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(NH4)Mg(PO4) · 6H2O
Colourless, white ...
1½ - 2
Member of:
Named after Heinrich Christoph Gottfried Struve (1722-1851) of the Russian diplomatic service, Consul at Hamburg (Germany).
[For comment on name see]
Isostructural with:
Struvite Group.
The ammonium analogue of Struvite-(K).

A mineral commonly found as a product of organic decay in putrescent matter, canned foods or other bacterial action on organic compounds, and as a constituent of human kidney and bladder stones in alkaline and infected urines.

Classification of Struvite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

C : Phosphates without additional anions, with H2O
H : With large and medium-sized cations, RO4:H2O < 1:1

1 : AB(XO4)·xH2O

19 : Phosphates
3 : Phosphates of Be and Mg

Physical Properties of Struvite

Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Transparent, Translucent
Colourless, white (dehydrated), yellow or brownish, light grey; colourless in transmitted light.
Hardness (Mohs):
1½ - 2
On {001}, good; on {100}, poor.
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
1.711 g/cm3 (Measured)    1.705 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Struvite

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.495 nβ = 1.496 nγ = 1.504
Measured: 37° , Calculated: 40°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.009
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
relatively weak

Chemical Properties of Struvite

(NH4)Mg(PO4) · 6H2O
IMA Formula:
(NH4)MgPO4 · 6H2O
Elements listed in formula:

Crystallography of Struvite

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
mm2 - Pyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.94 Å, b = 11.2 Å, c = 6.13 Å
a:b:c = 0.62 : 1 : 0.547
Unit Cell Volume:
V 476.47 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals equant; wedge-shaped (due to large and unequally developed {101} and {10_1}), coffin-shaped (when viewed along [100]); short prismatic [001], [010], or [100]; thick tabular {100}. The distribution of the pyramidal or domical faces is often irregular. Crystals commonly distinct, to 1 inch (2.5 cm), with a distinct hemimorphic habit.
On {001}. The acute poles of [001] unite in the composition plane {001}, with deep re-entrant angles.

Crystallographic forms of Struvite

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Struvite no.36 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Struvite no.47 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by

Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation
X-Ray Powder Diffraction:
Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
5.905 (40)
5.601 (60)
4.257 (100)
4.139 (40)
2.919 (55)
2.690 (50)
2.660 (45)

Occurrences of Struvite

Type Occurrence of Struvite

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Medieval sewers

Relationship of Struvite to other Species

Member of:
Other Members of Group:
HazeniteKNaMg2(PO4)2 · 14H2O
8.CH.05WalentaiteH(Ca,Mn2+,Fe2+)Fe33+(AsO4,PO4)4 · 7H2O
8.CH.10AnapaiteCa2Fe2+(PO4)2 · 4H2O
8.CH.15PicropharmacoliteCa4Mg(AsO4)2(HAsO4)2 · 11H2O
8.CH.20Dittmarite(NH4)Mg(PO4) · H2O
8.CH.20Niahite(NH4)(Mn2+,Mg)(PO4) · H2O
8.CH.25FrancoanelliteK3Al5(PO4)2(HPO4)3 · 12H2O
8.CH.25Taranakite(K,NH4)Al3(PO4)3(OH) · 9H2O
8.CH.30Schertelite(NH4)2MgH2(PO4)2 · 4H2O
8.CH.35Hannayite(NH4)2Mg3H4(PO4)4 · 8H2O
8.CH.40HazeniteKNaMg2(PO4)2 · 14H2O
8.CH.45Rimkorolgite(Mg,Mn)5(Ba,Sr,Ca)(PO4)4 · 8H2O
8.CH.50BakhchisaraitseviteNa2Mg5(PO4)4 · 7H2O
8.CH.55FahleiteCaZn5Fe23+(AsO4)6 · 14H2O
8.CH.55SmolyaninoviteCo3Fe23+(AsO4)4 · 11H2O
8.CH.60Barahonaite-(Al)(Ca,Cu,Na,Fe3+,Al)12Al2(AsO4)8(OH,Cl)x · nH2O
8.CH.60Barahonaite-(Fe)(Ca,Cu,Na,Fe3+,Al)12Fe23+(AsO4)8(OH,Cl)x · nH2O
19.3.1MoraesiteBe2(PO4)(OH) · 4H2O
19.3.5GlucineCaBe4(PO4)2(OH)4 · 0.5H2O
19.3.6FransoletiteCa3Be2(PO4)2(HPO4)2 · 4H2O
19.3.7UraloliteCa2Be4(PO4)3(OH)3 · 5H2O
19.3.9PahasapaiteLi8(Ca,Li,K)10.5Be24(PO4)24 · 38H2O
19.3.10TiptopiteK2(Na,Ca)2Li3Be6(PO4)6(OH)2 · H2O
19.3.11GainesiteNa(Na,K)(Be,Li)Zr2(PO4)4 · 1.5-2H2O
19.3.12RoscheriteCa2Mn52+Be4(PO4)6(OH)4 · 6H2O
19.3.13FaheyiteBe2Mn2+Fe23+(PO4)4 · 6H2O
19.3.17NewberyiteMg(HPO4) · 3H2O
19.3.18PhosphorrössleriteMg(HPO4) · 7H2O
19.3.19BobierriteMg3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
19.3.20Barićite(Mg,Fe)3(PO4)2 · 8H2O
19.3.22Dittmarite(NH4)Mg(PO4) · H2O
19.3.24Hannayite(NH4)2Mg3H4(PO4)4 · 8H2O

