J., Mao, H.-K. (1995) Transformation of stishovite to a denser phase at lower-mantle pressures. Nature: 374: 243-245.
Lee, C., Gonze, X. (1995) The pressure-induced ferroelastic phase transition of SiO2 stishovite. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter: 7: 3693-3698.
Dubrovinsky, L.S., Belonoshko, A.B. (1996) Pressure-induced phase transition and structural changes under deviatoric stress of stishovite to CaCl2-like structure. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 60: 3657-3663.
Li, B., Rigden, S.M., Liebermann, R.C. (1996) Elasticity of stishovite at high pressure. Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors: 96: 113-127.
Zhang, J., Li, B., Utsumi, W., Liebermann, R.C. (1996) In situ X-ray observations of the coesite-stishovite transition: reversed phase boundary and kinetics. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 23: 1-10.
Lee, C., Gonze, X. (1997) SiO2 stishovite under high pressure: dielectric and dynamical properties and the ferroelastic phase transition. Physical Review B: 56: 7321-7330.
Andrault, D., Fiquet, G., Guyot, F., Hanfland, M. (1998) Pressure-induced Landau-type transition in stishovite. Science: 23: 720-724.
Carpenter, M.A., Hemley, R.J., Mao, H.-K. (2000) High-pressure elasticity of stishovite and the P4 2/mnm ↔ Pnnm phase transition. Journal of Geophysical Research: 105: 10807-10816.
Chung, J.I., Kagi, H. (2002) High concentration of water in stishovite in the MORB system. Geophysical Research Letters: 29, 2020, DOI: 10.1029/2002GL015579.
Andrault, D., Angel, R.J., Mosenfelder, J.L., Le Bihan, T. (2003) Equation of state of stishovite to lower mantle pressures. American Mineralogist: 88: 301-307.
Panero, W.R, Benedetti, L.R., J. Raymond (2003) Equation of state of stishovite and interpretation of SiO2 shock-compression data. Journal of Geophysical Research: 108(B1): 1-5.
Stebbins, J.F., Du, L.-S., Kelsey, K., Kojitani, H., Akaogi, M., Ono, S. (2006) Aluminum substitution in stishovite and MgSiO3 perovskite: High-resolution 27 Al NMR. American Mineralogist: 91: 337-343.
Pabst, W., Gregorová, E. (2013) Elastic properties of silica polymorphs - a review. Ceramics - Silikáty: 57: 167-184.

Internet Links for StishoviteHide

Localities for StishoviteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Algeria
 
  • Sahara Desert
Shohei Kaneko, Eiji Ohtani, Masaaki Miyahara, Takeshi Sakai, Masahiro Kayama, Hirotsugu Nishido, Yasuo Oishi, Naohisa Hirao (2011) Dynamic event recorded in a lunar meteorite NWA 4734. Japan Geooscience Union Meeting Makuhari, Chiba Japan.; Wang, Y., & Hsu, W. (2016). Shock-Induced Metamorphism in the Lunar Meteorite Northwest Africa 4734. LPI Contributions, 1921.
Antarctica
 
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Queen Maud Land (Dronning Maud Land)
      • Sør Rondane Mts
Ohtani, E., Ozawa, S., Miyahara, M., Ito, Y., Mikouchi, T., Kimura, M., ... & Hiraga, K. (2011). Coesite and stishovite in a shocked lunar meteorite, Asuka-881757, and impact events in lunar surface. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(2), 463-466.
Brazil
 
  • Mato Grosso
    • Juína
Cid, J. P., Nardi, L. V. S., Cid, C. P., Gisbert, P. E., & Balzaretti, N. M. (2014). Acid compositions in a veined-lower mantle, as indicated by inclusions of (K, Na)-Hollandite+ SiO 2 in diamonds. Lithos, 196, 42-53.
Egypt
 
