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Colourless to greenish or yellowish
2½ - 3
Specific Gravity:
6.52 (Calculated)
Crystal System:
Named after the type locality, the Susanna Mine, Leadhills, Scotland.
The trigonal dimorph of leadhillite.

A mineral closely related to leadhillite and macphersonite. Tabular forms of susannite are easily confused with leadhillite.

Heating leadhillite causes it to reversibly transform into susannite in the temperature range from 50 to 82°C (Bindi & Menchetti, 2005).

Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of SusanniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

B : Carbonates with additional anions, without H2O
F : With (Cl), SO4, PO4, TeO3

1 : Miscellaneous

12 : Carbonates with other anions
2 : Carbonates with sulphate

Pronounciation of SusanniteHide

PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of SusanniteHide

Transparent, Translucent
Colourless to greenish or yellowish
2½ - 3 on Mohs scale
6.52 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of SusanniteHide

Anomalously biaxial

Chemical Properties of SusanniteHide

IMA Formula:

Crystallography of SusanniteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
3 - Pyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.07 Å, c = 11.57 Å
a:c = 1 : 1.276
Unit Cell V:
824.62 ų
Thin hexagonal plates.

Type Occurrence of SusanniteHide

Other Language Names for SusanniteHide


Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Caledonite23 photos of Susannite associated with Caledonite on
Schulenbergite11 photos of Susannite associated with Schulenbergite on
Anglesite7 photos of Susannite associated with Anglesite on
Cerussite7 photos of Susannite associated with Cerussite on
Mattheddleite5 photos of Susannite associated with Mattheddleite on
Cuprite4 photos of Susannite associated with Cuprite on
Bechererite4 photos of Susannite associated with Bechererite on
Hydrocerussite4 photos of Susannite associated with Hydrocerussite on
Linarite4 photos of Susannite associated with Linarite on
Steverustite4 photos of Susannite associated with Steverustite on

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

5.BF.05NorthupiteNa3Mg(CO3)2ClIso. m3 (2/m 3) : Fd3
5.BF.05TychiteNa6Mg2(CO3)4(SO4)Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Fd3
5.BF.10BonshtedtiteNa3Fe2+(CO3)(PO4)Mon. 2/m : P21/m
5.BF.20Reederite-(Y)(Na,Mn)15Y2(CO3)9(FSO3)ClHex. 6 : P6
5.BF.30BrianyoungiteZn3(CO3,SO4)(OH)4Mon. 2/m : P21/m
5.BF.35PhilolithitePb12Mn2+(Mg,Mn2+)2(Mn2+,Mg)4(CO3)4(SO4)O6(OH)12Cl4Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m)
5.BF.40LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
5.BF.40MacphersonitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

12.2.2HanksiteNa22K(SO4)9(CO3)2ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
12.2.3TychiteNa6Mg2(CO3)4(SO4)Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Fd3
12.2.4MotukoreaiteMg6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6][SO4]2 · 6H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
12.2.6NakauriiteCu8(SO4)4(CO3)(OH)6 · 48H2OOrth.
12.2.7CarbonatecyanotrichiteCu4Al2(CO3,SO4)(OH)12 · 2H2OOrth.
12.2.8RapidcreekiteCa2(SO4)(CO3) · 4H2OOrth.
12.2.9TatarskiteCa6Mg2(SO4)2(CO3)2(OH)4Cl4 · 7H2OOrth.
12.2.10Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2OTrig.
12.2.11LeadhillitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
12.2.12MacphersonitePb4(CO3)2(SO4)(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
12.2.14WherryitePb7Cu2(SO4)4(SiO4)2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
12.2.15CaledonitePb5Cu2(SO4)3(CO3)(OH)6Orth. mm2 : Pmn21
12.2.16NasledovitePbMn3Al4(CO3)4(SO4)O5 · 5H2O
12.2.17JouravskiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)(CO3)(OH)6 · 12H2OHex.
12.2.18SchröckingeriteNaCa3(UO2)(CO3)3(SO4)F · 10H2OTric. 1 : P1
12.2.20HauckiteFe3+3(Mg,Mn2+)24Zn18(SO4)4(CO3)2(OH)81Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mmm
12.2.22Carrboydite[(Ni1-xAlx)(OH)2][SO4]x/2 · nH2OHex.
12.2.23Mountkeithite[(Mg1-xFe3+x)(OH)2][SO4]x/2 · nH2OHex.
12.2.24CamérolaiteCu6Al3(OH)18(H2O)2[Sb(OH)6](SO4)Tric. 1 : P1

