Help|Log In|Register|
Home PageMindat NewsThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusManagement TeamContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatSponsor a PageSponsored PagesTop Available PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on Mindat
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryAdvanced Locality SearchRandom MineralSearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch ArticlesSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
StatisticsThe ElementsMember ListBooks & MagazinesMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryHow to Link to MindatDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day Gallery


This page kindly sponsored by Gail Spann
Colourless, brown, green, yellow, rose-red or black.
Adamantine, Resinous
5 - 5½
Specific Gravity:
3.48 - 3.6
Crystal System:
Member of:
First recognized as "nouveau substance minérale" in 1787 by Marc August Pictet, but only described and named in 1795 by Martin Klaproth for its titanium content. A common synonym, sphene (from the Greek sphenos (σφηνώ), meaning wedge, for its common wedge-shaped crystals), was introduced in 1801 by Rene Just Haüy.
Isostructural with:
Titanite Group. The titanium analogue of Malayaite and Vanadomalayaite.

Forms a series with Malayaite. Often contains minor Al, Fe3+ and F.
Titanite close to end-member composition has space-group symmetry P21/a, whereas titanite with significant additional constituents has A2/a symmetry.
A triclinic, Ta- and Al-bearing titanite has been described by Lussier et al. (2009). A synthetic titanite analogue with the formula CaAlSiO4F was reported by Krüger et al. (2015).

Also known as sphene, this calcium titanium silicate forms flattened wedge-shaped crystals, commonly twinned with prominent re-entry angles; massive, compact and lamellar forms are also found. It occurs as an accessory mineral in igneous rocks; in schists, gneisses and other metamorphic rocks, and is also found as a detrital mineral in some sedimentary deposits.

An As- and Na-rich mineral related to titanite was just approved under the name arsenatrotitanite.

Visit for gemological information about Titanite.

Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of TitaniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
G : Nesosilicates with additional anions; cations in > [6] +- [6] coordination

52 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
4 : Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
9 : Silicates of Ti

Physical Properties of TitaniteHide

Adamantine, Resinous
Transparent, Translucent
Colourless, brown, green, yellow, rose-red or black.
5 - 5½ on Mohs scale
Good on {110}
Due to twinning on {221}
3.48 - 3.6 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.53 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of TitaniteHide

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.843 - 1.950 nβ = 1.870 - 2.034 nγ = 1.943 - 2.110
Measured: 17° to 40°, Calculated: 68° to 82°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.100 - 0.160
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
r > v extreme
X= nearly colorless
Y= yellow to green
Z= red to yellow orange

Chemical Properties of TitaniteHide

IMA Formula:
Common Impurities:

