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About Tengerite-(Y)Hide

Y2(CO3)3 · 2-3H2O
Dull, Earthy
Specific Gravity:
3.110 (Calculated)
Crystal System:
Member of:
Originally named by James D. Dana and George J. Brush in 1868 after C. Tenger, Swedish chemist who described the mineral in 1838 along with Adolf Ferdinand Svanberg, but the new mineral was left unnamed. Tengerite was not well-described and subsequently lokkaite-(Y) and kimuraite-(Y) were described as new and independent species. Miyawaki et al. redefined tengerite in 1993. Investigation of type material showed that "tengerite-(Y)" from Ytterby was actually lokkaite-(Y). Tengerite as redefined does occur at Ytterby, but is much rarer than lokkaite-(Y). Tengerite-(Y) was not found on the type specimen, but an Ytterby specimen in the Smithsonian Institution contained redefined tengerite-(Y). Miyawaki et al. (1993) did not describe any of the physical properties of the redefined mineral.

Photos in the tengerite-(Y) gallery might not be that species. Miyawaki et al. (1993) indicated at least five species have been called tengerite-(Y) including a new species. Information is needed to determine how tengerite-(Y) specimens have been identified.

Classification of Tengerite-(Y)Hide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
Approval Year:

C : Carbonates without additional anions, with H2O
C : With rare earth elements (REE)

4 : AmBn(XO3)p·xH2O, with (m+n):p < 1:1

11 : Carbonates
8 : Carbonates of the rare earths

Physical Properties of Tengerite-(Y)Hide

Dull, Earthy
3.110 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Tengerite-(Y)Hide

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.587 nγ = 1.616
Warning: number_format() expects parameter 1 to be float, string given in /home/mindat/www/show_class.php on line 4136
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.029
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
r > v

Chemical Properties of Tengerite-(Y)Hide

Y2(CO3)3 · 2-3H2O

Crystallography of Tengerite-(Y)Hide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.078 Å, b = 9.157 Å, c = 15.114 Å
a:b:c = 0.664 : 1 : 1.651
Unit Cell V:
841.19 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Thin coatings. Earthy and pulverulent.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
7.66 (80)
5.70 (100)
4.62 (100)
3.91 (100)
3.59 (80)
2.98 (80)
2.55 (60)
Miyawaki, et al. (1993); ICDD 27-91 is also tengerite-(Y) redefined.

Type Occurrence of Tengerite-(Y)Hide

General Appearance of Type Material:
White coating.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Rare-earth-rich granite pegmatite.

Synonyms of Tengerite-(Y)Hide

Other Language Names for Tengerite-(Y)Hide

Relationship of Tengerite-(Y) to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
Hizenite-(Y)Ca2Y6(CO3)11 · 14H2O Orth.
Kimuraite-(Y)Ca(Y,Nd)2(CO3)4 · 6H2OOrth.
Lokkaite-(Y)Ca(Y,Gd,Nd,Dy)4(CO3)7 · 9H2OOrth.

Common AssociatesHide

Kimuraite-(Y)Ca(Y,Nd)2(CO3)4 · 6H2O
Lokkaite-(Y)Ca(Y,Gd,Nd,Dy)4(CO3)7 · 9H2O
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Thalénite-(Y)7 photos of Tengerite-(Y) associated with Thalénite-(Y) on mindat.org.
Iimoriite-(Y)5 photos of Tengerite-(Y) associated with Iimoriite-(Y) on mindat.org.
Keiviite-(Y)5 photos of Tengerite-(Y) associated with Keiviite-(Y) on mindat.org.
Yttrocrasite-(Y)5 photos of Tengerite-(Y) associated with Yttrocrasite-(Y) on mindat.org.
Allanite-(Y)4 photos of Tengerite-(Y) associated with Allanite-(Y) on mindat.org.
Allanite-(Nd)4 photos of Tengerite-(Y) associated with Allanite-(Nd) on mindat.org.
Aluminocerite-(Ce)4 photos of Tengerite-(Y) associated with Aluminocerite-(Ce) on mindat.org.
Gadolinite-(Y)4 photos of Tengerite-(Y) associated with Gadolinite-(Y) on mindat.org.
Yttrialite-(Y)3 photos of Tengerite-(Y) associated with Yttrialite-(Y) on mindat.org.
Britholite-(Y)2 photos of Tengerite-(Y) associated with Britholite-(Y) on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

