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Titanite

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About TitaniteHide

Formula:
CaTi(SiO4)O
Often contains minor Al, Fe3+ and F.
Colour:
Brown, green, yellow, orange, rose-red, black, beige, grey, colourless, grey-blue, bluish
Lustre:
Adamantine, Resinous
Hardness:
5 - 5½
Specific Gravity:
3.48 - 3.6
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Member of:
Name:
First recognized as "nouveau substance minérale" in 1787 by Marc August Pictet, but only described and named in 1795 by Martin Klaproth for its titanium content. A common synonym, sphene (from the Greek sphenos (σφηνώ), meaning wedge, for its common wedge-shaped crystals), was introduced in 1801 by Rene Just Haüy.
Isostructural with:
Titanite Group. The titanium analogue of Malayaite and Vanadomalayaite. It also seems to be the Ti analogue of UM1999-35-SiO:Ca.

Forms a series with Malayaite.
Titanite close to end-member composition has space-group symmetry P21/a, whereas titanite with significant additional constituents has A2/a symmetry.
A triclinic, Ta- and Al-bearing polymorph (above-given) has been described by Lussier et al. (2009). A synthetic titanite analogue with the formula CaAl(SiO4)F was reported by Krüger et al. (2015).

Also known as sphene, this calcium titanium silicate forms flattened wedge-shaped crystals, commonly twinned with prominent re-entry angles; massive, compact and lamellar forms are also found. It occurs as an accessory mineral in igneous rocks; in schists, gneisses and other metamorphic rocks, and is also found as a detrital mineral in some sedimentary deposits.

An As- and Na-rich mineral related to titanite was just approved under the name arsenatrotitanite.

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Titanite.


Classification of TitaniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
9.AG.15

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
G : Nesosilicates with additional anions; cations in > [6] +- [6] coordination
52.4.3.1

52 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
4 : Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination
14.9.6

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
9 : Silicates of Ti

Physical Properties of TitaniteHide

Adamantine, Resinous
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Colour:
Brown, green, yellow, orange, rose-red, black, beige, grey, colourless, grey-blue, bluish
Streak:
White
Hardness:
5 - 5½ on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
Good on {110}
Parting:
Due to twinning on {221}
Density:
3.48 - 3.6 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.53 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of TitaniteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.843 - 1.950 nβ = 1.870 - 2.034 nγ = 1.943 - 2.110
2V:
Measured: 17° to 40°, Calculated: 68° to 82°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.100 - 0.160
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
r > v extreme
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X= nearly colorless
Y= yellow to green
Z= red to yellow orange

Chemical Properties of TitaniteHide

Formula:
CaTi(SiO4)O

Often contains minor Al, Fe3+ and F.
Common Impurities:
Fe,Y,Mn,Al,Ce,Sr,Na,Nb,Ta,Al,Mg,V,F,Zr,Sn

Age distributionHide

Recorded ages:
Mesoarchean to Paleogene : 3110 Ma to 36.2 ± 2 Ma - based on 86 recorded ages.

Crystallography of TitaniteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
P21/b
Setting:
P21/a
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.057 Å, b = 8.707 Å, c = 6.555 Å
β = 113.81°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.81 : 1 : 0.753
Unit Cell V:
368.49 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Common forms are {111}, {110}, {102}, {100}, {001} and {112}. Crystals equant to wedge-shaped, or flattened with large {001} or {102}, or prismatic by extension along [001], to 65 x 17 x 17 cm, compact, massive.
NOTE: The morphological data is based on a choice of unit-cell parameters that differs from the one that is given in Mindat. This 'old' unit cell has a = 6.56, b = 8.72, c = 7.44 Å and β = 119.54° (see the introduction in http://rruff.info/rruff_1.0/uploads/AM61_238.pdf). The 3D drawings of titanite are also based on this old cell.
Twinning:
On {100}, contact and penetration, less commonly lamellar on {221}.
Comment:
May be metamict. Titanite close to end-member composition has space-group symmetry P21/a, whereas titanite with significant additional constituents has A2/a symmetry. Smaller unit cells indicate an Al- and F-rich composition.

