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Thénardite

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Louis Jacques Thénard
Formula:
Na2SO4
Colour:
Colourless, very light grey, light brown; colourless in transmitted light
Lustre:
Vitreous, Resinous
Hardness:
2½ - 3
Specific Gravity:
2.664
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
Named after Louis Jacques Thénard (1777-1857), Professor of Chemistry, University of Paris (France).
Originally named thenardite; renamed thénardite in 2014 (IMA 14-A).
Dimorph of:
Five polymorphs known (compare metathénardite).
May occur as a dehydration product of mirabilite. See also 'UM1962-08-SO:HNa'.

As shown by experiments of Africano et al. (2002), it may deposit from volcanic gas in high fO2 conditions during cooling from ca. 800 down to 400oC, together with aphthitalite.



Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of ThénarditeHide

'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
Notes:
Published without approval
Approval History:
Published without approval: 2014
7.AC.25

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
A : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) without additional anions, without H2O
C : With medium-sized and large cations
28.2.3.1

28 : ANHYDROUS ACID AND NORMAL SULFATES
2 : A2XO4
25.1.1

25 : Sulphates
1 : Sulphates of the alkali metals and ammonium

Physical Properties of ThénarditeHide

Vitreous, Resinous
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Colourless, very light grey, light brown; colourless in transmitted light
Hardness:
2½ - 3 on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {010} perfect; on {101} fair; on {100} incomplete
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Hackly
Density:
2.664 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.674 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of ThénarditeHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.471 nβ = 1.477 nγ = 1.484
2V:
Measured: 83° , Calculated: 86°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.013
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
none

Chemical Properties of ThénarditeHide

Formula:
Na2SO4

Crystallography of ThénarditeHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Fddd
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.86 Å, b = 12.3 Å, c = 9.82 Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.476 : 1 : 0.798
Unit Cell V:
707.81 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
8
Morphology:
Crystals dipyramidal {111} with minor truncations; tabular {010} rough and striated, and {101} present as large faces; prismatic [100], rare. Pulverulent crusts, efflorescences.
Twinning:
On {110} common, yielding cruciform groups. Also on {011}, yielding twins rather similar to gypsum "butterfly" twins.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

First Recorded Occurrence of ThénarditeHide

Geological Setting of First Recorded Material:
Salt Lake.

Synonyms of ThénarditeHide

Other Language Names for ThénarditeHide

Simplified Chinese:无水芒硝
Spanish:Thenardita
Traditional Chinese:無水芒硝

Common AssociatesHide

BlöditeNa2Mg(SO4)2 · 4H2O
EpsomiteMgSO4 · 7H2O
GlauberiteNa2Ca(SO4)2
GypsumCaSO4 · 2H2O
HaliteNaCl
MirabiliteNa2SO4 · 10H2O
NatronNa2CO3 · 10H2O
NitratineNaNO3
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Mirabilite8 photos of Thénardite associated with Mirabilite on mindat.org.
Blödite2 photos of Thénardite associated with Blödite on mindat.org.
Hectorfloresite1 photo of Thénardite associated with Hectorfloresite on mindat.org.
Trona1 photo of Thénardite associated with Trona on mindat.org.
Ulexite1 photo of Thénardite associated with Ulexite on mindat.org.
Gypsum1 photo of Thénardite associated with Gypsum on mindat.org.
Santite1 photo of Thénardite associated with Santite on mindat.org.
Inyoite1 photo of Thénardite associated with Inyoite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.AC.Acmonidesite(NH4,K,Pb)8NaFe2+4(SO4)5Cl8Orth. 2 2 2 : C2 2 21
7.AC.05VanthoffiteNa6Mg(SO4)4Mon. 2/m : P21/b
7.AC.08Pyracmonite(NH4)3Fe(SO4)3Trig. 3m : R3c
7.AC.10Efremovite(NH4)2Mg2(SO4)3Iso.
7.AC.10LangbeiniteK2Mg2(SO4)3Iso. 2 3 : P21 3
7.AC.10ManganolangbeiniteK2Mn2(SO4)3Iso. 2 3 : P21 3
7.AC.15YavapaiiteKFe(SO4)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
7.AC.15EldfelliteNaFe3+(SO4)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
7.AC.20Godovikovite(NH4)Al(SO4)2Trig. 3 2 : P3 2 1
7.AC.20Sabieite(NH4)Fe3+(SO4)2Trig. 3 2 : P3 2 1
7.AC.30MetathénarditeNa2SO4Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
7.AC.35Aphthitalite(K,Na)3Na(SO4)2Trig.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

25.1.2MatteucciteNaHSO4 · H2OMon.
25.1.3MirabiliteNa2SO4 · 10H2OMon. 2/m
25.1.4ArcaniteK2SO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
25.1.5MercalliteKHSO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
25.1.6MiseniteK8H6(SO4)7Mon.
25.1.7Aphthitalite(K,Na)3Na(SO4)2Trig.
25.1.8Mascagnite(NH4)2SO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
25.1.9Letovicite(NH4)3H(SO4)2Tric.
25.1.10Ammonioalunite(NH4)Al3(SO4)2(OH)6Trig.

Other InformationHide

Thermal Behaviour:
Melting Point = 883° C.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for ThénarditeHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Casaseca J.L., (1826), Annales de chimie et de physique, Paris: 32, 308.
Casaseca J.L., (1826) Annals of Philosophy, London: 12: 313.
Breithaupt, A. (1832) Vollständige Characteristik etc., 2nd. Ed.: 33 (as Anhydrisches Natronsulfat).
Scacchi (1855) Mem. Incend. Vesuvius, Naples (as Pyrotechnite).
Des Cloizeaux (1857) Annales des mines: 11: 318.
Baerwald (1882) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 6: 36.
Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 895.
Görgey (1910) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 29: 202.
Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 143.
Goldschmidt, V. (1922) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, vol. 8: 126.
Kracek (1921) Journal of Physical Chemistry: 33: 1281, 1304.
Cole (1926) Canada, Mines Branch, Ottawa, no. 646.
Doelter, C. (1926) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie (in 4 volumes divided into parts): 4[2]: 35 (see Jänecke in).
Hintze, Carl (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 2679.
Kracek (1929) Journal of Physical Chemistry: 33: 1281.
Kracek and Gibson (1929) Journal of Physical Chemistry: 33: 1304.
Zachariasen and Ziegler (1932) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 81: 92.
Hill and Wills (1938) Journal of the American Chemical Society: 60: 1647.
Spencer (1944) Mineralogical Magazine: 27: 29.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 404-407.
Canadian Mineralogist (1975): 13: 181-187.
Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1978): 408.
Acta Chemica Scandinavica:: 27: 814-822.
Africano, F., Van Rompaey, G., Bernard, A., Le Guern, F. (2002): Deposition of trace elements from high temperature gases of Satsuma-Iwojima volcano. Earth Planets Space: 54: 275-286

Internet Links for ThénarditeHide

Localities for ThénarditeHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Afghanistan
 
