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About StruviteHide

Heinrich C. G. Struve
(NH4)Mg(PO4) · 6H2O
Colourless, white (dehydrated), yellow or brownish, light grey; colourless in transmitted light.
1½ - 2
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Member of:
Named after Heinrich Christoph Gottfried Struve (10 January 1772, Regensburg, Germany - 9 January 1851, Hamburg, Germany) of the Russian diplomatic service, Consul at Hamburg (Germany). He was a co-founder of a natural science museum in Hamburg.
[For comment on name see http://www.mindat.org/mesg-7-284821.html]
Isostructural with:
Struvite Group.
The ammonium analogue of Struvite-(K).

A mineral commonly found as a product of organic decay in putrescent matter, canned foods or other bacterial action on organic compounds, and as a constituent of human kidney and bladder stones in alkaline and infected urines.

Classification of StruviteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

C : Phosphates without additional anions, with H2O
H : With large and medium-sized cations, RO4:H2O < 1:1

1 : AB(XO4)·xH2O

19 : Phosphates
3 : Phosphates of Be and Mg

Physical Properties of StruviteHide

Transparent, Translucent
Colourless, white (dehydrated), yellow or brownish, light grey; colourless in transmitted light.
1½ - 2 on Mohs scale
On {001}, good; on {100}, poor.
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
1.711 g/cm3 (Measured)    1.705 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of StruviteHide

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.495 nβ = 1.496 nγ = 1.504
Measured: 37° , Calculated: 40°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.009
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
relatively weak

Chemical Properties of StruviteHide

(NH4)Mg(PO4) · 6H2O

Crystallography of StruviteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
mm2 - Pyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.94 Å, b = 11.2 Å, c = 6.13 Å
a:b:c = 0.62 : 1 : 0.547
Unit Cell V:
476.47 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals equant; wedge-shaped (due to large and unequally developed {101} and {10_1}), coffin-shaped (when viewed along [100]); short prismatic [001], [010], or [100]; thick tabular {100}. The distribution of the pyramidal or domical faces is often irregular. Crystals commonly distinct, to 1 inch (2.5 cm), with a distinct hemimorphic habit.
On {001}. The acute poles of [001] unite in the composition plane {001}, with deep re-entrant angles.

Crystallographic forms of StruviteHide

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Struvite no.36 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Struvite no.47 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

Edge Lines | Miller Indices | Axes

Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
5.905 (40)
5.601 (60)
4.257 (100)
4.139 (40)
2.919 (55)
2.690 (50)
2.660 (45)

Type Occurrence of StruviteHide

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Medieval sewers

Synonyms of StruviteHide

Other Language Names for StruviteHide

Simplified Chinese:鸟粪石

Relationship of Struvite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
HazeniteKNaMg2(PO4)2 · 14H2OOrth. mm2
Struvite-(K)KMg(PO4)·6H2OOrth. mm2 : Pmn21

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Newberyite2 photos of Struvite associated with Newberyite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

8.CH.05WalentaiteFe3+3(P0.84As0.16O4)2(O,OH)6As3+2.56Ca0.42Na0.28Mn2+0.35Fe2+0.30O6.1(OH)0.9(H2O)0.9Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Imma
8.CH.10AnapaiteCa2Fe2+(PO4)2 · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.CH.15PicropharmacoliteCa4Mg(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 11H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.CH.20Dittmarite(NH4)Mg(PO4) · H2OOrth.
8.CH.20Niahite(NH4)(Mn2+,Mg)(PO4) · H2OOrth. mm2 : Pmn21
8.CH.25FrancoanelliteK3Al5(PO4)2(HPO4)3 · 12H2OTrig.
8.CH.25Taranakite(K,NH4)Al3(PO4)3(OH) · 9H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3c
8.CH.30Schertelite(NH4)2MgH2(PO4)2 · 4H2OOrth.
8.CH.35Hannayite(NH4)2Mg3H4(PO4)4 · 8H2OTric. 1 : P1
8.CH.40Struvite-(K)KMg(PO4)·6H2OOrth. mm2 : Pmn21
8.CH.40HazeniteKNaMg2(PO4)2 · 14H2OOrth. mm2
8.CH.45Rimkorolgite(Mg,Mn)5(Ba,Sr,Ca)(PO4)4 · 8H2OOrth.
8.CH.50BakhchisaraitseviteNa2Mg5(PO4)4 · 7H2OMon.
8.CH.55FahleiteCaZn5Fe3+2(AsO4)6 · 14H2OOrth.
8.CH.55SmolyaninoviteCo3Fe3+2(AsO4)4 · 11H2OOrth.
8.CH.60Barahonaite-(Al)(Ca,Cu,Na,Fe3+,Al)12Al2(AsO4)8(OH,Cl)x · nH2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
8.CH.60Barahonaite-(Fe)(Ca,Cu,Na,Fe3+,Al)12Fe3+2(AsO4)8(OH,Cl)x · nH2OMon. 2/m : P2/b