Age informationHide

Age range:
Mesoarchean to Paleogene : 3110 Ma to 36.2 ± 2 Ma - based on data given below.
Sample ages:
Sample IDRecorded ageGeologic TimeDating method
136.2 ± 2 MaEocenefission track
2696 ± 93 MaCryogenian207Pb/206Pb
3735 ± 71 MaTonian207Pb/206Pb
4801 ± 53 MaTonian207Pb/206Pb
5821 ± 50 MaTonian207Pb/206Pb
6833 ± 62 MaTonian207Pb/206Pb
7847 ± 34 MaTonian207Pb/206Pb
8859 ± 63 MaTonian207Pb/206Pb
9885 ± 76 MaTonian207Pb/206Pb
10912 ± 33 MaTonian207Pb/206Pb
111860 MaOrosirian
122670 MaNeoarcheanPb-Pb
132671 MaNeoarcheanPb-Pb
142674 MaNeoarcheanPb-Pb
152676 MaNeoarcheanPb-Pb
162677 MaNeoarcheanPb-Pb
172679 ± 3 MaNeoarcheanU-Pb
182683 MaNeoarcheanPb-Pb
192688 ± 3 MaNeoarcheanU-Pb
203110 to 3103 MaMesoarchean
Sample references:
1Round Mountain District, Toquima Range, Nye Co., Nevada, USAShawe, D. R., Marvin, R. F., Andriessen, P. A. M., Mehnert, H. H., Merritt, V. M. (1986) Ages of Igneous and Hydrothermal Events in the Round Mountain and Manhattan Gold Districts, Nye County, Nevada. Economic Geology 81. 388-407.
2Khetri Mines, Jhunjhunu District, Jaipur Division, Rajasthan, IndiaKnight J, Joy S, Cameron J, Merrillees J, Nag S, Shah N, Dua G, Jhala K (2002): The Khetri Copper Belt, Rajasthan: iron oxide copper-gold terrane in the Proterozoic of NW India. Hydrothermal Iron Oxide Copper-Gold & Related Deposits: A Global Perspective 2, 321-341.
3  "  "  "  "
4  "  "  "  "
5  "  "  "  "
6  "  "  "  "
7  "  "  "  "
8  "  "  "  "
9  "  "  "  "
10  "  "  "  "
11Vihanti deposit, Vihanti, Northern Finland Region, FinlandVaasjoki, M., & Vivallo, W. (1990) New lead isotope determination from five Proterozoic sulfide deposits, Skellefte district, Sweden. Mineralium Deposita,25(1), 50-56.
12Hemlo gold deposit, Bomby Township, Thunder Bay District, Ontario, CanadaCorfu F, Muir T L (1989) The Hemlo-Heron Bay greenstone belt and Hemlo Au-Mo deposit, Superior Province, Ontario, Canada, Chemical Geology, 79, 201-278
13  "  "Corfu F, Muir T L (1989) The Hemlo-Heron Bay greenstone belt and Hemlo Au-Mo deposit, Superior Province, Ontario, Canada, Chemical Geology, 79, 201-282
14  "  "Corfu F, Muir T L (1989) The Hemlo-Heron Bay greenstone belt and Hemlo Au-Mo deposit, Superior Province, Ontario, Canada, Chemical Geology, 79, 201-281
15  "  "Corfu F, Muir T L (1989) The Hemlo-Heron Bay greenstone belt and Hemlo Au-Mo deposit, Superior Province, Ontario, Canada, Chemical Geology, 79, 201-263
16  "  "Corfu F, Muir T L (1989) The Hemlo-Heron Bay greenstone belt and Hemlo Au-Mo deposit, Superior Province, Ontario, Canada, Chemical Geology, 79, 201-264
17  "  "Corfu F, Muir T L (1989) The Hemlo-Heron Bay greenstone belt and Hemlo Au-Mo deposit, Superior Province, Ontario, Canada, Chemical Geology, 79, 201-242
18  "  "Corfu F, Muir T L (1989) The Hemlo-Heron Bay greenstone belt and Hemlo Au-Mo deposit, Superior Province, Ontario, Canada, Chemical Geology, 79, 201-258
19  "  "Corfu F, Muir T L (1989) The Hemlo-Heron Bay greenstone belt and Hemlo Au-Mo deposit, Superior Province, Ontario, Canada, Chemical Geology, 79, 201-237
20New Consort Mine, Barberton, Ehlanzeni District, Mpumalanga Province, South AfricaTkachev A V (2011): Evolution of metallogeny of granitic pegmatites associated with orogens throughout geological time. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 350, 7-23.

Crystallography of TitaniteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.057 Å, b = 8.707 Å, c = 6.555 Å
β = 113.81°
a:b:c = 0.81 : 1 : 0.753
Unit Cell V:
368.49 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals are wedge-shaped, compact, massive.
On {100}, contact and penetration, less commonly lamellar on {221}
May be metamict. Titanite close to end-member composition has space-group symmetry P21/a, whereas titanite with significant additional constituents has A2/a symmetry. Smaller unit cells indicate an Al- and F-rich composition.