  • Kandahar Province (Qandahar Province)
    • Kandahar District
Orris, G.J., and Bliss, J.D. (2002): Mines and Mineral Occurrences of Afghanistan. United States Geological Survey Open-File Report 02-110
Antarctica
 
  • Buckley Island quadrangle
Liu, T. and Bish, D.L. (2010) MINERALOGICAL COMPOSITIONS OF THE EVAPORITES AT LEWIS CLIFF ICE TONGUE, ANTARCTICA: A POTENTIAL MARTIAN ANALOG. 41st Lunar and Planetary Science Conference (2010)
  • Eastern Antarctica
    • Princess Elizabeth Land
      • Ingrid Christensen Coast
Gore, D.B., Nichols, G.T., Lehmann, C.E.R., Burgess, J.S., Baird, A.S.&, Creagh, D.C. (2000) An atlas of surficial salts of the Vestfold Hills, East Antarctica: composition, distribution and origin ANARE Report 143. 146 pp
    • Victoria Land
      • McMurdo Dry Valleys
        • Taylor Valley
Hodenberg, R.V., Miotke, F.-D. (1983): Some special salt crystal formations in South-Victoria-Land, Antarctica, and first results of the investigation of a new mineral, a Na-Ca double sulfate. Kali u. Steinsalz, Bd. 8: 11: 374-383 (in German); in: Dunn, P.J., Gobel, V., Grice, J.D., Puziewicz, J., Shigley, J.E., Vanko, D.A., Zilczer, J. (1985): New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 70: 439
      • Olympus Range
Hodenberg, R.V., Miotke, F.-D. (1983): Some special salt crystal formations in South-Victoria-Land, Antarctica, and first results of the investigation of a new mineral, a Na-Ca double sulfate. Kali u. Steinsalz, Bd. 8: 11: 374-383 (in German); in: Dunn, P.J., Gobel, V., Grice, J.D., Puziewicz, J., Shigley, J.E., Vanko, D.A., Zilczer, J. (1985): New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 70: 439
      • Ross Island
Browne, P.R.L. 1973 Secondary minerals in cores from DVDP 1 and 2. Dry Valley Drilling Project bulletin 2: 83-93 Browne, P.R.L. 1974 Secondary minerals from Ross Island drillholes. Dry Valley Drilling Project bulletin 04:15
  • Western Antarctica
    • Antarctic Peninsula
      • Palmer Land
Vennum, W.R. (1979) Evaporite encrustations and yellow and green surficial salts from Orville Coast and eastern Ellsworth Land. Antarctic Journal of the U.S., 14(5), 22-24
Vennum, W.R. (1979) Evaporite encrustations and yellow and green surficial salts from Orville Coast and eastern Ellsworth Land. Antarctic Journal of the U.S., 14(5), 22-24
Argentina
 
  • Catamarca
    • Antofagasta de la Sierra Department
Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry
  • Mendoza
    • Malargüe Department
      • Pampa Amarilla District
C.E. Gordillo, E. Linares, R.O. Toubes, H. Winchell: Amer. Mineral. 51:1-13 (1966); American Mineralogist: 51: 1-13
  • Salta
    • Los Andes Department
Alonso, R.N., 1999. Los salares de la Puna y sus recursos evaporíticos, Jujuy, Salta y Catamarca. En: Recursos Minerales de la República Argentina (Ed. E.O. Zappettini), Instituto de Geología y Recursos Minerales SEGEMAR, Anales 35:1907-1921.
Ovejero Toledo, A., Alonso, R. N., Ruiz, T. D. V., & Quiroga, A. G. (2009). Evapofacieshalítica en el Salar del Rincón, departamento Los Andes, Salta. Revista de la Asociación Geológica Argentina, 64(3), 493-500.
Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry; Hugo A. Peña (1970): Minerales y rocas de aplicación de la Provincia de Tucumán. Secretaría de Estado de Comercio, Industria y Minería. Dirección Provincial de Minas. Tucumán. República Argentina.
    • Simoca Department
Raúl J. Tauber Larry (2013).
    • Trancas Department
Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry
Raúl Jorge Tauber Larry
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Windeyer Co.
P. Sutton (2004) Minerals from evaporative basins in the Mallee District, Murray Basin, south-eastern Australia
  • Western Australia
    • Menzies Shire
      • Menangina Station
Min Mag (1979) 43, 97-98
    • Wiluna Shire
      • Mount Keith
Mills, S. J., Wilson, S. A., Dipple, G. M. & Raudsepp, M. (2010) The decomposition of konyaite: importance in CO₂ fixation in mine tailings. Mineralogical Magazine Vol.74(5) pp.903–917.
Austria
 
  • Burgenland
    • Neusiedl am See
      • Seewinkel
Götzinger, M. A. (2009): Die Salzminerale des Seewinkels, Burgenland.; A.Csaplovics (2014)
Götzinger, M. A. (2009): Die Salzminerale des Seewinkels, Burgenland.; A.Csaplovics (2014)
Götzinger, M. A. (2009): Die Salzminerale des Seewinkels, Burgenland.
Götzinger, M. A. (2009): Die Salzminerale des Seewinkels, Burgenland.
Götzinger, M. A. (2009): Die Salzminerale des Seewinkels.
Götzinger, M. A. (2009): Die Salzminerale des Seewinkels, Burgenland.; A.Csaplovics (2014)
  • Salzburg
    • Golling
      • Grubach
        • Moosegg (Mooseck)
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
    • Hallein
      • Dürrnberg
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
    • Hohe Tauern
      • Gastein valley
        • Bad Gastein
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs, 1989
    • Salzburg
      • Untersberg massif
A. Strasser: Die Minerale Salzburgs (1989)
  • Styria
    • Bad Aussee
      • Altaussee
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
      • Wienern
E.Ch.Kirchner (1974)
    • Ennstaler Alpen
      • Admont
Meixner, H. (1977);
  • Tyrol
    • North Tyrol
      • Inn valley
        • Innsbruck
          • Hall
            • Hall valley
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993)
Azerbaijan
 
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 406.
Bolivia
 
  • Potosí Department
    • Nor Lípez Province
Ahlfeld & Muñoz Reyes (1955) Las Especies Minerales de Bolivia (Banco Minero de Bolivia); Ahlfeld & Muñoz Reyes (1955) Las Especies Minerales de Bolivia (Banco Minero de Bolivia)
    • Sud Lípez Province
      • Pastos Grandes
Lizeca, J. L., Moon, W. M., Hutton, C., Wu, L., & Lee, C. W. (1999). Investigation of Pastos Grandes (Bolivia) volcanic features with RADARSAT. In Geoscience and Remote Sensing Symposium, 1999. IGARSS'99 Proceedings. IEEE 1999 International (Vol. 2, pp. 803-805). IEEE.
Canada
 