Crystallographic forms of TitaniteHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Titanite no.31 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Titanite no.203 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0000500TitaniteSpeer J A, Gibbs G V (1976) The crystal structure of synthetic titanite, CaTiOSiO4, and the domain textures of natural titanites American Mineralogist 61 238-24719760293
0000520TitaniteTaylor M, Brown G E (1976) High-temperature structural study of the P2_1/a - A2/a phase transition in synthetic titanite, CaTiSiO5 American Mineralogist 61 435-44719760298
0000521TitaniteTaylor M, Brown G E (1976) High-temperature structural study of the P2_1/a - A2/a phase transition in synthetic titanite, CaTiSiO5 American Mineralogist 61 435-44719760438
0000522TitaniteTaylor M, Brown G E (1976) High-temperature structural study of the P2_1/a - A2/a phase transition in synthetic titanite, CaTiSiO5 American Mineralogist 61 435-44719760543
0000523TitaniteTaylor M, Brown G E (1976) High-temperature structural study of the P2_1/a - A2/a phase transition in synthetic titanite, CaTiSiO5 American Mineralogist 61 435-44719760788
0000524TitaniteTaylor M, Brown G E (1976) High-temperature structural study of the P2_1/a - A2/a phase transition in synthetic titanite, CaTiSiO5 American Mineralogist 61 435-447197601013
0000942TitaniteHollabaugh C L, Foit F F (1984) The crystal structure of an Al-rich titanite from Grisons, Switzerland American Mineralogist 69 725-73219840293
0000943TitaniteHollabaugh C L, Foit F F (1984) The crystal structure of an Al-rich titanite from Grisons, Switzerland American Mineralogist 69 725-73219840293
0000944TitaniteHollabaugh C L, Foit F F (1984) The crystal structure of an Al-rich titanite from Grisons, Switzerland American Mineralogist 69 725-73219840293
0001898TitaniteHughes J M, Bloodaxe E S, Hanchar J M, Foord E E (1997) Incorporation of rare earth elements in titanite: Stabilization of the A2/a dimorph by creation of antiphase boundaries American Mineralogist 82 512-51619970293
0001899TitaniteHughes J M, Bloodaxe E S, Hanchar J M, Foord E E (1997) Incorporation of rare earth elements in titanite: Stabilization of the A2/a dimorph by creation of antiphase boundaries American Mineralogist 82 512-51619970293
0001900TitaniteHughes J M, Bloodaxe E S, Hanchar J M, Foord E E (1997) Incorporation of rare earth elements in titanite: Stabilization of the A2/a dimorph by creation of antiphase boundaries American Mineralogist 82 512-51619970293
0001901TitaniteHughes J M, Bloodaxe E S, Hanchar J M, Foord E E (1997) Incorporation of rare earth elements in titanite: Stabilization of the A2/a dimorph by creation of antiphase boundaries American Mineralogist 82 512-51619970293
0002030TitaniteChrosch J, Colombo M, Malcherek T, Salje E K H, Groat L A, Bismayer U (1998) Thermal annealing behaviour of radiation damaged titanite Sample is heated Cardiff titanite, 1123 K for 3 days American Mineralogist 83 1083-109119980293
0002102TitaniteAngel R J, Kunz M, Miletich R, Woodland A B, Koch M, Knoche R L (1999) Effect of isovalent Si,Ti substitution on the bulk moduli of Ca(Ti1-xSix)SiO5 titanites American Mineralogist 84 282-28719991293
0002103TitaniteAngel R J, Kunz M, Miletich R, Woodland A B, Koch M, Knoche R L (1999) Effect of isovalent Si,Ti substitution on the bulk moduli of Ca(Ti1-xSix)SiO5 titanites American Mineralogist 84 282-28719992.6293
0002104TitaniteAngel R J, Kunz M, Miletich R, Woodland A B, Koch M, Knoche R L (1999) Effect of isovalent Si,Ti substitution on the bulk moduli of Ca(Ti1-xSix)SiO5 titanites American Mineralogist 84 282-28719994.4293
0002105TitaniteAngel R J, Kunz M, Miletich R, Woodland A B, Koch M, Knoche R L (1999) Effect of isovalent Si,Ti substitution on the bulk moduli of Ca(Ti1-xSix)SiO5 titanites American Mineralogist 84 282-28719995.8293
0002273TitaniteTroitzsch U, Ellis D J (1999) The synthesis and crystal structure of CaAlFSiO4, the Al-F analog of titanite American Mineralogist 84 1162-116919990293
0002524TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320000.21300
0002525TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320000.87609
0002526TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320000.71483
0002527TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320001.21670
0002528TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320001.26648
0002529TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320001.23628