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide·6H2OOrth. mm2 : Pmn21

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

19.3.1MoraesiteBe2(PO4)(OH) · 4H2OMon.
19.3.2BerylloniteNaBePO4Mon. 2/m : P21/b
19.3.4HydroxylherderiteCaBe(PO4)(OH,F)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
19.3.5GlucineCaBe4(PO4)2(OH)4 · 0.5H2O
19.3.6FransoletiteCa3Be2(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2OMon.
19.3.7UraloliteCa2Be4(PO4)3(OH)3 · 5H2OMon.
19.3.9PahasapaiteLi8(Ca,Li,K)10.5Be24(PO4)24 · 38H2OIso. 2 3 : I2 3
19.3.10TiptopiteK2(Na,Ca)2Li3Be6(PO4)6(OH)2 · H2OHex.
19.3.11GainesiteNa(Na,K)(Be,Li)Zr2(PO4)4 · 1.5-2H2OTet. 4mm : I41md
19.3.12RoscheriteCa2Mn2+5Be4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
19.3.13FaheyiteBe2Mn2+Fe3+2(PO4)4 · 6H2OTrig. 3 2 : P31 2 1
19.3.14FarringtoniteMg3(PO4)2Mon. 2/m
19.3.15HoltedahliteMg2(PO4)(OH)Trig. 3m : P3 1m
19.3.16AlthausiteMg4(PO4)2(OH,O)(F,☐)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
19.3.17NewberyiteMg(HPO4) · 3H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
19.3.18PhosphorrössleriteMg(HPO4) · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
19.3.19BobierriteMg3(PO4)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
19.3.20Barićite(Mg,Fe)3(PO4)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
19.3.21Panethite(Na,Ca)2(Mg,Fe2+)2(PO4)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
19.3.22Dittmarite(NH4)Mg(PO4) · H2OOrth.
19.3.24Hannayite(NH4)2Mg3H4(PO4)4 · 8H2OTric. 1 : P1