  • British Columbia
    • Similkameen Mining Division
      • Okanagan-Similkameen
S. J. Mills (XRD data)
  • Northwest Territories
    • Mackenzie District
      • Fort Norman
Battler, M. M., Osinski, G. R., Lim, D. S., Davila, A. F., Michel, F. A., Craig, M. A., ... & Preston, L. J. (2013). Characterization of the acidic cold seep emplaced jarositic Golden Deposit, NWT, Canada, as an analogue for jarosite deposition on Mars. Icarus, 224(2), 382-398.
  • Nova Scotia
    • Halifax Co.
      • East Milford
Sabina, A.P. (2015) Rocks and minerals for the collector: Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick and Nova Scotia; South Shore, Nova Scotia. Geological Survey of Canada, Popular Geoscience 97: 456 pages, doi:10.4095/293933.
  • Québec
    • Montérégie
      • La Vallée-du-Richelieu RCM
        • Mont Saint-Hilaire
HORVÁTH, L. and HORVÁTH-PFENNINGER, E. (2000) Die Mineralien des Mont Saint-Hilaire. Lapis, 25, Nr. 7/8, 23-61 (in German).; HORVÁTH, L., PFENNINGER‑HORVÁTH, E. (2000) I minerali di Mont-Saint-Hilaire (Québec, Canada) Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, XXIV, 140-202 (in Italian with English summary).
    • Montréal
TARASSOFF, P., HORVÁTH, L. and PFENNINGER-HORVÁTH, E. (2006) Famous mineral localities: the Francon quarry, Montréal, Québec. Mineralogical Record, 37, 5-60.
Chad
 
  • Kanem Region (Khanem)
    • Eguéi Region (Eguei; Eguéï; Egai)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 955.
Chile
 
  • Antofagasta Region
    • Antofagasta Province
      • Antofagasta
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 406.
      • Cuevitas
        • Chimborazo
British Natural History Museum online catalogue 2007
      • Sierra Gorda District
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 406.
    • El Loa Province
      • Calama
        • Chuquicamata District
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 449.
Cameron, E.M., Leybourne, M.I., and Palacios, C. (2007): Mineralium Deposita 42, 205-218.
Robinson, G.W. (1993): What's New in Minerals ? Mineralogical Record 24: 49
    • Tocopilla Province
      • Tocopilla District
Samples analysed by Dr. Jochen Schluter (Hamburg University), Germany.
  • Tarapacá Region
    • Iquique Province
      • Chanabaya
samples analysed by Gerhard Mohn and Joy Desor
China
 
  • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
    • Xilin Gol League (Xilinguole Prefecture)
      • Sonid Right Banner (Sunite Youqi)
Yu, G., Harrison, S.P., and Xue, B. (2001): Lake status records from China: Data Base Documentation. MPI-BGC Technology Report No. 4, pp. 46-49.
  • Qinghai Province
    • Hainan Autonomous Prefecture
Sun Da-peng, Li Bing-xiao, Ma Yua-hua, and Lin Qun-zhu (2002): Journal of Salt Lake Research 10(4), 1-12.
    • Haixi Autonomous Prefecture
      • Da Qaidam Co. (Dachaidan Co.)
Dapeng Sun, Zhanghong Gao, and Kejun Wang (1984): Acta Sedimentologica Sinica 2(4); Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10; Zheng, M. P., Qi, W., & Yuan, H. R. (2005). Characteristics of salt lake boron deposits and magnesium borate deposits of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. In Mineral Deposit Research: Meeting the Global Challenge (pp. 1123-1125). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
  • Tibet Autonomous Region
    • Nagchu Prefecture (Naqu Prefecture)
      • Baingoin Co. (Bange Co.)
Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10; Yu, G., Harrison, S.P., and Xue, B. (2001): Lake status records from China: Data Base Documentation. MPI-BGC Technology Report No. 4, pp. 157-161; Yuanyi Zhao, Mianping Zheng, Xingong Cai, Pingjia Zhao, Wen Zhao, Yunwu Wang, and Xu Ma (2004): Geological Bulletin of China 23(7), 680-685
      • Nyima Co. (Nima Co.)
Xifang Liu and Mianping Zheng (2010): Acta Geologica Sinica 89(11), 1601-1612
Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
        • Rongma township
Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
    • Ngari Prefecture
      • Gê'gyai Co. (Geji Co.)
Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
Xiyu Zheng and Shengsong Yu (1981): Scientia Geographica Sinica 1(1), 66-76; Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10; Xifang Liu and Mianping Zheng (2010): Acta Geologica Sinica 89(11), 1601-1612
Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10
    • Xigazê Prefecture (Rikaze Prefecture; Shigatse Prefecture)
      • Zhongba Co.
Shaoxiu Yang (1991): Journal of Lake Sciences 3(1), 1-10; Wen Qi and Mianping Zheng (1995): Journal of Lake Sciences 7(2), 133-140; Mianping Zheng, Heran Yuan, Junying Liu, Yanhe Li, Zhibang Ma, and Qing Sun (2007): Acta Geologica Sinica 81(12), 1608-1617
  • Xinjiang Autonomous Region
    • Akesu Prefecture (Aksu Prefecture; Aqsu Prefecture)
      • Akesu Co. (Aksu Co.; Aqsu Co.)
Akihiko Okada, Sadayo Yabuki, and Congqiang Liu (1994): RIKEN Review 5, 3-4
Akihiko Okada, Sadayo Yabuki, and Congqiang Liu (1994): RIKEN Review 5, 3-4
Akihiko Okada, Sadayo Yabuki, and Congqiang Liu (1994): RIKEN Review 5, 3-4
    • Aral Co. (Ala'er Co.)
Akihiko Okada, Sadayo Yabuki, and Congqiang Liu (1994): RIKEN Review 5, 3-4
    • Bayin'gholin Autonomous Prefecture (Bayingolin Autonomous Prefecture; Bayinguoleng Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Hoxud Co. (Hoxut Co.; Xoshut Co.; Heshuo Co.)
Akihiko Okada, Sadayo Yabuki, and Congqiang Liu (1994): RIKEN Review 5, 3-4
      • Ruoqiang Co. (Qakilik Co.; Chaqiliq Co.)
Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
Bingxiao Li (1992): Journal of Lake Sciences 4(1), 48-55
Akihiko Okada, Sadayo Yabuki, and Congqiang Liu (1994): RIKEN Review 5, 3-4
    • Bo'ertala Autonomous Prefecture (Börtala Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Jinghe Co. (Jing Co.)
Bingxiao Li (1992): Journal of Lake Sciences 4(1), 48-55
    • Hami Prefecture (Kumul Prefecture; Qumul Prefecture)
      • Barkol Co. (Barköl Co.; Balikun Co.)
Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.; Bingxiao Li (1992): Journal of Lake Sciences 4(1), 48-55
      • Hami Co. (Kumul Co.; Qumul Co.)
Bingxiao Li (1992): Journal of Lake Sciences 4(1), 48-55
    • Tulufan Prefecture (Turfan Prefecture; Turpan Prefecture)
      • Shanshan Co. (Piqan Co.; Pichan Co.)
        • Kanggur-Xifengshan gold belt
Zhaoxin Han, Lijun Luan, and Chaoyou Wang (2004): Journal of Xi'an University of Science and Technology 24(3), 324-327; Kaiyin Bai and Zhaoxin Han (2007): Northwestern Geology 40(2), 114-117
        • Kumtag basin
Wensheng Ge (2008): Presented at the 33rd International Geological Congress, Oslo (Norway), August 6-14, 2008.; Yuezhen Gao (1993): Geology of Chemical Minerals 15(1)
      • Tulufan Co. (Turfan Co.; Turpan Co.)
        • Turfan basin (Turpan basin)
Bingxiao Li (1992): Journal of Lake Sciences 4(1), 48-55
Akihiko Okada, Sadayo Yabuki, and Congqiang Liu (1994): RIKEN Review 5, 3-4
Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
    • Wulumuqi Prefecture (Ürümqi Prefecture; Ürümchi Prefecture)
      • Dabancheng District
Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
Bingxiao Li (1992): Journal of Lake Sciences 4(1), 48-55
Bingxiao Li (1992): Journal of Lake Sciences 4(1), 48-55
      • Midong District
Bingxiao Li (1992): Journal of Lake Sciences 4(1), 48-55
    • Yili Hasake Autonomous Prefecture (Ili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture)
      • Tacheng Prefecture (Tarbaghatay Prefecture)
        • Hebukesai'er Co. (Hoboksar Co.; Kobuksar Co.; Qobuqsar Co.)
Yanling Tang (2005): Non-metallic deposits of Xinjiang, China [Zhongguo Xinjiang Fei Jinshu Kuangchuang]. Geological Publishing House (Beijing), 289 pp.
  • Yunnan Province
    • Baoshan Prefecture
      • Tengchong Co.
Meixiang, Z., & Wei, T. (1987). Surface hydrothermal minerals and their distribution in the Tengchong geothermal area, China. Geothermics, 16(2), 181-195.
Meixiang, Z., & Wei, T. (1987). Surface hydrothermal minerals and their distribution in the Tengchong geothermal area, China. Geothermics, 16(2), 181-195.
    • Pu'er Prefecture
      • Jiangcheng Co.
Li, M., Yan, M., Wang, Z., Liu, X., Fang, X., & Li, J. (2015). The origins of the Mengye potash deposit in the Lanping–Simao Basin, Yunnan Province, Western China. Ore Geology Reviews, 69, 174-186.
Czech Republic
 