0002530TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320001.7627
0002531TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320001.69518
0002532TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320001.77555
0002533TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320001.84581
0002534TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320001.88560
0002535TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320002.87666
0002536TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320003.25538
0002537TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320003.19490
0002538TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320003.13448
0002539TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320002.88371
0002540TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320002.66303
0002541TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320003.56658
0002542TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320003.97659
0002543TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320004.29618
0002544TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320004.26568
0002545TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320004.11525
0002546TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320004.1483
0002547TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320003.86399
0002548TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320003.63301
0002549TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320004.67658
0002550TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320004.93609
0002551TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320004.88568
0002552TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320004.8522
0002553TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320004.75469
0002554TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320004.61396
0002555TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320004.45338
0002556TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320004.36301
0002557TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320004.89656
0002558TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320004.34660
0002559TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320003.79662
0002560TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320002.87666
0002561TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320002.74619
0002562TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320002.65576
0002563TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320002.51523
0002564TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320002.39481
0002565TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320002.25440
0002566TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320002.16399
0002567TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320002.05354
0002568TitaniteKunz M, Arlt T, Stolz J (2000) In situ powder diffraction study of titanite (CaTiOSiO4) at high pressure and high temperature American Mineralogist 85 1465-147320001.88301
0006018TitaniteLiferovich R P, Mitchell R H (2005) Composition and paragenesis of Na-, Nb-, and Zr-bearing titanite from Khibina, Russia, and crystal-structure data for synthetic analogues The Canadian Mineralogist 43 795-8122005Khibina, Russia0293
0006019TitaniteLiferovich R P, Mitchell R H (2005) Composition and paragenesis of Na-, Nb-, and Zr-bearing titanite from Khibina, Russia, and crystal-structure data for synthetic analogues The Canadian Mineralogist 43 795-8122005Khibina, Russia0293
0006098TitaniteLiferovich R P, Mitchell R H (2006) Solid solutions of niobium in synthetic titanite The Canadian Mineralogist 44 1089-109720060293
0006099TitaniteLiferovich R P, Mitchell R H (2006) Solid solutions of niobium in synthetic titanite The Canadian Mineralogist 44 1089-109720060293
0006100TitaniteLiferovich R P, Mitchell R H (2006) Solid solutions of niobium in synthetic titanite The Canadian Mineralogist 44 1089-109720060293
0006101TitaniteLiferovich R P, Mitchell R H (2006) Solid solutions of niobium in synthetic titanite The Canadian Mineralogist 44 1089-109720060293
0006425TitaniteOberti R, Smith D C, Rossi G, Caucia F (1991) The crystal-chemistry of high-aluminium titanites European Journal of Mineralogy 3 777-7921991Tyrol, Austria0293
0006426TitaniteOberti R, Smith D C, Rossi G, Caucia F (1991) The crystal-chemistry of high-aluminium titanites European Journal of Mineralogy 3 777-7921991Liset, Norway0293