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for SusanniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Brooke (1827) Edinburgh New Phil. J.: 3: 117 (as Sulphato-tricarbonate of Lead).
Haidinger, W. (1845) Zweite Klasse: Geogenide. II. Ordnung. Baryte. VII. Bleibaryt. Suzannit.. in Handbuch der Bestimmenden Mineralogie, Bei Braumüller and Seidel (Wien): 499-506.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 298-299.
Fleischer, M. (1970) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 55: 1444-1449.
K. Walenta, Kolitsch, U., Gulden, T. (1997) On leadhillite and susannite with special regard to occurrences in the Black Forest. Aufschluss: 48(1): 59-64. (in German)
Steele, I.M., Pluth, J.J., Livingstone, A. (1999) Crystal structure of susannite, Pb4SO4(CO3)2(OH)2. A trimorph with macphersonite and leadhillite. European Journal of Mineralogy: 11: 493-499.
Frost, R.L., Kloprogge, J.T., Williams, P.A. (2003) Raman spectroscopy of lead sulphate-carbonate minerals - implications for hydrogen bonding. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte: 2003: 529-542.
Bindi, L., Menchetti, S. (2005) Structural changes accompanying the phase transformation between leadhillite and susannite: A structural study by means of in situ high-temperature single-crystal X-ray diffraction. American Mineralogist: 90: 1641-1647.