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Hradec Králové Region
      • Trutnov (Trautenau)
        • Radvanice
Jirásek, J.: Thermal Changes of the Rocks in the Dump Pile of the Kateřina Colliery in Radvanice (Eastern Bohemia). Ostrava: VSB – Technical University of Ostrava, Institute of Geological Engineering - 541, 2001. 69 p.
    • Karlovy Vary Region
      • Karlovy Vary (Karlsbad; Carlsbad)
Cílek, V., Vylita, T., Filippi, M.: Mineralogie karlovarské vřídelní desky a jejího podloží. Minerál, 2006, 14, 1, 3-10.
      • Krušné Hory Mts (Erzgebirge)
        • Jáchymov District (St Joachimsthal)
Lapis 2002(7/8), 63-65
      • Mariánské Lázně (Marienbad)
Fiala, V., Richtermoc, J., Zajíček, P.: Supergenní recentní nerosty ne ložisku Dyleň v západních Čechách. Věstník Ústředního ústavu geologického, 1990, roč. 65, č. 5, s. 257-265.
    • Liberec Region
Scharm, B.: Přehled minerálů nalezených v oblasti uranových koncentrací v severočeské křídě. Bulletin mineralogicko-petrografického oddělení Národního muzea v Praze, 1995, roč. 3, s. 169-172.
  • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
    • South Moravia Region
      • Oslavany
Hršelová, P., Cempírek, J., Houzar, S., Sejkora, J. (2013): S,F,Cl-rich mineral assemblages from burned spoil heaps in the Rosice-Oslavany coalfield, Czech Republic. Can. Mineral.: 51(1): 171-188
Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
 
  • Kivu
    • Goma
Bailey, J. C: Formation of cryolite and other aluminofluorides: A petrologic review. Bull. geol. Soc. Denmark, vol. 29, pp. 1-45. Copenhagen, June 10th, 1980
    • Nyamuragira volcano (Nyamlagira)
Deleins, M. (1975): Volcanic sublimates of Rugarama, Kivu region, Republic of Zaire. Repub. Rivandaise, Bull. Serv. Geol.: 8: l-ll (in French); in: Fleischer, M., Mandarino, J.A. (1977): New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 62, 175
Egypt
 
  • Western Desert
Marchesini, M. & Barresi, A. (2009): I minerali di Wadi natrun, Deserto Occidentale, Egitto, Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/2009, 228-258.
Melanie Sapsford (2009) The use of sodium salt deposits in medical and medically associated industries in Ancient Egypt. PhD thesis. Cranford University
Melanie Sapsford (2009) The use of sodium salt deposits in medical and medically associated industries in Ancient Egypt. PhD thesis. Cranford University
Melanie Sapsford (2009) The use of sodium salt deposits in medical and medically associated industries in Ancient Egypt. PhD thesis. Cranford University
El Salvador
 
  • Sonsonate Department
Am Min 70:1-2 pp 193-196; Amer.Min.(1985) 70, 193-196
France
 
  • Hauts-de-France
    • Pas-de-Calais
Naze-Nancy Masalehdani, M., Mees, F., Dubois, M., Coquinot, Y., Potdevin, J.-L., Fialin, M. & Blanc-Valleron, M.-M. (2009): Condensate minerals from a burning coal-waste heap in Avion, Northern France. Can. Mineral. 47, 573-591.
Germany
 
  • Lower Saxony
    • Lüneburg
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Mecklenburg-West Pomerania
    • Neubrandenburg
      • Friedland
A. Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", Schweizerbart (Stuttgart), 2001
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Bergisches Land
      • Overath
        • Bensberg
          • Altenbrück
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
    • Ruhr Coal Mining area
      • Marl
        • Marl-Hüls
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", 1990
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Eifel
      • Mayen
        • Ettringen
          • Bellerberg volcano
Blass, G., Graf, HW., Kolitsch, U., Sebold, D., Über neue Mineralfunde aus der Vulkaneifel, MW 6/2005
      • Mendig
        • Wingertsberg
Blass, G., Graf, HW., Kolitsch, U., Sebold, D., Über neue Mineralfunde aus der Vulkaneifel, Mineralien-Welt 6/2005
      • Niederzissen
        • Brenk
Blass, G., Graf , HW., Neue Mineralienfunde aus der Eifel..., MW 3/1999
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Halle
      • Teutschenthal
Witzke, T. & Denk, M. (2011): Eine temporäre Mirabilit-Mineralisation bei Teutschenthal, Sachsen-Anhalt. Aufschluss 62, 353-360.
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge
      • Niederschlag-Bärenstein District
        • Bärenstein
T. Witzke (1994) Lapis 19(10), 36-39
Greece
 