0006427TitaniteOberti R, Smith D C, Rossi G, Caucia F (1991) The crystal-chemistry of high-aluminium titanites European Journal of Mineralogy 3 777-7921991Liset, Norway0293
0006428TitaniteOberti R, Smith D C, Rossi G, Caucia F (1991) The crystal-chemistry of high-aluminium titanites European Journal of Mineralogy 3 777-7921991Broken Hill, Australia0293
0006429TitaniteOberti R, Smith D C, Rossi G, Caucia F (1991) The crystal-chemistry of high-aluminium titanites European Journal of Mineralogy 3 777-7921991Sierra de los Filabres, Spain0293
0006799TitaniteTroitzsch U, Ellis D J, Thompson J, Fitz-Gerald J (1999) Crystal structural changes in titanite along the join TiO-AlF European Journal of Mineralogy 11 955-96519990293
0006800TitaniteTroitzsch U, Ellis D J, Thompson J, Fitz-Gerald J (1999) Crystal structural changes in titanite along the join TiO-AlF European Journal of Mineralogy 11 955-96519990293
0006801TitaniteTroitzsch U, Ellis D J, Thompson J, Fitz-Gerald J (1999) Crystal structural changes in titanite along the join TiO-AlF European Journal of Mineralogy 11 955-96519990293
0006802TitaniteTroitzsch U, Ellis D J, Thompson J, Fitz-Gerald J (1999) Crystal structural changes in titanite along the join TiO-AlF European Journal of Mineralogy 11 955-96519990293
0006803TitaniteTroitzsch U, Ellis D J, Thompson J, Fitz-Gerald J (1999) Crystal structural changes in titanite along the join TiO-AlF European Journal of Mineralogy 11 955-96519990293
0006804TitaniteTroitzsch U, Ellis D J, Thompson J, Fitz-Gerald J (1999) Crystal structural changes in titanite along the join TiO-AlF European Journal of Mineralogy 11 955-96519990293
0006805TitaniteTroitzsch U, Ellis D J, Thompson J, Fitz-Gerald J (1999) Crystal structural changes in titanite along the join TiO-AlF European Journal of Mineralogy 11 955-96519990293
0006806TitaniteTroitzsch U, Ellis D J, Thompson J, Fitz-Gerald J (1999) Crystal structural changes in titanite along the join TiO-AlF European Journal of Mineralogy 11 955-96519990293
0007503TitaniteGhose S, Ito Y, Hatch D M (1991) Paraelectric-antiferroelectric phase transition in titanite, CaTiSiO5 I. A high temperature X-ray diffraction study of the order parameter and transition mechanism Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 17 591-60319910293
0007504TitaniteGhose S, Ito Y, Hatch D M (1991) Paraelectric-antiferroelectric phase transition in titanite, CaTiSiO5 I. A high temperature X-ray diffraction study of the order parameter and transition mechanism Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 17 591-60319910293
0007505TitaniteGhose S, Ito Y, Hatch D M (1991) Paraelectric-antiferroelectric phase transition in titanite, CaTiSiO5 I. A high temperature X-ray diffraction study of the order parameter and transition mechanism Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 17 591-60319910293
0007506TitaniteGhose S, Ito Y, Hatch D M (1991) Paraelectric-antiferroelectric phase transition in titanite, CaTiSiO5 I. A high temperature X-ray diffraction study of the order parameter and transition mechanism Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 17 591-60319910293
0007507TitaniteGhose S, Ito Y, Hatch D M (1991) Paraelectric-antiferroelectric phase transition in titanite, CaTiSiO5 I. A high temperature X-ray diffraction study of the order parameter and transition mechanism Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 17 591-60319910293
0007508TitaniteGhose S, Ito Y, Hatch D M (1991) Paraelectric-antiferroelectric phase transition in titanite, CaTiSiO5 I. A high temperature X-ray diffraction study of the order parameter and transition mechanism Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 17 591-60319910293
0007509TitaniteGhose S, Ito Y, Hatch D M (1991) Paraelectric-antiferroelectric phase transition in titanite, CaTiSiO5 I. A high temperature X-ray diffraction study of the order parameter and transition mechanism Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 17 591-60319910293
0007510TitaniteGhose S, Ito Y, Hatch D M (1991) Paraelectric-antiferroelectric phase transition in titanite, CaTiSiO5 I. A high temperature X-ray diffraction study of the order parameter and transition mechanism Physics and Chemistry of Minerals 17 591-60319910293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
Common accessory mineral in intermediate and felsic plutonic rocks, pegmatites, alpine veins. Also in some gneisses, schists, and skarns.