Other InformationHide

Pyroelectric. Piezoelectric.
Readily soluble in acids. Very slightly soluble in water.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for StruviteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Ulex, G.L. (1845) Svenska Vetenskapsakademien, Stockholm, Handlingar [Ak. Stockholm, Öfv.]: 3: 32 (as Struveit).
Teschemacher (1846) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 28: 546 (as Guanite).
Ulex, G.L. (1846) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 58: 99 (as Struveit).
Hausmann, J.F.L. (1847) Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen. Second edition: vol. 2, in two parts.
Ulex, G.L. (1847) Struvit. Öfversigt af Kongliga Vetenskaps-Akademiens Förhandlingar: 1847: 32-33.
Ulex, G.L. (1848) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 66: 41 (as Struveit).
Ulex, G.L. (1851) Über Struveit. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geognosie, Geologie und Petrefakten-Kunde: 1851: 51-59.
Pittman, E.F. (1870) Contributions to the Minerals of Victoria: 56.
Sadebeck (1877) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 113.
Kalkowsky (1886) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 11: 1.
MacIvor, R.W.E. (1887) On Australian bat guano and some minerals occurring therein. The Chemical News: 55: 215-216.
Robinson (1889) Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society: 6: 360.
Arzruni (1890) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 18: 60.
Goldschmidt, V. (1890-91) Index der Krystallformen der Mineralien. 3 volumes: vol. 3, 420p.: 167.
Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 806.
Hoffmann, G.C. (1901) On some new mineral occurrences in Canada. American Journal of Science: 11: 149.
MacIvor, R.W.E. (1902) On minerals occurring in Australian bat guano. The Chemical News: 85: 181-182.
de Schulten (1903) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 26: 95.
Bøggild (1907) Meddelelser Dansk. Geol. For.: 13: 25.
Goldschmidt, V. (1922) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 8: 95.
Palache, C. (1923) A new mode of occurrence of struvite. American Mineralogist: 8: 72-73.
Porter, M.W. (1924) Note on occurrence of struvite. American Mineralogist: 9: 93-94.
Hintze, C. (1933) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4A]: 1201.
Ayres, V.L. (1942) Struvite in canned lobster. American Mineralogist: 27: 387.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 715-717.
Whitaker, A., Jeffery, J.W. (1970) The crystal structure of struvite, MgNH4PO4.6H2O. Acta Crystallographica: B26: 1429-1440.
Abbona, F., Calleri, M., Ivaldi, G. (1984) Synthetic struvite, MgNH4PO4·6H2O: Correct polarity and surface features of some complementary forms. Acta Crystallographica: B40: 223-227.
Ferraris, G., Fuess, H., Joswig, W. (1986) Neutron diffraction study of MgNH4PO4·6H2O (struvite) and survey of water molecules donating short hydrogen bonds. Acta Crystallographica: B42: 253-258.
Frost, R.L., Weier, M.L., Martens, W.N., Henry, D.A., Mills, S.J. (2005) Raman spectroscopy of newberyite, hannayite and struvite. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: 62: 181-188.
Cahil, A., Šoptrajanov, B., Najdoski, M., Lutz, H.D., Engelen, B., Stefov, V. (2008) Infrared and Raman spectra of magnesium ammonium phosphate hexahydrate (struvite) and its isomorphous analogues. Part VI: FT-IR spectra of isomorphously isolated species. NH4+ ions isolated in MKPO4·6H2O (M = Mg; Ni) and PO43- ions isolated in MgNH4AsO4·6H2O. Journal of Molecular Structure: 876: 255-259.