  • Aegean Islands Department (Aiyaíon)
    • Sámos Prefecture
      • Sámos Island
Econ Geol (1989)84:788-798
Hungary
 
  • Bács-Kiskun Co.
    • Great Hungarian Plain
Szakáll-Gatter-Szendrei: Mineral Species of Hungary, 2006
      • Kecskemét
ACTA MIN. PETR. Suppl. Tomus XXXVIII., 1997
      • Petőfiszállás
Szakáll-Gatter-Szendrei: Mineral Species of Hungary, 2006
  • Baranya Co.
    • Mecsek Mts
Szakáll & Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary, 1995; Sánoor Szakáll, Mária Foldvári, Gábor Papp, Péter Kovács-pálffy, Árpád Kovács (1997) Secondary Sulphate Minerals From Hungary. Acta Mineralogica-petrographica, Szeged, Xxxviii, Supplementum, 7-63.
  • Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Co.
    • Aggteleki Mts
www.minerals- of-the- carpathians.eu (Editor:Szakáll)
    • Rudabányai Mts
      • Alsótelekes
Szakáll & Gatter: Hungarian Mineral Species, 1993
      • Rudabánya
Szakáll: Minerals of Rudabánya, 2001
Szakáll: Minerals of Rudabánya, 2001
  • Heves Co.
    • Mátra Mts
ACTA MIN. PETR. Suppl. Tomus XXXVIII., 1997; Sánoor Szakáll, Mária Foldvári, Gábor Papp, Péter Kovács-pálffy, Árpád Kovács (1997) Secondary Sulphate Minerals From Hungary. Acta Mineralogica-petrographica, Szeged, Xxxviii, Supplementum, 7-63.
      • Mátraszentimre
ACTA MIN. PETR. Suppl. Tomus XXXVIII., 1997
      • Recsk
Szakáll & Gatter: Hun. Min.Spec., 1993; Sánoor Szakáll, Mária Foldvári, Gábor Papp, Péter Kovács-pálffy, Árpád Kovács (1997) Secondary Sulphate Minerals From Hungary. Acta Mineralogica-petrographica, Szeged, Xxxviii, Supplementum, 7-63.
  • Nógrád Co.
    • Cserhát Mts
Geoda - Journal of the Hungarian Friends of Minerals, 2007 august.
    • Mátra Mts
      • Bátonyterenye
Szakáll-Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary
ACTA MIN. PETR. Suppl. Tomus XXXVIII., 1997
Iceland
 
  • Southern Region
    • Vestmannaeyjar archipelago (Westman islands)
      • Heimaey island
        • Heimaey
Mitolo, D., Garavelli, A., Pedersen, L., Balić-Žunić, T., Jakobsson, S.P., Vurro, F. (2008): Mineralogy of actually forming sublimates at Eldfell Volcano, Heimaey (Vestmannaeyjar archipelago), Iceland. Plinius, 34, 322.
      • Surtsey Island
Jacobsson et al (1992) Encrustations from Lava Caves in Surtsey, Iceland. A Preliminary Report: Surtsey Research Progress Report X: 73-78 Reykjevik, Iceland.
Iran
 
  • Esfahan Province (Isfahan Province; Aspadana Province)
Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts (2011) Mineralogical Magazine p 1773
Italy
 
  • Campania
    • Naples Province
      • Somma-Vesuvius Complex
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 406, 435.
    • Phlegrean Volcanic Complex
      • Naples Province
        • Phlegrean Fields
          • Pozzuoli
Sinno R. – (1957) Trona, thenardite e mirabilite nei Campi Flegrei. Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma pp. 1-12.
  • Sicily
    • Catania Province
      • Etna Volcanic Complex
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 406.
www.cse.speleo.it
    • Messina Province
      • Eolie Islands (Aeolian Islands)
        • Lipari
          • Vulcano Island
PALACHE, C., BERMAN, H., & FRONDEL, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 432.
            • Porto Levante
              • Faraglioni di Levante (Grotte dei Faraglioni; Grotte del Faraglione; "Grotte de Faraglione")
                • Faraglione Nico (Faraglione Piccolo; Faragghiune Nicu)
P.Forti, M.Panzica La Manna and A.Rossi (1994) The peculiar mineralogic site of the Alum cave (Vulcano, Sicily). Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Vulcanospeleology November 1994 p.35-44.
  • Tuscany
    • Pisa Province
      • Pomarance
J.W. Anthony, R.A. Bideaux, K.W. Bladh, M.C. Nichols: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. V (2003)
Japan
 
  • Hokkaido
    • Iburi Province
      • Usu-zan
  • Honshu Island
    • Tohoku region
      • Akita prefecture
        • Odate
Dr. Kameki Kinoshita collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
Kazakhstan
 
  • Atyrau Province (Atyrau Oblysy; Atyrau Oblast')
    • Atyrau (Gur'yev)
Pekov, I. V. & Abramov, D. V. (1993): Boron deposit of the Inder and its minerals. World of Stones, 1, 23-30.
  • Karagandy Province (Qaragandy Oblysy; Karaganda Oblast')
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 406.
Kenya
 
  • Eastern Province
    • Lake Rudolf (Lake Turkana)
Lideke Vergouwen (1979) Two New Occurrences and the Gibbs Energy of Burkeite. Mineralogical Magazine 43:341-345.
  • Rift Valley Province
    • Turkana District
Am Min 66:632-635
Mexico
 
  • Chihuahua
    • Mun. de Aquiles Serdán
      • Santa Eulalia District
        • East Camp
Megaw, P.K.M., 1990b, Geology and geochemistry of the Santa Eulalia mining district, Chihuahua, Mexico.: Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, Univ. of Arizona, 549 p
  • Jalisco
    • Colima volcanic complex
Ostrooumov, M., Arellano-Jimenez, M., Ponce, A., Taran, Y., Reyes-Gasga, J. (2008): La colimaíta, K3VS4, un nuevo mineral del volcán Colima (México). Boletín de Mineralogía, 18(1), 7-8
Namibia
 
  • Kunene Region
Foshag, Wm. F. (1933) Sulfohalite and Other Minerals from the Otjiwalundo Salt Pan, South West Africa. American Mineralogist: 18: 431-434; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 549.
Netherlands
 
  • Limburg
    • Brunssum
T.G. Nijland, J.C. Zwaan, D. Visser, J. Leloux - De mineralen van Nederland - 2007
Niger
 
  • Agadez Department
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 406.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 406.
Norway
 
  • Buskerud
    • Kongsberg
      • Kongsberg Silver Mining District
        • Overberget Mining Field
Nordrum, F.S. (2002): Nyfunn av mineraler i Norge 2001-2002. STEIN 29 (2): 4-10
  • Nordland
    • Ballangen
      • Råna
Bøe, P. (1998): Utfellinger av natriumsulfatene mirabilitt og thenarditt i Ballangen, Ofoten, knyttet til Rånagabbroen. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift 14: 64-68
  • Rogaland
    • Sauda
Pers. Com. Inge Bryhni 1993; Selbekk R.S. (2010): Norges mineraler. En revidert utgave av Norges mineraler (Neumann 1985).Tapir-NGU-NHM.
Peru
 