Type Occurrence of TitaniteHide

Synonyms of TitaniteHide

Other Language Names for TitaniteHide

Varieties of TitaniteHide

Chromium-bearing TitaniteChromium-bearing variety of Titanite with usually green colour.
Eucolite-TitaniteA cerian titanite, first described by Scheerer (1853) from Barkevik, Langesundsfjord, Vestfold, Norway.
GreenoviteRed, Mn2+-bearing variety of titanite.
GrothiteTitanite containing admixtures of Al (up to 6 mass%) and Fe3+ with low amounts of Y and REE. First described in granites of Plauen, Germany.
KeilhauiteAn yttrium-bearing titanite with up to 10% Y2O3.
Originally described from Buø, Tromøysund, Arendal, Aust-Agder, Norway by Erdmann (1844).
Lederite (of Shepard)Lederite is a variety of titanite, generally red brown to dark brown, that also has a distinct parting, originally mistaken as a cleavage. Because this "cleavage" was not present in ordinary titanite, it was described as a separate species. This mineral i...
Stanniferous TitaniteA Sn-bearing variety of titanite with 10% Sn.
Triclinic TitaniteA variety of titanite with a triclinic symmetry.
Isostructural with Żabińskiite.
A triclinic, Ta- and Al-bearing titanite is described from Heftetjern pegmatite, Tørdal, Telemark, Norway by Lussier et al. (2009)
Yttrium-bearing TitaniteAn yttrium-bearing variety of titanite. See also keilhauite.
First named and described by Scheerer (1844) from a feldspar quarry at Buøy Island, Arendal, Aust-Agder, Norway. It was independently and simultanously described as keilhauite by Erdmann (1844)...

Relationship of Titanite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
MalayaiteCaSn(SiO4)OMon.
Natrotitanite(Na0.5Y0.5)Ti(SiO4)OMon. 2/m : B2/b
VanadomalayaiteCaV4+(SiO4)OMon.
ŻabińskiiteCa[Al0.5(Ta,Nb)0.5)](SiO4)OTric. 1

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
214 photos of Titanite associated with Chlorite Group
181 photos of Titanite associated with QuartzSiO2
173 photos of Titanite associated with AdulariaKAlSi3O8
169 photos of Titanite associated with AlbiteNa(AlSi3O8)
156 photos of Titanite associated with Epidote{Ca2}{Al2Fe3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)
116 photos of Titanite associated with ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8
115 photos of Titanite associated with CalciteCaCO3
81 photos of Titanite associated with DiopsideCaMgSi2O6
51 photos of Titanite associated with MicroclineK(AlSi3O8)
47 photos of Titanite associated with ZirconZr(SiO4)

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.AG.EdgrewiteCa9(SiO4)4F2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AG.05AbswurmbachiteCuMn3+6(SiO4)O8Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
9.AG.05BrauniteMn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
9.AG.05NeltneriteCaMn3+6(SiO4)O8Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
9.AG.05Braunite-IICaMn3+14(SiO4)O20Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
9.AG.10LångbaniteMn2+4Mn3+9Sb5+O16(SiO4)2Trig. 3m : P3m1
9.AG.15MalayaiteCaSn(SiO4)OMon.
9.AG.15VanadomalayaiteCaV4+(SiO4)OMon.
9.AG.15Natrotitanite(Na0.5Y0.5)Ti(SiO4)OMon. 2/m : B2/b
9.AG.15ŻabińskiiteCa[Al0.5(Ta,Nb)0.5)](SiO4)OTric. 1
9.AG.20Cerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3Trig. 3m : R3c
9.AG.20Ferricerite-(La)(La,Ce,Ca)9Fe3+(SiO4)3(SiO3OH)4(OH)3Trig. 3m : R3c
9.AG.20Aluminocerite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Ca)9(Al,Fe3+)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3Trig. 3m : R3c
9.AG.25Trimounsite-(Y)Y2Ti2(SiO4)O5Mon.
9.AG.25Yftisite-(Y)(Y,Dy,Er)4(Ti,Sn)(SiO4)2O(F,OH)6
9.AG.25Mieite-(Y)Y4Ti(SiO4)2O[F,(OH)]6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
9.AG.30SitinakiteKNa2Ti4(SiO4)2O5(OH) · 4H2OTet.
9.AG.35KittatinnyiteCa2Mn2Mn(SiO4)2(OH)4 · 9H2OHex.
9.AG.40aNatisiteNa2Ti(SiO4)OTet.
9.AG.40bParanatisiteNa2Ti(SiO4)OOrth.
9.AG.45Törnebohmite-(Ce)(Ce,La)2Al(SiO4)2(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AG.45Törnebohmite-(La)(La,Ce)2Al(SiO4)2(OH)
9.AG.50Kuliokite-(Y)Y4Al(SiO4)2(OH)2F5Tric. 1 : P1
9.AG.55ChantaliteCaAl2(SiO4)(OH)4Tet. 4/m : I41/a
9.AG.60MozartiteCaMn3+(SiO4)(OH)Orth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
9.AG.60VuagnatiteCaAl(SiO4)(OH)Orth.
9.AG.65HatruriteCa3(SiO4)OTrig.
9.AG.70JasmunditeCa11(SiO4)4O2STet. 4 2m : I4m2
9.AG.75AfwilliteCa3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2OMon. m : Bb
9.AG.80BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2OTric.
9.AG.85ZoltaiiteBaV4+2V3+12(SiO4)2O19Trig. 3 : P3
9.AG.90Tranquillityite(Fe2+,Ca)8(Zr,Y)2Ti3(SiO4)3O12Hex.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