  • Matruh Governorate
    • East Uweinat Desert
Gian Paolo Sighinolfi, Chiara Elmi, Romano Serra, and Gabriele Contini (2014): High density silica phases as evidence of small-scale hypervelocity impacts: the Gebel Kamil Crater (Egypt). Periodico di Mineralogia 83, 299-312.
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Nördlinger Ries Crater
      • Unterschneidheim
        • Zipplingen
Stähle, V., Altherr, R., Koch, M., and Nasdala, L. (2008): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 155, 457-472.
  • Bavaria
    • Swabia
      • Nördlinger Ries Crater
        • Nördlingen
http://geosciences.smsu.edu/geology/FieldTrips/Ries/page2.html
Stähle, V., Altherr, R., Koch, M., and Nasdala, L. (2008): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 155, 457-472.
India
 
  • Maharashtra
    • Buldhana District
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
Morocco
 
  • Souss-Massa Region
    • Tata Province
Baziotis, I. P., Liu, Y., DeCarli, P. S., Melosh, H. J., McSween, H. Y., Bodnar, R. J., & Taylor, L. A. (2013). The Tissint Martian meteorite as evidence for the largest impact excavation. Nature Communications, 4, 1404.
Nigeria
 
  • Katsina State
Zhidong Xie et al. , Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI (2005), 1216.pdf
  • Yobe State
    • Bogga Dingare
Garvie, L. A. J.; Németh, P.; Buseck, P. R. (2011). Diamond, Bucky-Diamond, Graphite-Diamond, Al-Silicate, and Stishovite in the Gujba CB Chondrite. 74th Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, held August 8-12, 2011 in London, UK. Published in Meteoritics and Planetary Science Supplement, id. #5227.
Northwest Africa
 
www2.jpl.nasa.gov/snc/news51.html
Barrat, J. A., Gillet, P., Sautter, V., Jambon, A., Javoy, M., Göpel, C., ... & Petit, E. (2001). The basaltic shergottite North West Africa 480: Petrology and geochemistry. Meteoritics and Planetary Science Supplement, 36, 14.
Russia
 
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Koriak Autonomous Okrug
      • Koryak Upland (Koriak; Koriakskhiye)
        • Iomrautvaam Massif
          • Chetkinvaiam tectonic melange
            • Khatyrka river
              • Listvenitovyi stream
Bindi, L., Steinhardt, P.J., Yao, N., Lu, P.J. (2011) Icosahedrite, Al63Cu24Fe13, the first natural quasicrystal. American Mineralogist, 96, 928-931.
South Africa
 
  • Free State Province
    • Fezile Dabi District
Cairncross, B. and Dixon, R., (1995) Minerals of South Africa. The Geological Society of South Africa.
http://www.unb.ca/passc/ImpactDatabase/images/vredefort.htm
Sweden
 
  • Norrbotten
    • Pajala
      • Kitkiöjärvi
Holtstam, D., Broman, C., Söderhielm, J., Dan; Broman, C.; Söderhielm, J.; Zetterqvist, A. (2003): First discovery of stishovite in an iron meteorite. Meteoritics & Planetary Science (Meteoritical Society). 38 (11): 1579–1583
USA (TL)
 
  • Arizona
    • Coconino Co.
      • Winslow
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 383; Chao, E.C.T., et al (1962), Stishovite, a very high pressure new mineral from Meteor Crater, AZ, Jour. Geophys. Res.: 67: 419-421; Fahey, J.J. (1964), Recovery of coesite and stishovite from Coconino Sandstone of Meteor Crater, AZ, Am.Min.: 49: 1643-1647; Bohn, E. & W. Stöber (1966), Coesit und Stishovit als isolierte natürliche Mineralien, Neues Jahrb. Min.: 89-96; Gigl, P.D. & F. Dachille (1968), Effect of pressure and temperature on the reversal transitions of stishovite, Meteorites: 4: 123-136; J. Geophys. Res. 67 (1962), 419.
  • Indiana
    • Newton Co.
      • Kentland (Kent)
  • New Mexico
    • Colfax Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
  • Oklahoma
    • Johnston Co.
www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2005/pdf/2062.pdf.
  • Texas
    • Randall Co.
Zhidong Xie et al. , Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI (2005), 1216.pdf
The Moon
 
  • Mare Imbrium
    • Palus Putredinis
Kaneko, S., Miyahara, M., Ohtani, E., Arai, T., Hirao, N., & Sato, K. (2015). Discovery of stishovite in Apollo 15299 sample. American Mineralogist, 100(5-6), 1308-1311.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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