  • Tacna Department
    • Jorge Basadre Province
Diaby, N., Dold, B., Buselli, E., & Vicetti, R. (2006). EFFECTS ON ELEMENT MOBILITY BY THE CONSTRUCTION OF A WETLAND ON THE MARINE SHORE PORPHYRY COPPER TAILINGS DEPOSIT, BAHÍA DE ITE, PERU. In 7th International Conference on Acid Rock Drainage (ICARD), March (pp. 26-30).
Poland
 
  • Małopolskie
    • Bochnia
Dudek, K., Kalicińska, A., Rybowicz, P., Wiewiórka, J. (2014): Secondary evaporite minerals from the historic Bochnia Salt Mine. Mineralogia Special Papers: 42: 49
    • Wieliczka
Wiewiórka J. 1972: Wtórny mirabilit z Wieliczki. Spraw. z Pos. Kom. PAN Oddz. w Krakowie T. 15/1
  • Upper Silesia (Śląskie)
    • Upper Silesian Coal Basin
      • Rybnik Coal Area
Kruszewski, Ł. (2013): Supergene minerals from the burning coal mining dumps in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin, South Poland. International Journal of Coal Geology, 105, 91-109 (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0166516212002881)
Réunion Island
 
Vlastélic, I., Staudacher, T., Deniel, C., Devidal, J. L., Devouard, B., Finizola, A., & Telouk, P. (2013). Lead isotopes behavior in the fumarolic environment of the Piton de la Fournaise volcano (Reunion Island). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 100, 297-314.
Romania
 
  • Bistrița-Năsăud Co.
    • Rodna Mtn (Rodnei Mtn)
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Krasnoyarsk Territory (Krasnoyarsk Kray; Krasnoyarskii Krai)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 406.
    • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
      • Aldan Shield
        • Aldan
          • Inagli Massif
Naumov, VB and Kamenetsky, VS and Thomas, R and Kononkova, NN and Ryzhenko, BN (2008): Inclusions of silicate and sulfate melts in chrome diopside from the Inagli deposit, Yakutia, Russia. Geochemistry International, 46, 554-564. [http://eprints.utas.edu.au/7673/1/GeochemInt2008-Inagli.pdf]
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Kamchatka Oblast'
http://www.kscnet.ru/ivs/conferences/kasp/JKASP04_circular2.pdf
      • Tolbachik volcano
Chaplygin, I.V., Yudovskaya, M.A., Pekov, I.V., Zubkova, N.V., Britvin, S.N., Vigasina, M.F., Pushcharovsky, D.Y., Belakovskiy, D.I., Griboedova, I.G., Kononkova, N.N. and Rassulov, V.A. (2016): Marinaite, IMA 2016-021. CNMNC Newsletter No. 32, August 2016, page 917; Mineralogical Magazine: 80: 915–922
        • Great Fissure eruption (Main Fracture)
found in volcanic fumaroles of the 2012–2013 Tolbachik fissure eruption, Kamchatka peninsula, on the new cinder Naboko cone
          • Northern Breakthrough (North Breach)
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data (2011)
Pekov, I.V., Zelenski, M.E., Zubkova, N.V., Ksenofontov, D.A., Kabalov, Y.K., Chukanov, N.V., Yapaskurt, V.O., Zadov, A.E., Pushcharovsky, D.Y. (2012): Krasheninnikovite, KNa2CaMg(SO4)3F, a new mineral from the Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka, Russia. American Mineralogist, 97, 1788-1795
  • Krasnodarskiy Kray
    • Taman Peninsula
Dmitry Tonkacheev
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaya Oblast'
      • Khibiny Massif
Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols: "Handbook of Mineralogy", Vol. 4, 2000
www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/lovo.htm
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
Spain
 
  • Andalusia
    • Córdoba
      • Villanueva de Córdoba
Schnorrer, G. (2000): Die Minerale der ehemaligen Grube Espuela de San Miguel bei Villanueva de Cordoba, Prov. Cordoba in Spanien. Der Aufschluss, 51, 211-222. (in German)
  • Castile-La Mancha
    • Toledo
Collection of NHM, Vienna
Calvo, M. (2014). Minerales y Minas de España. Vol VI. Sulfatos (Seleniatos, Teluratos), Cromatos, Molibdatos y Wolframatos. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas de Madrid. Fundación Gómez Pardo. 653 págs.
  • Madrid
    • Chinchón
http://euromin.w3sites.net/Nouveau_site/musees/barcelone/MINe.htm
    • Ciempozuelos
Casaseca, S. (1826). Analyse d’une nouvelle substance minerale (la thénardite). Annales de Chimie et de Physique, 32, 308-316
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 406.
Sweden
 
  • Medelpad
    • Sundsvall
Kresten, P. (1990): The Alnø area (in Swedish). In: Lundqvist, T. (Ed.), Beskrivning Till Bergrundskartan Over Västernorrlands län. Sveriges Geologiska Undersökning, serie Ba, 31, 238–278
Switzerland
 
  • Aargau
    • Leuggern
      • Felsenau
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 401.
  • Vaud (Waadt)
    • Bex
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 401.
    • Villeneuve
Stalder, H. A., Wagner, A., Graeser, S. and Stuker, P. (1998): "Mineralienlexikon der Schweiz", Wepf (Basel), p. 401.
Tanzania
 
  • Arusha Region
Victoria Sekisova, Victor Victorovich Sharygin, A. N. Zaitsev, Stanislav Strekopytov (2015) Liquid Immiscibility Геология и геофизика, 2015, т. 56, № 12, с. 2173—2197
Turkey
 
  • Aegean Region
    • Kütahya Province
      • Emet
        • Doğanlar village
J. García-Veigas, L. Rosell, X. Alcobé, I. Subias, F. Ortí, I. Gündogan and C. Helvaci (2010) Fontarnauite, a New Sulphate-Borate Mineral from the Emet Borate District (Turkey). Macla 13, 97-98.
  • Central Anatolia Region
    • Ankara Province
Helvaci, C., Mordogan, H., Çolak, M., & Gündogan, I. (2004). Presence and distribution of lithium in borate deposits and some recent lake waters of west-central Turkey. International Geology Review, 46(2), 177-190.
Ortı́, F., Gündogan, I., & Helvaci, C. (2002). Sodium sulphate deposits of Neogene age: the Kirmir formation, Beypazari basin, Turkey. Sedimentary Geology, 146(3), 305-333.
    • Konya Province
      • Great Konya Basin
Am Min 66:632-635
Lideke Vergouwen (1981) Eugsterite, a new salt mineral. American Mineralogist 66:632-636
    • Niğde Province
Altay, T., Karakaya, M.Ç., and Murat, A. (2010): Goldschmidt Conference Abstracts 2010.
Turkmenistan
 