52.4.3.2MalayaiteCaSn(SiO4)OMon.
52.4.3.3VanadomalayaiteCaV4+(SiO4)OMon.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

14.9.1NatisiteNa2Ti(SiO4)OTet.
14.9.2LorenzeniteNa2Ti2(Si2O6)O3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
14.9.3LintisiteLiNa3Ti2(Si2O6)2O2 · 2H2OMon.
14.9.4DavaniteK2TiSi6O15Tric.
14.9.5KazakoviteNa6Mn2+Ti(Si6O18)Trig.
14.9.7OhmiliteSr3(Ti,Fe3+)(Si4O12)(O,OH) · 2-3H2OMon.
14.9.8Lamprophyllite(Na,Mn2+)3(Sr,Na)2(Ti,Fe3+)3(Si2O7)2O2(OH,O,F)2Mon.
14.9.9BenitoiteBaTi(Si3O9)Hex. 6 m2 : P62c
14.9.10BatisiteBaNaNaTi2(Si4O12)O2Orth.
14.9.11FresnoiteBa2Ti(Si2O7)OTet. 4mm : P4bm
14.9.12Joaquinite-(Ce)NaBa2Ce2FeTi2[Si4O12]2O2(OH,F) · H2OMon. 2 : B2
14.9.13Orthojoaquinite-(Ce)NaBa2Ce2FeTi2[Si4O12]2O2(O,OH) · H2OOrth.
14.9.14StrontiojoaquiniteSr2Ba2(Na,Fe)2Ti2[Si4O12]2O2(O,OH)2 · H2OMon.
14.9.15Bario-orthojoaquinite(Ba,Sr)4Fe2Ti2[Si4O12]2O2 · H2OOrth.
14.9.16Strontio-orthojoaquinite(Na,Fe)2Sr2Ba2Ti2[Si4O12]2O2(O,OH)2 · H2OOrth.
14.9.17BafertisiteBa2Fe2+4Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2F2Tric.
14.9.18HejtmaniteBa2(Mn2+,Fe2+)4Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2F2Tric. 1
14.9.19Delindeite(Na,K)2(Ba,Ca)2(Ti,Fe,Al)3(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2 · 2H2OMon.
14.9.20Barytolamprophyllite(Ba,Na)2(Na,Ti,Fe3+)4Ti2(Si2O7)2O(OH,F)Mon.
14.9.21Trimounsite-(Y)Y2Ti2(SiO4)O5Mon.
14.9.22Perrierite-(Ce)Ce4MgFe3+2Ti2(Si2O7)2O8Mon. 2/m : P21/b
14.9.23Chevkinite(Ce,Ca,Th)4(Fe,Mn)2(Ti,Fe)3[Si2O7]2O8
14.9.24Strontiochevkinite(Sr,La,Ce,Ca)4Fe2+(Ti,Zr)2Ti2(Si2O7)2O8Mon.
14.9.25TisinaliteNa3H3(Mn,Ca,Fe)TiSi6(O,OH)18 · 2H2OTrig.
14.9.26NeptuniteNa2KLiFe2+2Ti2Si8O24Mon. m : Bb
14.9.27ManganoneptuniteNa2KLiMn2+2Ti2Si8O24Mon.
14.9.28Kupletskite(K,Na)3(Mn,Fe)7Ti2Si8O26(OH)4FTric.
14.9.29AstrophylliteK2NaFe2+7Ti2Si8O26(OH)4FTric. 1 : P1
14.9.30Hydroastrophyllite(H3O,K,Ca)3(Fe,Mn)5-65Ti2Si8(O,OH)31Tric.
14.9.31LobanoviteK2Na(Fe2+4Mg2Na)Ti2(Si4O12)2O2(OH)4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
14.9.32BaratoviteKCa7(Ti,Zr)2Li3Si12O36F2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
14.9.34AenigmatiteNa4[Fe2+10Ti2]O4[Si12O36]Tric. 1 : P1
14.9.35SchorlomiteCa3Ti2(SiO4)(Fe3+O4)2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
14.9.36TinaksiteK2Na(Ca,Mn2+)2TiO[Si7O18(OH)]Tric.
14.9.37Janhaugite(Na,Ca)3(Mn2+,Fe2+)3(Ti,Zr,Nb)2(Si2O7)2O2(OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : P21/m
14.9.38KoashviteNa6(Ca,Mn)(Ti,Fe)Si6O18 · H2OOrth.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Titanite in petrologyHide