Internet Links for SusanniteHide

Localities for SusanniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Carinthia
    • Friesach - Hüttenberg area
      • Hüttenberg
        • Waitschach
Kolitsch, U., Brandstätter, F., Schreiber, F., Fink, R. & Auer, C. (2013): Die Mineralogie der weltweit einzigartigen Schlacken von Waitschach, Kärnten. Annalen des Naturhistorischen Museums in Wien, Serie A, 115, 19-87 (in German).
  • Salzburg
    • Hohe Tauern
      • Rauris valley
        • Hüttwinkl valley
Kolitsch, U. (2015): 1930) Leadhillit und Susannit aus den Schlacken der Astenschmiede im Hüttwinkltal, Rauris, Salzburg. Pp. 236-237 in Niedermayr, G. et al. (2015): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXIV. Carinthia II, 205./125., 207-280.
  • Styria
    • Fischbacher Alpen
      • Spital am Semmering
        • Steinhaus am Semmering
          • Fröschnitz valley (Fröschnitz)
P. Tomazic, F. Bernhard, U. Kolitsch und G. Knobloch (2012): Mineralogie eines historischen Bergbaues auf Eisen und Silber am Arzberg bei Steinhaus am Semmering. Der Steirische Mineralog 26, 4-9.
  • São Paulo
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias (1983), 55 (3), 263-270.
Czech Republic
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Ústí Region
      • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
        • Dubí (Eichwald)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 298.; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 299.
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Haute-Loire
      • Sainte-Sigolène
        • Saint-Pal-de-Mons
Queneau Patrice collection
    • Loire
      • La Pacaudière
        • Le Crozet
Chollet, P. & Devouard, B. (2013): La mine de cuivre et de plomb des Rats, Le Crozet (Loire). Le Règne Minéral, 109, 7-46.
  • Bourgogne-Franche-Comté
    • Saône-et-Loire
      • Saint-Léger-sous-Beuvray
        • Saint-Prix
          • L'Argentolle
Sarp, H. (1984): Seconde occurrence du nouveau minéral Scotlandite PbSO3. Schweiz. Mineral. Petrogr. Mitt., 64, 317-321.
    • Territoire-de-Belfort
      • Auxelles-Haut
U. Kolitsch (1997): Neufunde von Mineralien aus einigen Vorkommen der Vogesen, Frankreich: Giromagny, Auxelles-Haut und Kruth 1. Aufschluss 48 (4), 243-256.
  • Grand Est
    • Vosges
      • Upper Moselle Valley
        • Remiremont
Nicolas MEISSER analysis, Lausanne Geological Museum
  • Occitanie
    • Lozère
      • Pont-de-Montvert
        • Vialas
No reference listed
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Badenweiler
Lapis 23(12), 45 (1998)
      • Gengenbach
        • Haigerach valley
Lapis 23(12), 46 (1998)
      • Hausach
        • Einbach valley
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
      • Münstertal
        • Belchen
Lapis 23(12), 45 (1998)
Lapis 23(12), 46 (1998)
      • Schapbach
        • Wildschapbach valley
Lapis 23(12), 46 (1998)
      • Schauinsland Pb-Zn mining district
        • Hofsgrund (South field)
Lapis 23(12), 46 (1998)
      • Todtnau
Lapis 23(12), 46 (1998)
      • Waldshut
        • Brenden
Lapis 23(12), 46 (1998)
      • Wolfach
        • Oberwolfach
          • Rankach valley
KOLITSCH, U. (1997): Uranosphärit und weitere neue Mineralfunde von der Grube Clara im Schwarzwald. - Mineralien-Welt 8 (3), 18-26; U. Kolitsch, J. Gröbner, G. Blaß and H.-W. Graf (2007): Neufunde aus der Grube Clara im mittleren Schwarzwald (III): Cerianit-(Ce), Dravit, Florencit-(La), Gilmarit, Olenit und Scotlandit. Lapis 32, 19-23, 70.
  • Hesse
    • Richelsdorf District
      • Nentershausen
        • Süß
          • Richelsdorf Smelter
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
    • Taunus
      • Bad Camberg
        • Eisenbach
S. Weiss: Mineralfundstellen Deutschland West, Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Lower Saxony
    • Harz
      • Clausthal-Zellerfeld
        • Bockswies veins
          • Oberschulenberg
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
        • Zellerfeld veins
Gröbner, J. & Nikoleizig, J. (2009): Die Mineralien der Gruben Kahlenbergsglück & Grüne Tanne am Kahlenberg bei Zellerfeld. Mineralien-Welt 20 (4), 34-39.
      • Goslar
        • Astfeld
Frost, R. L., Kloprogge, J. T., & Williams, P. A. (2003). Raman spectroscopy of lead sulphate-carbonate minerals–implications for hydrogen bonding. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie-Monatshefte, 2003(12), 529-542.
      • Lautenthal
No reference listed
Schnorrer-Köhler, G. (1991): Mineralogische Notizen V. Aufschluss 42, 155-171.
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Aachen
      • Stolberg
International Association of Collectors of Slag
    • Bergisches Land
      • Engelskirchen
        • Loope
Habel, B. & Linder, R. (2009): Die Grube "Castor" bei Loope und ihre Mineralien. Mineralien-Welt 20 (3), 10-23
    • Münsterland
      • Steinfurt
        • Ibbenbüren
          • Schafberg
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    • Niederberg area
      • Velbert
        • Rützkausen
Harms, U. (2010): Sekundärmineralisation von der Grube Josephine in Velbert (Rheinland) - Beschreibung und geochemische Bildungsbedingungen. Decheniana (Bonn) 163, 179-184.
    • Sauerland
      • Meschede
        • Ramsbeck
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
      • Sundern
        • Bönkhausen
Lapis, 14 (2), 22-27+33+42.
    • Siegerland
      • Burbach
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
      • Eiserfeld
        • Kohlenbach Valley
Henrich, M. (2009): Mineralien-Welt 20 (5), 14-27.
      • Wilnsdorf
Lapis, 12 (1), 11-18+42.
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Lahn valley
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
        • Frücht
Der Aufschluss Vol.55, March/April 2004
    • Palatinate
      • Dahn (Dahner Felsenland)
        • Nothweiler
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    • Siegerland
      • Niederfischbach
        • Niederndorf
Henrich, J. M. (2007: Die Mineralien der Grube Fürst Moritz bei Niederndorf. Mineralien-Welt 18 (4), 20-26. (in German)