Crystallographic forms of TitaniteHide

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Titanite no.31 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Titanite no.203 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by

Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Type Occurrence of TitaniteHide

Synonyms of TitaniteHide

Other Language Names for TitaniteHide

Varieties of TitaniteHide

Chromian TitaniteChromium-bearing variety of Titanite with usually green colour.
Eucolite-TitaniteA cerian titanite, first described by Scheerer (1853) from Barkevik, Langesundsfjord, Vestfold, Norway.
GreenoviteRed, Mn2+-bearing variety of titanite.
KeilhauiteA rare-earth bearing Titanite with up to 10% Y2O3.
Originally described from Buø, Tromøysund, Arendal, Aust-Agder, Norway by Erdmann (1844).
Lederite (of Shepard)Lederite is a variety of titanite, generally red brown to dark brown, that also has a distinct parting, originally mistaken as a cleavage. Because this "cleavage" was not present in ordinary titanite, it was described as a separate species. This mineral i...
Stanniferous TitaniteA Tin-bearing Titanite with 10% Sn
Yttrian TitaniteA Yttrian variety of Titanite.

Relationship of Titanite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
Natrotitanite(Na0.5Y0.5)Ti(SiO4)OMon. 2/m : B2/b
ŻabińskiiteCa[Al0.5(Ta,Nb)0.5)](SiO4)OTric. 1

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Chlorite Group214 photos of Titanite associated with Chlorite Group on
Quartz181 photos of Titanite associated with Quartz on
Adularia173 photos of Titanite associated with Adularia on
Albite169 photos of Titanite associated with Albite on
Epidote156 photos of Titanite associated with Epidote on
Clinochlore116 photos of Titanite associated with Clinochlore on
Calcite115 photos of Titanite associated with Calcite on
Diopside81 photos of Titanite associated with Diopside on
Microcline51 photos of Titanite associated with Microcline on
Zircon47 photos of Titanite associated with Zircon on

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.AG.05AbswurmbachiteCuMn3+6(SiO4)O8Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
9.AG.05BrauniteMn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
9.AG.05NeltneriteCaMn3+6(SiO4)O8Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
9.AG.05Braunite-IICaMn3+14(SiO4)O20Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
9.AG.10LångbaniteMn2+4Mn3+9Sb5+O16(SiO4)2Trig. 3m : P3m1
9.AG.15Natrotitanite(Na0.5Y0.5)Ti(SiO4)OMon. 2/m : B2/b
9.AG.15ŻabińskiiteCa[Al0.5(Ta,Nb)0.5)](SiO4)OTric. 1
9.AG.20Cerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3Trig. 3m : R3c
9.AG.20Cerite-(La)(La,Ce,Ca)9(Fe,Ca,Mg)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3Trig. 3m : R3c
9.AG.20Aluminocerite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Ca)9(Al,Fe3+)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3Trig. 3m : R3c
9.AG.25Mieite-(Y)Y4Ti(SiO4)2O[F,(OH)]6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
9.AG.30SitinakiteKNa2Ti4(SiO4)2O5(OH) · 4H2OTet.
9.AG.35KittatinnyiteCa2Mn2Mn(SiO4)2(OH)4 · 9H2OHex.
9.AG.55ChantaliteCaAl2(SiO4)(OH)4Tet. 4/m : I41/a
9.AG.60MozartiteCaMn3+(SiO4)(OH)Orth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
9.AG.70JasmunditeCa11(SiO4)4O2STet. 4 2m : I4m2
9.AG.75AfwilliteCa3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2OMon. m : Bb
9.AG.80BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2OTric.
9.AG.85ZoltaiiteBaV4+2V3+12(SiO4)2O19Trig. 3 : P3