References for TitaniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Klaproth M.H. (1795) Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntnis der Mineralkörper, Teil 1, XV. Untersuchung eines neuen Fossils (Titanit) aus dem Passauischen, 245-252, Rottmann Berlin.
Jaffe, H.W. (1947) Re-examination of sphene, American Mineralogist: 32: 637-642.
Speer, J.A. & Gibbs, G.V. (1976) The crystal structure of the synthetic titanite CaOTiOSiO4, and the domain textures of natural titanites. Am. Mineral., 61, 238-247.
Birch, W.D. (1983) Babingtonite, fluorapophyllite and sphene from Harcourt, Victoria, Australia. Mineralogical Magazine, Sept. 1983, 47, 377-380.
Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1984) 251-256.
Janeczek, J. and Sachanbinski, M. (1992) Babingtonite, Y-Al-rich titanite, and zoned epidote from the Strzegom pegmatites, Poland. European Journal of Mineralogist: 4: 307-319.
Urusov, V.S., Eremin, N.N., Yakubovich, O.V. (1995) Electron-density distribution in Ca{TiO[SiO4]} titanite. Crystallogr. Reports, 40, 442-448.
Hammer, V.M.F., Beran, A., Endisch, D., and Rauch, F. (1996) OH concentrations in natural titanites determined by FTIR spectroscopy and nuclear reaction analysis. European Journal of Mineralogy: 8: 281-288.
Della Ventura, G., Bellatreccia, F., and Williams, C.T. (1999) Zr- and LREE-rich titanite from Tre Croci, Vico Volcanic complex (Latium, Italy). Mineralogical Magazine: 63: 123-130.
Jonckheere, R. and Wagner, G. (2000) On the occurrence of anomalous fission tracks in apatite and titanite. American Mineralogist: 85: 1744-1753.
F. Colombo and E. V. Pannunzio Miner (2009) Synthesis and crystal structure refinement by the Rietveld method of antimony-bearing titanite Ca(Ti0.6Al0.2Sb0.2)OSiO4. Powder Diffraction 24, 221-227.
Lussier, A.J., Cooper, M.A., Hawthorne, F.C., Kristiansen, R. (2009) Triclinic titanite from the Heftetjern granitic pegmatite, Tordal, southern Norway. Mineralogical Magazine, 73, 709-722.
Hannes Krüger, Daniel M. Többens, Peter Tropper, Udo Haefeker, Volker Kahlenberg, Martin R. Fuchs, Vincent Olieric, Ulrike Troitzsch (2015) Single-crystal structure and Raman spectroscopy of synthetic titanite analog CaAlSiO4F. Mineralogy and Petrology 109, 631-641.
Lenz, C., Nasdala, L., Talla, D., Hauzenberger, H., Seitz, R., Kolitsch, U. (2015) Laser-induced REE3+ photoluminescence of selected accessory minerals: An “advantageous artefact” in Raman spectroscopy. Chemical Geology 415, 1-16.

Internet Links for TitaniteHide

Localities for TitaniteHide

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