  • Balkan Province
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 449.
UK
 
  • England
    • Co. Durham
      • Billingham
Mineralogical Magazine 1959 32 : 172-175.
    • Cornwall
      • St Agnes District
        • St Agnes
Ansermet, S. (2007): Lapis 32(2), 25-26, 50
    • East Sussex
      • Mountfield
Journal of Russell Society Vol 1 issue 3.
Ukraine
 
  • Crimea Oblast'
    • Crimea peninsula
      • Alushta
Alexander I. Tischenko (1996). Minerals of the Crimea. - World of stones, 1996, #9, p.9-18.
      • Kerch peninsula (Kertch peninsula)
        • Bondarenkovo Village area
Deyak M.A. Modern water-chemogenic formations of mud volcanoes of Kerch Peninsula. Dissertation to Scientific Candidate Degree in Geological Sciences in speciality 04.00.21 – lithology. –Department of marine geology and sedimentary ore formation of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. – Kyiv, 2010.
        • Novoselovka Village area
Deyak M.A. Modern water-chemogenic formations of mud volcanoes of Kerch Peninsula. Dissertation to Scientific Candidate Degree in Geological Sciences in speciality 04.00.21 – lithology. –Department of marine geology and sedimentary ore formation of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. – Kyiv, 2010.
        • Vulcanovka Village area
Deyak M.A. Modern water-chemogenic formations of mud volcanoes of Kerch Peninsula. Dissertation to Scientific Candidate Degree in Geological Sciences in speciality 04.00.21 – lithology. –Department of marine geology and sedimentary ore formation of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. – Kyiv, 2010.
      • Krasnoperekopsk Area
Geologiya SSSR. Poleznye iskopaemye (The geology of USSR. Commercial mineral)- Nedra (Moscou), 1974, vol. VIII, 205 p.
      • Sudak Area
        • Morskoye Village
Geologiya SSSR (The geology of USSR) (1969) - Nedra (Moscou), 1969, vol. VIII, 575 p.
    • Simferopol area
      • Ukrainka Village area (Kurtsy)
- Dvoichenko P.A. The minerals of Crimea (1914) - Zapiski Krymskogo obshchestva estestvoispytatelei (Proceeding of the Crimea Society of Naturalistes), 1914, vol. 4, p. 1-208 (Rus.) - Popov S.P. Mineralogy of the Crimea (1938). - M.-L., AN SSSR, 1938, 352 p. (Rus.)
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise Co.
      • Bowie area
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 160, 178, 216, 243, 249, 394; Regis, A.J. & L.B. Sand (1967), Lateral gradation of chabazite to herschelite in the San Simon basin (abstract), in S.W. Baily (editor), Clays and clay minerals. Proc. 15th. National Conference Clays and Clay Minerals: 193.
    • Coconino Co.
      • San Franciscan volcanic field (San Francisco Peaks; San Francisco Mts)
        • Sunset Crater (Sunset Peak)
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 394.
        • Sunset Crater Volcano National Monument
          • Flagstaff
University of Arizona Mineral Museum 8627
    • Pima Co.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 395.
    • Pinal Co.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 395.
    • Yavapai Co.
      • Camp Verde District
[MinRec 14:90]
Tenny, J.B. (1928), The Mineral Industries of AZ, AZ Bur. of Mines Bull. 125: 115.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 232.
Grant, Raymond W., Bideaux, R.A., and Williams, S.A. (2006) Minerals Added to the Arizona List 1995-2005: 4.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 300, 395; Guild, F.N. (1910), Mineralogy of Arizona; Univ. of AZ Bull. 41 (1916-17), Mineralogy of Useful Minerals in AZ: 58; Galbraith, F.W. & Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 57, 59.
  • California
    • Imperial Co.
      • Bertram
        • Bertram siding
Sampson, Reid J. & W. Burling Tucker (1942), Mineral resources of Imperial County: California Mining Bureau. Report 38: 140; Ver Planck, Wm. E., Jr. (1954), Salines in southern California: California Division Mines Bulletin 170, ch. VIII: 5-14; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 108; Morton, Paul K. (1977), Geology and Mineral Resources of Imperial County, California, County Report 7, California Division of Mines and Geology: 84-85; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 406.; Tucker, W. Burling (1921), Los Angeles field division: California Mining Bureau. Report 17: 271; Tucker, W. Burling (1924a), Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Ventura Counties: California Mining Bureau. Report 20: 87; Ver Planck, Wm. E., Jr. (1954), Salines in southern California: California Division Mines Bulletin 170, ch. VIII: 5; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 365.
Tucker, W. Burling (1924a), Imperial, Inyo, Kern, Los Angeles, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, Ventura Counties: California Mining Bureau. Report 20: 87; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 267.
    • Inyo Co.
      • Amargosa Range
Bodewig, C. & G. vom Rath (1885), Colmanit aus Californien: Zeitschr. Kristallographie, Band 10: 181; Bailey, Gilbert E. (1902), The saline deposits of California: California Mining Bureau Bulletin 24: 45, 46; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 406.
      • Death Valley
Bailey, G. E. (1902). The saline deposits of California (No. 24). AJ Johnston, Supt. State Printing.
Econ Geol (1996) 91:622-635
      • Deep Springs Valley
Hamilton, Fletcher McNab (1922), eighteenth report of the State Mineralogist: California Mining Bureau. Report 18; 767 pp.: 129; Jones, Blair Francis (1961), Zoning of saline minerals at Deep Spring Lake, California: USGS PP 424-B, Article 83: 201; Jones, Blair Francis (1963), Layer sequence of saline minerals at Deep Spring Lake, California (abstract): Geological Society of America Program, New York Meeting: 88A; Jones, Blair Francis (1965), The hydrology and mineralogy of Deep Spring Lake, Inyo County, California. USGS Professional Paper 502-A, 56 pp.: 44; Nash, Douglas B. & Clemens Arvid Nelson (1964), Leucite-bearing volcanic plugs, Deep Spring valley, California (abstract): Geological Society of America, Cordilleran Section Meeting, Program: 47, March 1964.; Jones, Blair Francis (1961), Zoning of saline minerals at Deep Spring Lake, California: USGS PP 424-B, Article 83: B201; Jones, Blair Francis (1963), Layer sequence of saline minerals at Deep Spring Lake, California (abstract): Geological Society of America Program, New York Meeting: 88A; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 365.; Vítek, P., Jehlicka, J., & Edwards, H. G. (2013). Practical considerations for the field application of miniaturized portable Raman instrumentation for the identification of minerals. Applied spectroscopy, 67(7), 767-778.
USGS (2005), Mineral Resources Data System (MRDS): U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia, loc. file ID #10260745.
      • Furnace Creek District (Furnace Creek Borate District; Death Valley Area Borate Deposits; Ryan area)
        • Ryan
Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister, and A.C. Vlisidis (1970) Wardsmithite 5CaO • MgO •12B2O3 •30H2O, a new borate mineral from the Death Valley region, California. American Mineralogist: 55: 349-357; Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister, and G.D. Eberlein (1979) New data on hungchaoite, the second world occurrence, Death Valley region, California. American Mineralogist: 64: 369-375; Erd, R.C., J.F. McAllister, and G.D. Eberlein (1979) New data on hungchaoite, the second world occurrence, Death Valley region, California. American Mineralogist: 64: 369-375.