5.CC.05Donnayite-(Y)NaCaSr3Y(CO3)6 · 3H2OTric. 1 : P1
5.CC.05EwalditeBa(Na,Ca,Y,Ce,K)(CO3)2 · 2.6H2OHex. 6mm : P63mc
5.CC.05Mckelveyite-(Nd)(Ba,Sr)(Nd,Ce,La)(CO3)2 · 4-10H2OTric.
5.CC.05Mckelveyite-(Y)NaCaBa3Y(CO3)6 · 3H2OTric. 1 : P1
5.CC.05WeloganiteNa2Sr3Zr(CO3)6 · 3H2OTric. 1 : P1
5.CC.15Kimuraite-(Y)Ca(Y,Nd)2(CO3)4 · 6H2OOrth.
5.CC.15Lokkaite-(Y)Ca(Y,Gd,Nd,Dy)4(CO3)7 · 9H2OOrth.
5.CC.20Shomiokite-(Y)Na3Y[CO3]3 · 3H2OOrth.
5.CC.25Calkinsite-(Ce)(Ce,La)2(CO3)3 · 4H2OOrth.
5.CC.25Lanthanite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Nd)2(CO3)3 · 8H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
5.CC.25Lanthanite-(La)(La,Ce)2(CO3)3 · 8H2OOrth.
5.CC.25Lanthanite-(Nd)(Nd,La)2(CO3)3 · 8H2OOrth.
5.CC.30Adamsite-(Y)NaY[CO3]2 · 6H2OTric. 1 : P1
5.CC.35Decrespignyite-(Y)Cu(Y,REE)4(CO3)4(OH)5Cl · 2H2OMon.
5.CC.40Galgenbergite-(Ce)Ca(Ce,La,Nd)2(CO3)4 · H2OTric.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

11.8.1Calkinsite-(Ce)(Ce,La)2(CO3)3 · 4H2OOrth.
11.8.2Lanthanite-(La)(La,Ce)2(CO3)3 · 8H2OOrth.
11.8.3Lanthanite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Nd)2(CO3)3 · 8H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
11.8.4Lanthanite-(Nd)(Nd,La)2(CO3)3 · 8H2OOrth.
11.8.5Hydroxylbastnäsite-(Ce)Ce(CO3)(OH)Hex. 6 : P6
11.8.8Rémondite-(Ce)Na3(Ce,La,Ca,Na,Sr)3(CO3)5Mon. 2 : P21
11.8.10Kimuraite-(Y)Ca(Y,Nd)2(CO3)4 · 6H2OOrth.
11.8.11Lokkaite-(Y)Ca(Y,Gd,Nd,Dy)4(CO3)7 · 9H2OOrth.
11.8.12Calcioancylite-(Nd)Ca(Nd,La,Ce)(CO3)2(OH).H2OMon. m : Pm
11.8.13Calcioancylite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca,Sr)CO3(OH,H2O)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
11.8.14Burbankite(Na,Ca)3(Sr,Ba,Ce)3(CO3)5Hex. 6mm : P63mc
11.8.16Donnayite-(Y)NaCaSr3Y(CO3)6 · 3H2OTric. 1 : P1
11.8.17Carbocernaite(Ca,Na)(Sr,Ce,Ba)(CO3)2Orth. mm2
11.8.18Ancylite-(Ce)CeSr(CO3)2(OH) · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
11.8.19EwalditeBa(Na,Ca,Y,Ce,K)(CO3)2 · 2.6H2OHex. 6mm : P63mc
11.8.20Mckelveyite-(Y)NaCaBa3Y(CO3)6 · 3H2OTric. 1 : P1
11.8.21Sahamalite-(Ce)(Mg,Fe)(Ce,La,Nd)2(CO3)4Mon. 2/m : P21/b