Other Names for Struvite

Name in Other Languages:
Simplified Chinese:鸟粪石

Other Information

Pyroelectric. Piezoelectric.
Other Information:
Readily soluble in acids. Very slightly soluble in water.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Struvite

Reference List:
Ulex (1845): Svenska Vetenskapsakademien, Stockholm, Handlingar [Ak. Stockholm, Öfv.]: 3: 32 (as Struveit).

Teschemacher (1846): Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 28: 546 (as Guanite).

Ulex (1846): Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 58: 99 (as Struveit).

Hausmann, J.F.L. (1847): Handbuch der Mineralogie 3 volumes, Göttingen. Second edition: vol. 2, in two parts.

Ulex (1848): Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 66: 41 (as Struveit).

Ulex (1851): Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 51.

Pittman (1870): Contributions to the Minerals of Victoria: 56.

Sadebeck (1877): Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 113.

Kalkowsky (1886): Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 11: 1.

MacIvor (1887): Chemical News and Journal of Industrial Science, London: 55: 215.

Robinson (1889): Proceedings of the Cambridge Philosophical Society: 6: 360.

Arzruni (1890): Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 18: 60.

Goldschmidt, V. (1890-91): Index der Krystallformen der Mineralien. 3 volumes: vol. 3, 420p.: 167.

Dana, E.S. (1892): System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 806.

Hoffmann (1901): American Journal of Science: 11: 149.

de Schulten (1903): Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 26: 95.

Bøggild (1907): Meddelelser Dansk. Geol. For.: 13: 25.

Goldschmidt, V. (1922): Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 8: 95.

Palache, C. (1923): American Mineralogist: 8: 72.

Porter (1924): American Mineralogist: 9: 93.

Hintze, Carl (1933): Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4A]: 1201.

Ayres (1942): American Mineralogist: 27: 387.

Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951): The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 715-717.

Acta Crystallographica: B26: 1429-1440.

Acta Crystallographica (1986): B42: 253.

Internet Links for Struvite URL:
Please feel free to link to this page.

