SUPPORT US. Covid-19 has significantly affected our fundraising. Please help!
Log InRegister
Home PageAbout MindatThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusWho We AreContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatCorporate SponsorshipSponsor a PageSponsored PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on Mindat
Learning CenterWhat is a mineral?The most common minerals on earthInformation for EducatorsMindat ArticlesThe ElementsBooks & Magazines
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryAdvanced Locality SearchRandom MineralRandom LocalitySearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch ArticlesSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
Mining CompaniesStatisticsUsersMineral MuseumsMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryDevice SettingsThe Mineral Quiz
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesSearch by ColorNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day GalleryMineral Photography


This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
Hide all sections | Show all sections

About ThoreauliteHide

Jacques Thoreau (1885-1973)
Brown to yellow
Adamantine, Resinous
5½ - 6
Specific Gravity:
7.6 - 7.9
Crystal System:
Member of:
Named in 1933 by Henri Buttgenbach in honor of Jacques Thoreau [September 27, 1886 Brussels, Belgium - January 11, 1973 Kessel-Lo, Belgium], Professor of Mineralogy, Université Catholique de Leuvain-UCL, Belgium.
Isostructural with:
Foordite-Thoreaulite Series.
Thoreaulite was first described by Buttgenbach (1933) from a pegmatite at the Manono Mine, Tanganyika, DR Congo.

Classification of ThoreauliteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First published:

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
G : With large (+- medium-sized) cations; chains of edge-sharing octahedra
Dana 7th ed.:

3 : AB2O6

18 : Niobates and Tantalates
1 : Niobates and tantalates containing neither rare earths nor U

Physical Properties of ThoreauliteHide

Adamantine, Resinous
Brown to yellow
Yellow or greenish
5½ - 6 on Mohs scale
On {100}; on {011} imperfect.
7.6 - 7.9 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Optical Data of ThoreauliteHide

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 2.390 nβ = 2.420 nγ = 2.520
Measured: 25° to 35°, Calculated: 60°
On {100} cleavages = 0.039.
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.130
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
r < v

Chemical Properties of ThoreauliteHide

IMA Formula:
Idealised Formula:

Crystallography of ThoreauliteHide

Crystal System:
Cell Parameters:
a = 17.14 Å, b = 4.86 Å, c = 5.54 Å
β = 91°
a:b:c = 3.527 : 1 : 1.14
Unit Cell V:
461.41 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals rough, prismatic [001].
Lamellar twins, with composition face {010}.

Crystal StructureHide

Unit Cell | Unit Cell Packed
2x2x2 | 3x3x3 | 4x4x4
Big Balls | Small Balls | Just Balls | Spacefill
Polyhedra Off | Si Polyhedra | All Polyhedra
Remove metal-metal sticks
Display Options
Black Background | White Background
Perspective On | Perspective Off
2D | Stereo | Red-Blue | Red-Cyan
CIF File    Best | x | y | z | a | b | c
Stop | Start
Console Off | On | Grey | Yellow
IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0000199ThoreauliteMumme W G (1970) The crystal structure of SnTa2O7, thoreaulite, an example of tin in five-fold coordination American Mineralogist 55 367-37719700293
0015601ThoreauliteMaksimova N V, Ilyukhin V V, Belov N V (1975) Crystal structure of thoreaulite, SaTa2O6 Soviet Physics Doklady 20 528-5291975Manono, Katanga, Democratic Republic of the Congo0293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

Type Occurrence of ThoreauliteHide

Geological Setting of Type Material:
Buttgenbach, H. (1933) La thoreaulite, nouvelle espèce minérale. Annales de la Société Géologique de Belgique 56: 327-331

Synonyms of ThoreauliteHide

Other Language Names for ThoreauliteHide

Simplified Chinese:钽锡矿

Relationship of Thoreaulite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
FoorditeSn2+(Nb,Ta)2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
2 photos of Thoreaulite associated with Cesplumtantite(Cs,Na)2(Pb,Sb3+)3Ta8O24
1 photo of Thoreaulite associated with LithiotantiteLiTa3O8
1 photo of Thoreaulite associated with CassiteriteSnO2
1 photo of Thoreaulite associated with AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.DG.05Euxenite-(Y)(Y,Ca,Ce,U,Th)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.DG.05Fersmite(Ca,Ce,Na)(Nb,Ta,Ti)2(O,OH,F)6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DG.05Kobeite-(Y)(REE,Fe,U)3 Zr(Ti,Nb)3 O12Iso.
4.DG.05Loranskite-(Y)(Y,Ce,Ca)ZrTaO6 (?)
4.DG.05Polycrase-(Y)Y(Ti,Nb)2(O,OH)6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.DG.05Tanteuxenite-(Y)Y(Ta,Nb,Ti)2(O,OH)6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DG.05Uranopolycrase(U4+,Y)(Ti,Nb)2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DG.10Fergusonite-(Y)-βYNbO4Mon. 2/m
4.DG.15FoorditeSn2+(Nb,Ta)2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
4.DG.20RaspitePb(WO4)Mon. 2/m : P21/b

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide,Ta)2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