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Tengerite-(Y)Hide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Svanberg, Adolf Ferdinand and Tenger, C., 1838, Årsberätt.: 16: 206 (as Kolsyrad Ytterjord).
Dana's System of Mineralogy, 5th. edition, 1868, 710.
Adam, M., 1869, Tableau minéralogique, Paris: 24 (as Carbonyttrine).
Genth, Frederick, 1889, American Journal of Science: 38: 199.
Hidden and Mackintosh, 1889, American Journal of Science: 38: 474.
Hidden, 1905, American Journal of Science: 19: 425.
Brögger, W. 1906, Vidensk.-Selsk. Skr., Oslo, Math.-Nat. Kl., no. 6: 23
Sjögren, 1906 Geologiska Föeningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 28: 96.
Flink, Gustav, 1910, Arkiv för Kemi, Mineralogi och Geologi, Stockholm: 3: 166.
Larsen, E.S., 1921, The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 142.
Vogt (1922) Vidensk.-Selsk. Skr., Oslo, Math.-Nat. Kl., no. 1: 23.
Iimori, T., 1938, Tengerite found in Iisaka, and its chemical composition, Scientific Papers of the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (Tokyo), 34, 832-841.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: Halides, Nitrates, Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates, Phosphates, Arsenates, Tungstates, Molybdates, Etc. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 275-276.
Miyawaki, Ritsuro, Kuriyama, Junko, and Naki, Izumi, 1993, The redefinition of tengerite- (Y) , Y2(CO3)3.2-3H2O, and its crystal structure, American Mineralogist, 78: 425-432.