    • Westerwald
      • Linz am Rhein
        • Rheinbreitbach
Weiss: "Mineralienfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge
      • Zschopau
checked SEM-EDS / X-RAY by St.Michalski
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium)
Schnorrer-Köhler, G., Standfuss, K. & Standfuss, L. (1982): Neue Schlackenminerale aus Laurion. Der Aufschluss, 33 (12), 459-462.
        • Agios Nikolaos [St Nicholas] area
No reference listed
        • Lavrion (Laurion; Laurium)
No reference listed
        • Oxygon area
No reference listed
        • Panormos area
No reference listed
        • Passa Limani area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals of the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Sounion area
Laurion The minerals in the ancient slags by Piet Gelaude etc.
No reference listed
        • Thorikos area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
        • Tourkolimanon area
No reference listed
        • Vrissaki area
Gelaude, Piet, van Kalmthout, Piet, and Rewitzer, Christian (1996) Laurion: The Minerals in the Ancient Slags, Janssen Print, Nijmegen, The Netherlands
  • Thraki Department (Thrace; Thracia)
    • Évros Prefecture
      • Kirki Mines (Kirka)
L. Rantos collection
  • Co. Mayo
  • Lombardy
    • Varese Province
      • Valganna
        • Boarezzo
Orlandi, P., & Campostrini, I., 2006. Boarezzo. I minerali della ricerca mineraria "Pradisci". Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 30 (1), 14-24.
  • Sardinia
    • Carbonia-Iglesias Province
      • Iglesias
Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias (1983), 55 (3), 263-270.
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Piombino
Muenchener Micromounter-Lithothek
  • Veneto
    • Vicenza Province
      • Torrebelvicino
        • Mercanti Valley
- Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
- Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
XRD analysis at Padova University
  • Otjikoto Region (Oshikoto)
    • Tsumeb
Georg Gebhard, Tsumeb II, page 200
  • Caraş-Severin Co.
    • Banat Mts
      • Moldova Nouă-Sasca Cu-Mo ore field
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
      • Chitinskaya Oblast'
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 299.
South Africa
  • Gauteng Province
    • Pretoria District (Tshwane District)
Glass, J. (2006). The environmental impact of the abandoned Edendale lead mine near Tshwane, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, University of Johannesburg).
  • England
    • Co. Durham
      • North Pennines
        • Weardale
          • Bollihope District
Norman Wilson collection
Norman Wilson collection
    • Cumbria
      • Caldbeck Fells
        • Carrock Fell
No reference listed
        • Deer Hills
No reference listed
        • Roughton Gill
No reference listed
Cooper, M.P. and Stanley, C.J. (1990) Minerals of the English Lake District: Caldbeck Fells. British Museum (Natural History), London.; Green, D.I., Bridges, T.F., Rumsey, M.S., Leppington, C.M., and Tindle, A.G. (2008) A review of the mineralogy of the Roughton Gill Mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 2 The Roughton Gill South Vein on Balliway Rigg. Journal of The Russell Society, vol. 11, 3-28.
Jackson, B. (1990) Queitite, a first Scottish occurrence. Scottish Journal of Geology, 26(1), 57-58.; Bridges, T.F., Green, D.I., Rumsey, M.S., and Leppington, C.M. (2008) A review of the mineralisation at Red Gill Mine, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England. Journal of the Russell Society, vol. 11, 29-47.
Trevor F. Bridges, David Green, Michael S. Rumsey and C. Michael Leppington (2011) A review of the mineralisation of the Roughton Gill mines, Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria: Part 3 Roughton Gill Mine Journal of the Russell Society 14:3-23.
Pluth, J. J., Steele, I. M., Kampf, A. R. & Green, D. I. (2005): Redgillite, Cu6(OH)10(SO4)•H2O, a new mineral from Caldbeck Fells, Cumbria, England: description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 69, 973-980.
    • Derbyshire
      • Whitwell
vanadinite and descloizite, probably the best yet to be found in England and the secondary lead mineral suite including leadhillite, lanarkite, cerussite, anglesite, pyromorphite, scotlandite, mattheddleite and possibly susannite. Other minerals found were barite, calcite, hemimorphite, and sphalerite.
  • Scotland
    • Dumfries & Galloway
      • Wanlockhead
        • Wanlock Dod-Whytes Cleuch
BMS Database
    • Strathclyde
      • South Lanarkshire
Scottish J. Geol. 23, 1-8(1987)
Jackson, B. (1990). Queitite, a first Scottish occurrence. Scottish Journal of Geology, 26(1), 57-58.
          • Mine Hill-Broad Law
Steve Rust collection
Minerals of Scotland 2002. A.Livingstone.pp132-133
          • Wanlock Dod
Steve Rust Collection
Steve Rust Collection
          • Wool Law
S. Rust Collection
  • Wales
    • Ceredigion
      • Ceulanymaesmawr
        • Talybont
[UKJMM 17 (1996) p.18]
          • Nant-y-Moch Reservoir area
S Rust collection
      • Llangynfelyn
        • Tre-Taliesin
S Rust Collection
      • Trefeirig
        • Bontgoch
S. Rust collection
        • Pen-bont Rhydybeddau
S. Rust collection
S Rust Collection
S Rust Collection
      • Upper Llanfihangell-y-Creuddyn
        • Cwmystwyth
Steve Rust
        • Devil's Bridge
No reference listed
        • Pontrhydygroes
      • Ysbyty Ystwyth
No reference listed
BMS Database
        • Lisburne Lead and Silver Mines
No reference listed
    • Powys
      • Llangynog
S.Rust collection
      • Machynlleth
        • Dylife
S Rust Collection
      • Rhayader
S. Rust collection
  • Arizona
    • Cochise Co.
      • Mule Mts
        • Warren District
[MinRec 24:421]
  • Pennsylvania
    • Montgomery Co.
      • Lower Providence Township
        • Audubon
          • Perkiomen Mines
Min of PA 1922-65, A. Montgomery, pgs. 25-26
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