Internet Links for StruviteHide

Localities for StruviteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Western Antarctica
Barczuk A. & Tatur A. 2003: BIOGENIC PHOSPHATE AND SULPHATE MINERALS IN THESOILS OF ANTARCTIC PENINSULA. Mineralogical Society of Poland - Special Papers, vol. 23, pp. 41-43
      • South Shetland Islands
        • King George Island
TATlJR, A., & MYRCHA, A. (1984). Ornithogenic soils on King George lsland, South Shetland lslands (Ma-ritime Antarctic Zone*).
Tatur, A., & Barczuk, A. (1985). Ornithogenic phosphates on King George Island in the maritime Antarctic. In Antarctic nutrient cycles and food webs (pp. 163-168). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
  • Tasmania
    • Bass Strait
    • Huon Valley municipality
      • Southern Islands
Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
  • Victoria
    • City of Warrnambool
    • Corangamite Shire
      • Skipton
        • Mt. Widderin (Anderson's Hill)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 699, 716.; Webb, J. A., Joyce, E. B., & Stevens, N. C. (1982). Lava caves of Australia. In Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology. International Speleological Foundation, Seattle. p74-85.
  • North-West District
    • Ngamiland West District
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
  • Québec
    • Montérégie
      • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
        • Mont Saint-Hilaire
HORVÁTH, L. & PFENNINGER-HORVÁTH, E. (2000) I minerali di Mont-Saint-Hilaire (Québec, Canada) Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, XXIV, 140-202 (in Italian with English summary).
  • Yukon
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 710.
      • Klondike Area (Klondyke District; Klondike District)
        • Indian River Drainage
          • Quartz Creek Drainage
            • Quartz Creek
Traill, R. J. (1980) Catalog of Canadian Minerals: Revised 1980. Geological Survey of Canada Paper 80-18.
  • North Jutland Region
    • Aalborg
Bøggild, Ove Balthasar. 1907. Struvit fra Limfjorden, Meddelelser fra Dansk Geologiske Forening, 3(13), 25 Bøggild, Ove Balthasar. 1943. Danmarks mineraler, Danmarks Geologiske Undersøgelse, II. Række, no. 71 Johnstrup, Frederik. 1887. Struvit fra Limfjorden, 13. Skandinaviske Naturforskermøde Forhandlinger, 97 Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 716.
Falkland Islands
[Specimens in the Natural History Museum, London]
Germany (TL)
  • Hamburg
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 716.
  • Hesse
    • Hochtaunuskreis
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 716.
  • Lower Saxony
    • Lüneburg
A. Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
  • Tamil Nadu
Deepthi, K., Natesan, U., Muthulakshmi, A. L., Ferrer, V. A., Venugopalan, V. P., & Narasimhan, S. V. (2015). Mineralogical characterization in the marine environment of Kalpakkam, Southeast coast of India. Marine Georesources & Geotechnology, 33(6), 496-503.
  • Co. Dublin
Farley, E. and Doff, D. Unpublished data on NMI specimens.; Ryback, G., Nawaz, R. and Farley, E. (1988) Seventh Supplementary List of British Isles Minerals (Irish). Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 52, n° 365, pp. 267-274.
  • District of Kosovska Mitrovica
    • Kosovska Mitrovica
      • Trepča valley
        • Trepča complex
Féraud J. (1979) - La mine " Stari-Trg " (Trepca, Yougoslavie) et ses richesses minéralogiques. Avec la collaboration de Mari D. et G. (1979) Minéraux et Fossiles, n° 59-60, p. 19-28
  • Sarawak
Mineralogical Magazine (1983): 47: 79-80.
  • Karas Region
    • Lüderitz
J.W. Anthony, R.A. Bideaux, K.W. Bladh, M.C. Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. IV (2000)
  • Noord-Holland
    • Amsterdam
Réunion Island
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 716.
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
    • Ilmen Mountains
Galina Gubko, Natalia Levtsova (2009) Blyum Pit in the Ilmeny Mountains. Fifth International Symposium Mineral Diversity Research and Preservation pp59-64
South Africa
  • Limpopo
    • Waterberg District
      • Mogalakwena
        • Mokopane (Potgietersrus)
Martini, I. (1978). Mineralogy of the Transvaal caves. South African Journal of Geology, 81(1), 47-54.
  • North West
    • Ngaka Modiri Molema District
Martini, I. (1978). Mineralogy of the Transvaal caves. South African Journal of Geology, 81(1), 47-54.
Martini, I. (1978). Mineralogy of the Transvaal caves. South African Journal of Geology, 81(1), 47-54.
  • Western Cape
    • West Coast District
      • Saldanha Bay
No reference listed; Minerals of South Africa
  • California
    • Mono Co.
      • Mono Lake
Cohen, L.H. & P.H. Ribbe (1966), Magnesium phosphate mineral replacdement at Mono Lake California: American Mineralogist: 51: 1755-1765; Ribbe, P.H. and Cohen, L. (1966) Newberyite and monetite from Paoha Island, Mono Lake, California. California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 19: 46; Cooper, J.F. & G.E. Dunning (1969), Struvite found at Mono Lake: California Division Mines & Geol. Min. Info Svc.: 22: 44-45; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 314; Walker, J. (1988): Paoha Island phosphates. Quarterly of San Bernardino County Museum Association, 35, 46-47.
  • Colorado
    • Chaffee Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
  • Maine
    • Oxford Co.
      • Rumford
King, V. and Foord, E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, v. 1.
  • Miranda
Urbani, F. (1996) Venezuelan cave minerals: a review. Boletín de la Sociedad Venezolana de Espeleología, No.30, 1-13.
Franco Urbani (2009) Venezuelan Cave Minerals: Second Review. Mineralogy 1 2009 ICS Proceedings. In 15th International Congress of Speleology. p 345
Mineral and/or Locality  
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