Internet Links for Tengerite-(Y)Hide

Localities for Tengerite-(Y)Hide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • South Australia
    • Olary Province
      • Yunta
Australian Journal of Mineralogy. Vol 9. No. 1. 2003. pg47
  • Ontario
    • Haliburton Co.
      • Cardiff Township
D. D. Hogarth, H. R. Steacy, E. I. Semenov, E. G. Proshchenko, M. E. Kazakova and Z. T. Kataeva (1973) New occurrence and data for spencite. The Canadian Mineralogist 12:66-71
  • Québec
    • Outaouais
      • Les Collines-de-l'Outaouais RCM
        • Val-des-Monts
          • Lac Saint-Pierre (Wakefield Lake)
Hogarth, D.D., Chao, G.Y., Plant. G.A. & Steacy, H. R. (1974): Caysichite, a new silico-carbonate of yttrium and calcium. Canadian Mineralogist.12: 293-298
  • Pirkanmaa
    • Valkeakoski
Vorma, A., Ojanperä, P., Hoffrén, V., Siivola, J. & Löfgren, A.(1966): On the rare earth minerals from the Pyörönmaa pegmatite in Kangasala, SW-Finland. Bulletin de la Commission Géologique Finlande 222. 241-274.
  • South Ostrobothnia
    • Alavus
Pavel Kartashov analytical data, J. Dyer material
  • Fukushima
    • Kawamata
Yamada, S. (2004) Nihonsan-koubutsu Gojuon-hairetsu Sanchi-ichiranhyou (111 pp.)
      • Iizaka Village (Iisaka)
Iimori (1938) Sci. Pap. Inst. Phys. Chem. Res., Tokyo: 34: 832; Fluorite: The Collector's Choice. Extra Lapis English No. 9; Kozo Nagashim & Akira Kato (1966) Chemical Studies of Minerals Containing Rarer Elements from the Far East District. LX. Thalenite from Suishoyama, Kawamata-machi, Fukushima Prefecture, Japan Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan 39:925-928
  • Saga
    • Karatsu City (Higashi-Matsuura-gun)
      • Hizen-cho
Matsubara & Miyawaki (2006) Catalogue of Japanese Minerals (Tokai University Press); Takai, Y. & Uehara, S. (2013): Hizenite-(Y), Ca2Y6(CO3)11•14H2O, a new mineral in alkali olivine basalt from Mitsukoshi, Karatsu, Saga Prefecture, Japan. Journal of Mineralogical and Petrological Sciences, 108, 161-165.
  • Itasy
    • Soavinandriana District
      • Mahavelona Commune
Behier, J. (1960): Contribution á la Minéralogie de Madagascar. Annales Géologiques de Madagascar XXIX, Tananarive, p 64; Behier, J. (1960): Travaux mineralogiques. In Rapport Annuel du Service Geologique pour 1960. Republique Madagascar, Tananarive. 181-199
  • Aust-Agder
    • Evje og Hornnes
Wilke, H.-J. (1976): Mineral-Fundstellen Band 4: Skandinavien. Chr. Weise Verlag, München, p 46
    • Iveland
      • Birkeland
Frigstad, O.F. (1968): En undersøkelse av cleavelandittsonerte pegmatittganger i Iveland-Evje, Nedre Setesdal. Hovedfagsoppgave (Thesis), University of Oslo.
      • Frikstad
Revheim, O. (2004): Gadolinitt-(Y) og andre mineraler fra Slobrekka. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 28: 43-50
Knut Edvard Larsen collection #MM- 3771 (visually identified)
Nilssen, B. (1971): Yttrialite from Ivedal, Iveland, South Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 51, 1-8
      • Kåbuland
Stensrud, S. (2009): De opptredende mineraler på granittpegmatittganger i Iveland og Evje. Unpublished paper based on 4 previous papers written together with Johan Løchen.
      • Rossås (Rosås)
Frigstad, O.F. (1968): En undersøkelse av cleavelandittsonerte pegmatittganger i Iveland-Evje, Nedre Setesdal. Hovedfagsoppgave (Thesis), University of Oslo.
  • Buskerud
    • Øvre Eiker
      • Gunhildrud
  • Nordland
    • Hamarøy
Husdal, T. (2008): The minerals of the pegmatites within the Tysfjord granite, northern Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum.Skrift 38: 5-28
Husdal, T. (2008): The minerals of the pegmatites within the Tysfjord granite, northern Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum, skrift 38, 5-28.
    • Sørfold
Ellingsen, H.V., Haugen, A., Raade, G., Eldjarn, K. & Berg, H.-J., (1995): Sjeldne mineraler i en amazonittpegmatitt ved Tennvatn i Nordland. Norsk Bergverksmuseums Skriftserie 9, 35-37; Ellingsen, H.V., Andersen, T. & Haugen, A., (2000): Nye mineraler fra amazonittpegmatitten ved Tennvatn, Nordland. Norsk Bergverksmuseums Skriftserie 17, 52-58
    • Tysfjord