        • Twenty Mule Team Canyon
McAllister, James Franklin (1961), Sborgite in the Furnace Creek area, California: USGS PP 424-B, Article 129: 300-301; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 259, 280.
      • Panamint Mts (Panamint Range)
        • Panamint District (Ballarat District)
          • Ballarat
Post, J. L. (1984) Saponitye from near Ballarat, California. Clays and Clay Minerals, Vol. 32, No. 2, 147-153.
Ver Planck, Wm. E., Jr. (1958), Salt in California: California Division Mines Bulletin 25 (125 ?); Hardie, L.A. (1968) The origin of the Recent nonmarine evaporate deposit of Saline Valley, Inyo County, California. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: 32: 1287; Hardie, L.A. and Eugster, H.P. (1970) The evolution of closed-basin brines. Mineralogical Society of America Special Paper 3: 273; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 280.
    • Kern Co.
      • Kramer District (Kramer Borate District)
        • Boron
Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service" V. 22 N. 10 Oct 1969
Pemberton, H. Earl, Wm. Moller, Jack Schwartz & George Masimer (1960), The minerals of Boron, California, 40 pp. (Published by the Mineral Research Society of California, Montebello, CA): 38; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 365.
    • Los Angeles Co.
      • San Gabriel Mts
Wells, R.C. (1937), Analyses of rocks and minerals: USGS Bulletin 878: 19; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 365.
    • Riverside Co.
      • Vivet Eye
Ingalls, Walter Renton, ed. (1908) The Mineral Industry, Its Statistics, Technology and Trade during 1907, Vol. XVI, Hill Publishing Co., New York & London: 833.
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Pinto Mts
        • Dale District (Virginia Dale District)
          • Dale (Old Dale)
Tucker, W. Burling & Reid J. Sampson (1943b), Mineral resources of San Bernardino County: California Division Mines Report 39: 541; Wright, L.A., et al (1953), Mines and mineral resources of San Bernardino County, California: California Journal of Mines and Geology: 49(1-2): 220; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 365; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 280.
Robottom, Arthur (1874), Borax deposits in California – an interesting discovery: Engineering & Mining Journal: 18: 82; Ayers, Edward F. (1889a), Mineralogical notes (thenardite, pyrite): American Journal of Science, 3rd. series: 37: 235; De Groot, Henry (1890), The Searles borax marsh: California Mining Bureau. Report 10: 534-535; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 292; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 280; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 406, 633; Mineralogical Record (2007): 38: 213.; Gale, Hoyt Stoddard (1915), Mineralogy of the Searles Lake deposits in Salines in the Owens, Searles, and Panamint basins, southeastern California: USGS Bulletin 580: 296-308
    • San Luis Obispo Co.
      • Carrizo Plain
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 406.
        • Soda Lake area
Arnold, Ralph & Harry R. Johnson (1909), Sodium sulphate in Soda Lake, Carriso Plain, San Luis Obispo County, California: USGS Bulletin 380: 369-371; Tucker, W. Burling (1921), Los Angeles field division: California Mining Bureau. Report 17: 386; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 280.
  • Colorado
    • Jefferson Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) E.B. Eckels
    • Mesa Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckel, E. B.
    • Weld Co.
Minerals of Colorado (1997) Eckels, E. B.
  • Hawaii
    • Hawaii Co. (Hawaii Island)
      • Kau Desert
www.routledge-ny.com/ref/caves/hawaii.pdf
American Mineralogist (1921): 6: 121.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 406.
Hon, K., Bove, D.J., Lee, L., and Thornber, C., 2009, The origin and zonation of sublimates and precipitates in active Hawaiian lava tubes: Geological Society of America Abstracts with Programs, v. 41, no. 7, p.193.
  • Missouri
    • Jackson Co.
Rocks & Min., March 1998.
  • Nevada
    • Churchill Co.
      • Soda Lake District
NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Clark Co.
      • Muddy Mts
        • Muddy Mountains District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Esmeralda Co.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 406.
    • Lyon Co.
      • Mason Valley
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Mineral Co.
NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
NBMG Bull 58 Geology and Mineral Resources of Mineral County, Nevada
NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Nye Co.
NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Pershing Co.
      • Antelope District
Jensen, M. (1993): Update on the mineralogy of the Majuba Hill mine, Pershing County. Mineralogical Record. 24, 171-180.
NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Washoe Co.
      • Smoke Creek Desert
NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
      • Steamboat Springs District
NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New Mexico
    • Cibola Co.
10th Annual New Mexico Mineral Symposium
    • Doña Ana Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • Eddy and Lea Counties
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
    • McKinley Co.
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
        • Ambrosia Lake Sub-district
NMBMMR Memoir 15 Geology and Technology of the Grants Uranium Region
NMBMMR Memoir 15 Geology and Technology of the Grants Uranium Region
    • Otero Co.
2008 New Mexico Mineral Symposium abstracts
    • Torrance Co.
Northrop, Minerals of New Mexico, 3rd Rev. Ed., 1996
Jones,Jeri,1977,Thenardite in some on the argillites in south -central North Carolina,North Carolina Office of State Archaeology
    • Stanly Co.
Personal Message - Jeri L Jones
  • North Dakota
    • Divide Co.
      • Alkabo
https://www.dmr.nd.gov/ndgs/Mineral/nd_saltnew.asp
Jay Ellis Ransom,1974,Gems and Minerals of America
  • Ohio
    • Summit Co.
      • Cuyahoga Falls
        • Cuyahoga Gorge Park
Minerals of Ohio Bull. 69 ODNR
  • Oklahoma
    • Blaine Co.
      • Southard
Rocks & Minerals 72:4 pp 252-264
  • Utah
    • Box Elder Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    • Davis Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    • Grand Co.
      • Thompsons District (S. E. Thomsons)
        • The Poison Strip
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997): Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 43; Am. Min. 48 (1963), 1187-1195
    • Salt Lake Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    • San Juan Co.
      • Blanding
Wendlandt, R.F., Harrison, W.J. (2006): Ammonium Sulfate Evaporites Associated With Uranium Mill Tailings Disposal Cells. American Geophysical Union, Fall Meeting 2006, abstract #V31D-0603
    • Tooele Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
  • Virginia
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Rockbridge Co.
      • Glasgow
Rocks & Min.: 60:157.
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
    • Wise Co.
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich
  • Washington
    • Grant Co.
      • Warden
Minerals of Washington, Bart Cannon, 1975
www.dnr.wa.gov/geology/okanogan.htm.
Uzbekistan
 
  • Karakalpakstan Respublikasi (Qaraqalpog'iston)
    • Lower Amu Darya River (Amydar'ya)
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Mineral and/or Locality  
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