18.1.2LueshiteNaNbO3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
18.1.4FranconiteNa(Nb2O5)(OH) · 3H2OMon.
18.1.7Rankamaite(Na,K)3(Ta,Nb,Al)11(O,OH)31Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmmm
18.1.8Hydropyrochlore(H2O,◻)2Nb2(O,OH)6(H2O)Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
18.1.10RynersoniteCaTa2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
18.1.11Microlite GroupA2-mTa2X6-wZ-nIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
18.1.12BelyankiniteCa1-2(Ti,Nb)5O12 · 9H2O (?)Amor.
18.1.13LatrappiteCa2NbFe3+O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
18.1.14Hochelagaite(Ca,Na,Sr)(Nb,Ti,Si,Al)4O11 · 8H2OMon.
18.1.15Bariomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
18.1.16ParabariomicroliteBaTa4O10(OH)2 · 2H2OTrig.
18.1.17Bariopyrochlore (of Hogarth 1977)A2Nb2(O,OH)6ZIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
18.1.18AlumotantiteAlTaO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
18.1.19SimpsoniteAl4Ta3O13(OH)Trig. 3 : P3
18.1.22Stannomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)
18.1.23FoorditeSn2+(Nb,Ta)2O6Mon. 2/m : B2/b
18.1.25Plumbopyrochlore (of Skorobogatova et al.)A2Nb2(O,OH)6Z
18.1.26Plumbomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)
18.1.27StibiocolumbiteSb(Nb,Ta)O4Orth. mm2
18.1.28StibiotantaliteSb(Ta,Nb)O4Orth. mm2
18.1.31Stibiomicrolite (of Groat et al.)
18.1.35Bismutomicrolite (of Hogarth 1977)Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
18.1.36Tantalite-(Mn)Mn2+Ta2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
18.1.37Gerasimovskite(Mn,Ca)(Nb,Ti)5O12 · 9H2OAmor.
18.1.38Tapiolite-(Mn)Mn2+Ta2O6Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
18.1.39Columbite-(Mn)Mn2+Nb2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
18.1.42Columbite-(Fe)Fe2+Nb2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
18.1.43Tantalite-(Fe)Fe2+Ta2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
18.1.44ColumbiteOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
18.1.46Tapiolite(Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)2O6Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m)
18.1.47Tapiolite-(Fe)Fe2+Ta2O6Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
18.1.51 Staringite(Fe,Mn)x(Ta,Nb)2xSn6-3xO12

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for ThoreauliteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Buttgenbach, H.(1933) La thoreaulite, nouvelle espéce minérale. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique. 56: 327-328
American Mineralogist (1934): 19: 236.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 802.
Melon, J. & Toussaint, J. (1950) La thoreaulite de Kubitaka (Punia, Maniema, Congo Belge) et la crystallographie de la thoreaulite. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique. 74: B25-32
American Mineralogist (1970): 55: 367-377.
American Mineralogist (1974): 59: 1026-1039.
Canadian Mineralogist (1988): 26: 899-903. (structure {Foordite}).

Internet Links for ThoreauliteHide

Localities for ThoreauliteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Minas Gerais
    • Itinga
      • Monte Belo
[MinRec 12:74]; Daniel Atencio, Reynaldo R. Contreira Fo., Stuart J. Mills, Jose M.V. Coutinho, Sara B. Honorato, Alejandro P. Ayala, Javier Ellena, and Marcelo B. de Andrade (2011) Rankamaite from the Urubu pegmatite, Itinga, Minas Gerais, Brazil: crystal chemistry and Rietveld refinement. Am. Mineral. 96, 1455–1460.
  • Heilongjiang
    • Hegang
      • Luobei County
Deshi Lu (1993): Geology and Prospecting 29(6), 8-12
DR Congo
  • Maniema
Henri Buttgenbach (1947) Les minéraux de Belgique et du Congo belge
Uher, P., Cerny, P., & Chapman, R. (2008). Foordite-thoreaulite, Sn2+ Nb2O6Sn2+ Ta2O6: compositional variations and alteration products. European Journal of Mineralogy, 20(4), 501-516.
  • South Kivu
    • Walungu Territory
Vik Vanrusselt photo & specimen (Ex Rik Dillen specimen)
  • Tanganyika
Buttgenbach, H.(1933): La thoreaulite, nouvelle espéce minérale. Annales de la Société géologique de Belgique. 56: 327-328; Dewaele, S., Hulsbosch, N., Cryns, Y., Boyce, A., Burgess, R., & Muchez, P. (2016). Geological setting and timing of the world-class Sn, Nb–Ta and Li mineralization of Manono-Kitotolo (Katanga, Democratic Republic of Congo). Ore Geology Reviews, 72, 373-390.
  • East Kazakhstan
    • Kalba Range
      • Irtysh River
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    • Ulan
Voloshin, A.V., Pakomovskii, Ya.A., Stepanov, V.I., Tyusheva, F.N. (1983): Lithiotantite, Li,(Ta,Nb)3O8, a new mineral from granite pegmatites of Eastern Kazakhstan. Mineralogiceskij Zhurnal, 5(1), 91-95. Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
  • Western Province
    • Ngororero
      • Gatumba
Bertossa, A. (1968) Inventaire des minéraux du Rwanda. Bulletin du Service Géologique de Rwanda: 4: 25-45.; Daltry, V.D.C. and von Knorring, O. (1998) Type-mineralogy of Rwanda with particular reference to the Buranga pegmatite. Geologica Belgica: 1: 9-15.
      • Kabaya
Ann. Soc. Geol. Belgique, Vol. 73, No. 8, p. 213-218, 1950.
Mineral and/or Locality  
Mindat Discussions Facebook Logo Instagram Logo Discord Logo is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization. Public Relations by Blytheweigh.
Copyright © and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2021, except where stated. Most political location boundaries are © OpenStreetMap contributors. relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us - Report a bug/vulnerability Current server date and time: January 27, 2021 01:07:40 Page generated: January 14, 2021 20:40:08
Go to top of page