Vogt, Th. (1922): Über Thalenit von Hundholmen im nördlichen Norwegen. in Brøgger, W.C, Vogt, Th. & Schetelig, J. (1922): Die MIneralien der südnorwegischen Granitpegmatitgänge. II. Silikate der seltenen Erde. Videnskapsselskapets Skrifter. I.Mat-Naturv. Klasse 1922. 11, 19-47; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 276.
  • Telemark
    • Drangedal
      • Tørdal
Kristiansen, R. (1998): Høydalen Litium-pegmatitt-Tørdal i Telemark. STEIN 25 (4), 21-30
    • Kragerø
      • Lindvikskollen-Kalstadgangen pegmatite
Brøgger, W. C. (1906): Hellandit von Lindvikskollen bei Kragerö. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie und Mineralogie 42, 417-439
Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68 p. 102.
    • Skien
      • Kilebygda
Larsen, A.O. (1993): Gruver og skjerp i Skien. Stathelle 1993. 72p
  • Vest-Agder
    • Flekkefjord
Adamson, O. J. (1942): The granite pegmatites of Hitterö, SW Norway. Geologiska Föreningen i Stockholm Förhandlingar 64: 97-116
    • Lindesnes
      • Vigeland
Sverdrup, T. L. (1959): The pegmatite dyke at Rømteland. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse 211 (Årbok 1959): 124-196
  • Murmansk Oblast
    • Belye Tundry Massif
Voloshin, A.V., Lyalina, L.M., Savchenko, Ye.E., Selivanova, E.A. [Волошин А.В., Лялина Л.М., Савченко Е.Э., Селиванова Е.А.] (2005): Intragranite rare-metal pegmatites of the alkaline granite formation of the Kola Peninsula. Quartz-zircon pseudomorphs [Внутригранитные редкометалльные пегматиты щелочногранитовой формации Кольского полуострова. Кварц-цирконовые псевдоморфозы]. Zapiski RMO [Записки РМО], 134, 4, 98-107; Lyalina, L.M., Selivanova, E.A., Savchenko, Ye.E., Zozulya, D.R., Kadyrova, G.I. (2014): Minerals of the gadolinite-(Y)–hingganite-(Y) series in the alkali granite pegmatites of the Kola Peninsula. Geology of Ore Deposits, 56, 675-684.
    • Keivy Mountains
      • Western Keivy Massif
Voloshin A.V., Pakhomovskii Ya.A. [Волошин А. В., Пахомовский Я. А.] (1986): Minerals and evolution of mineral formation in amazonite pegmatites of the Kola Peninsula [Минералы и эволюция минералообразования в амазонитовых пегматитах Кольского полуострова]. Nauka, Leningrad, 168 pp. (in Russian); Voloshin A.V., Pakhomovskii Ya.A., Yakovenchuk V.N., Men'shikov Yu.P., Sokolova E.V., Egorov-Tismenko Yu.K. [Волошин А. В., Пахомовский Я. А., Яковенчук В. Н., Меньшиков Ю. П., Соколова Е. В., Егоров-Тисменко Ю. К.] (1996): Kamphaugite-(Y) and tengerite-(Y) from amazonite randpegmatites of the Kola Peninsula [Камфагит-(Y) и тенгерит-(Y) из амазонитовых рандпегматитов Кольского полуострова]. Zap. VMO [Зап. ВМО], 125, 1, 109-119 (in Russian).
Pavel M. Kartashov data
  • Sakha Republic (Yakutia)
    • Polar Yakutia
      • Cherskii range system
        • Selennyakh range
          • Tommot river
no reference
  • Dalarna
    • Borlänge
      • Stora Tuna
  • Norrbotten
    • Jokkmokk
No reference listed
      • Varjisträsk
  • Stockholm
    • Vaxholm
      • Resarö
Dana, J.D. (1868) System of Mineralogy, 5th. Edition, New York: 710; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 275.
  • Värmland
    • Filipstad
      • Persberg district
Sjögren (1906) Geologiska Föreningens I Stockholm. Förhandlinger, Stockholm: 28: 96; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 276.
  • Colorado
    • Jefferson Co.
      • Clear Creek pegmatite Province
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
  • Missouri
    • Washington Co.
R&M 73:2 pp 98-117
  • Texas
    • Burnet Co.
Crook, Wilson W. III (1977) Texasite, a new mineral: the first example of a differentiated rare-earth species. American Mineralogist: 62: 1006-1008.; Rocks & Minerals (1991) 66(3): 196-224.
    • Llano Co.
      • Bluffton
Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Japan Vol.45 , No.8(1972)pp.2476-2479
      • Kingsland Granite Company Quarry (Petrick Quarry)
Self-Collected 2007 by David Aldridge
R&M 66:3 pp 196-224; Ehlmann, A. J. (1970): Behoite, Beta-Be(OH)2, from thee Rode ranch pegmatite, Llano county, Texas. American Mineralogist 55: 1-9
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