Localities for Struvite

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.
(TL) indicates type locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) indicates first recorded locality for everything else. ? indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. All other localities listed without reference should be considered as uncertain and unproven until references can be found.
  • Western Antarctica
Barczuk A. & Tatur A. 2003: BIOGENIC PHOSPHATE AND SULPHATE MINERALS IN THESOILS OF ANTARCTIC PENINSULA. Mineralogical Society of Poland - Special Papers, vol. 23, pp. 41-43
  • Tasmania
    • Flinders municipality
      • Bass Strait
    • Huon Valley municipality
      • Southern Islands
Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
  • Victoria
    • City of Warrnambool
    • Corangamite Shire
      • Skipton
        • Mt. Widderin (Anderson's Hill)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 699, 716.; Webb, J. A., Joyce, E. B., & Stevens, N. C. (1982). Lava caves of Australia. In Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology. International Speleological Foundation, Seattle. p74-85.
  • North-West District
    • Ngamiland West District
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
  • Québec
    • Montérégie
      • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
        • Mont Saint-Hilaire
HORVÁTH, L. & PFENNINGER-HORVÁTH, E. (2000) I minerali di Mont-Saint-Hilaire (Québec, Canada) Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, XXIV, 140-202 (in Italian with English summary).
  • Yukon
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 710.
      • Klondike Area (Klondyke District; Klondike District)
        • Indian River Drainage
          • Quartz Creek Drainage
            • Quartz Creek
Traill, R. J. (1980) Catalog of Canadian Minerals: Revised 1980. Geological Survey of Canada Paper 80-18.
  • Nordjylland Region
    • Aalborg
Bøggild, Ove Balthasar. 1907. Struvit fra Limfjorden, Meddelelser fra Dansk Geologiske Forening, 3(13), 25 Bøggild, Ove Balthasar. 1943. Danmarks mineraler, Danmarks Geologiske Undersøgelse, II. Række, no. 71 Johnstrup, Frederik. 1887. Struvit fra Limfjorden, 13. Skandinaviske Naturforskermøde Forhandlinger, 97 Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 716.
Falkland Islands
[Specimens in the Natural History Museum, London]
Germany (TL)
  • Hamburg
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 716.
  • Hesse
    • Taunus
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 716.
  • Lower Saxony
    • Lüneburg
A. Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
  • Co. Dublin
Farley, E. and Doff, D. Unpublished data on NMI specimens.; Ryback, G., Nawaz, R. and Farley, E. (1988) Seventh Supplementary List of British Isles Minerals (Irish). Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 52, n° 365, pp. 267-274.
  • District of Kosovska Mitrovica
    • Kosovska Mitrovica
      • Trepča valley
        • Trepča complex
Féraud J. (1979) - La mine " Stari-Trg " (Trepca, Yougoslavie) et ses richesses minéralogiques. Avec la collaboration de Mari D. et G. (1979) Minéraux et Fossiles, n° 59-60, p. 19-28
  • Borneo
    • Sarawak
Mineralogical Magazine (1983): 47: 79-80.
  • Karas Region
    • Lüderitz District
J.W. Anthony, R.A. Bideaux, K.W. Bladh, M.C. Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. IV (2000)
  • Noord-Holland
    • Amsterdam
Réunion Island
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 716.
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
        • Ilmen Mts
          • Ilmen Natural Reserve
Galina Gubko, Natalia Levtsova (2009) Blyum Pit in the Ilmeny Mountains. Fifth International Symposium Mineral Diversity Research and Preservation pp59-64
South Africa
  • Western Cape Province
    • West Coast District
      • Saldanha Bay
No reference listed; Minerals of South Africa
  • California
    • Mono Co.
      • Mono Lake
Cohen, L.H. & P.H. Ribbe (1966), Magnesium phosphate mineral replacdement at Mono Lake California: American Mineralogist: 51: 1755-1765; Ribbe, P.H. and Cohen, L. (1966) Newberyite and monetite from Paoha Island, Mono Lake, California. California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 19: 46; Cooper, J.F. & G.E. Dunning (1969), Struvite found at Mono Lake: California Division Mines & Geol. Min. Info Svc.: 22: 44-45; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 314; Walker, J. (1988): Paoha Island phosphates. Quarterly of San Bernardino County Museum Association, 35, 46-47.
  • Colorado
    • Chaffee Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
  • Maine
    • Oxford Co.
      • Rumford
King, V. and Foord, E., 1994, Mineralogy of Maine, v. 1.
  • Miranda
Urbani, 1997. Bol. Soc. Venezolana de Espeleología, no.30.
Franco Urbani (2009) Venezuelan Cave Minerals: Second Review. Mineralogy 1 2009 ICS Proceedings. In 15th International Congress of Speleology. p 345
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