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

14.9.2LorenzeniteNa2Ti2(Si2O6)O3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
14.9.3LintisiteLiNa3Ti2(Si2O6)2O2 · 2H2OMon.
14.9.7OhmiliteSr3(Ti,Fe3+)(Si4O12)(O,OH) · 2-3H2OMon.
14.9.9BenitoiteBaTi(Si3O9)Hex. 6 m2 : P62c
14.9.12Joaquinite-(Ce)NaBa2Ce2FeTi2[Si4O12]2O2(OH,F) · H2OMon. 2 : B2
14.9.13Orthojoaquinite-(Ce)NaBa2Ce2FeTi2[Si4O12]2O2(O,OH) · H2O
14.9.14StrontiojoaquiniteSr2Ba2(Na,Fe)2Ti2[Si4O12]2O2(O,OH)2 · H2OMon.
14.9.15Bario-orthojoaquinite(Ba,Sr)4Fe2Ti2[Si4O12]2O2 · H2OOrth.
14.9.16Strontio-orthojoaquinite(Na,Fe)2Sr2Ba2Ti2[Si4O12]2O2(O,OH)2 · H2OOrth.
14.9.18HejtmaniteBa2(Mn2+,Fe2+)4Ti2(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2F2Tric. 1
14.9.19Delindeite(Na,K)2(Ba,Ca)2(Ti,Fe,Al)3(Si2O7)2O2(OH)2 · 2H2OMon.
14.9.25TisinaliteNa3H3(Mn,Ca,Fe)TiSi6(O,OH)18 · 2H2OTrig.
14.9.26NeptuniteNa2KLiFe2+2Ti2Si8O24Mon. m : Bb
14.9.29AstrophylliteK2NaFe2+7Ti2Si8O28(OH)4FTric. 1 : P1
14.9.31LobanoviteK2Na(Fe2+4Mg2Na)Ti2(Si4O12)2O2(OH)4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
14.9.34AenigmatiteNa2Fe2+5Ti(Si6O18)O2Tric. 1 : P1
14.9.37Janhaugite(Na,Ca)3(Mn2+,Fe2+)3(Ti,Zr,Nb)2(Si2O7)2O2(OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : P21/m
14.9.38KoashviteNa6(Ca,Mn)(Ti,Fe)Si6O18 · H2OOrth.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Titanite in petrologyHide

References for TitaniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Klaproth M.H. (1795) Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntnis der Mineralkörper, Teil 1, XV. Untersuchung eines neuen Fossils (Titanit) aus dem Passauischen, 245-252, Rottmann Berlin.
Jaffe, H.W. (1947) Re-examination of sphene, American Mineralogist: 32: 637-642.
Speer, J.A. & Gibbs, G.V. (1976) The crystal structure of the synthetic titanite CaOTiOSiO4, and the domain textures of natural titanites. Am. Mineral., 61, 238-247.
Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte (1984) 251-256.
European Journal of Mineralogy (1992) 4: 307.
Urusov, V.S., Eremin, N.N., Yakubovich, O.V. (1995) Electron-density distribution in Ca{TiO[SiO4]} titanite. Crystallogr. Reports, 40, 442-448.
Hammer, V.M.F., Beran, A., Endisch, D., and Rauch, F. (1996) OH concentrations in natural titanites determined by FTIR spectroscopy and nuclear reaction analysis. European Journal of Mineralogy: 8: 281-288.
Della Ventura, G., Bellatreccia, F., and Williams, C.T. (1999) Zr- and LREE-rich titanite from Tre Croci, Vico Volcanic complex (Latium, Italy). Mineralogical Magazine: 63: 123-130.
Jonckheere, R. and Wagner, G. (2000) On the occurrence of anomalous fission tracks in apatite and titanite. American Mineralogist: 85: 1744-1753.
F. Colombo and E. V. Pannunzio Miner (2009) Synthesis and crystal structure refinement by the Rietveld method of antimony-bearing titanite Ca(Ti0.6Al0.2Sb0.2)OSiO4. Powder Diffraction 24, 221-227.
Lussier, A.J., Cooper, M.A., Hawthorne, F.C., Kristiansen, R. (2009) Triclinic titanite from the Heftetjern granitic pegmatite, Tordal, southern Norway. Mineralogical Magazine, 73, 709-722.
Hannes Krüger, Daniel M. Többens, Peter Tropper, Udo Haefeker, Volker Kahlenberg, Martin R. Fuchs, Vincent Olieric, Ulrike Troitzsch (2015) Single-crystal structure and Raman spectroscopy of synthetic titanite analog CaAlSiO4F. Mineralogy and Petrology 109, 631-641.
Lenz, C., Nasdala, L., Talla, D., Hauzenberger, H., Seitz, R., Kolitsch, U. (2015) Laser-induced REE3+ photoluminescence of selected accessory minerals: An “advantageous artefact” in Raman spectroscopy. Chemical Geology 415, 1-16.

Internet Links for TitaniteHide

Localities for TitaniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListShow