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[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O]·(Ca·3H2O)
White, light pink
Crystal System:
Named after its discovery locality, Tobermory, Isle of Mull, Scotland. Tobermorite was first described by Heddle (1880) from four Scottish localities, three near Tobermory, Isle of Mull and the fourth being Dunvegan, Isle of Skye. Heddle's material was examinated with XRD by Claringbull & Hey (1952), and found that the powder XRD pattern was characterized by a 11.3 Å basal reflection. After McConnell (1954) the name tobermorite was used for the C-S-H phases having a 11 Å basal spacing. Further studies of crystal structures of "tobermorites" (Merlino et al. 1999, 2000, 2001) showed that tobermorite is actually a series between two endmembers, Ca4Si6O15(OH)2·5H2O and Ca5Si6O17·5H2O. Tobermorite was consequently redefined into two species, tobermorite and clinotobermorite, respectively by IMA in 2014 (Biagioni et al 2015).
Tobermorite has been redefined by IMA in 2014 as two minerals: tobermorite and kenotobermorite.

Some specimens of Tobermorite-11 Å shrink on dehydration and are called "normal tobermorite", while others do not shrink and are therefore called "anomalous".

May appear visually similar to Tacharanite.

NOTE: All localities listed here under "tobermorite" should be checked if they are to be assigned to tobermorite or kenotobermorite.

Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of TobermoriteHide

Renamed by the IMA
Approval History:
Renamed by IMA: 2014

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
G : Inosilicates with 3-periodic single and multiple chains

72 : PHYLLOSILICATES Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings
3 : Two-Dimensional Infinite Sheets with Other Than Six-Membered Rings with 3-, 4-, or 5-membered rings and 8-membered rings

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
5 : Silicates of Ca

Physical Properties of TobermoriteHide

White, light pink
2½ on Mohs scale

Optical Data of TobermoriteHide

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.570 nβ = 1.571 nγ = 1.575
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.005
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
r > v

Chemical Properties of TobermoriteHide

[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O]·(Ca·3H2O)
IMA Formula:
Ca5Si6O16(OH)2 · nH2O
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of TobermoriteHide

Crystal System:
Cell Parameters:
a = 11.17 Å, b = 7.38 Å, c = 22.94 Å
β = 90°
a:b:c = 1.514 : 1 : 3.108
Unit Cell V:
1,891.05 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
14.0 (100)
5.50 (25)
3.076 (65)
3.001 (45)
2.812 (30)
2.798 (13)
1.835 (35)

Type Occurrence of TobermoriteHide

Other Language Names for TobermoriteHide

Simplified Chinese:雪硅钙石
Traditional Chinese:雪矽鈣石

Relationship of Tobermorite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Stringhamite12 photos of Tobermorite associated with Stringhamite on
Calcite10 photos of Tobermorite associated with Calcite on
Ellestadite7 photos of Tobermorite associated with Ellestadite on
Pyrite6 photos of Tobermorite associated with Pyrite on
Natrolite6 photos of Tobermorite associated with Natrolite on
Xonotlite5 photos of Tobermorite associated with Xonotlite on
Thaumasite5 photos of Tobermorite associated with Thaumasite on
Phillipsite4 photos of Tobermorite associated with Phillipsite on
Whelanite4 photos of Tobermorite associated with Whelanite on
Thomsonite4 photos of Tobermorite associated with Thomsonite on

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.DG.05BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)Tric. 1 : P1
9.DG.05PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
9.DG.05SeranditeNaMn2+2Si3O8(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
9.DG.05WollastoniteCaSiO3Tric. 1 : P1
9.DG.08Plombièrite[Ca4Si6O16(OH)2 · 2H2O]·(Ca·5H2O)Orth.
9.DG.10Clinotobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O]·(Ca·3H2O)Mon.
9.DG.10RiversideiteCa5(HSi3O9)2 · 2H2OOrth.
9.DG.20JenniteCa9(Si3O9)2(OH)8 · 8H2OTric.
9.DG.25ParaumbiteK3Zr2H(Si3O9)2 · nH2OOrth.
9.DG.25UmbiteK2(Zr,Ti)Si3O9 · H2OOrth.
9.DG.30SørenseniteNa4SnBe2Si6O16(OH)4Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DG.35XonotliteCa6(Si6O17)(OH)2Mon. 2/m
9.DG.40HillebranditeCa2(SiO3)(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
9.DG.45ZoriteNa8(Ti,Nb)5(Si6O17)2(OH,O)5 · 14H2OOrth.
9.DG.45ChivruaiiteCa4(Ti,Nb)5(Si6O17)2(OH,O)5 · 13-14H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmmm
9.DG.50Haineaultite(Na,Ca)5Ca(Ti,Nb)5(Si6O17)2(OH,F)8 · 5H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : C2 2 2
9.DG.55EpididymiteNa2Be2Si6O15 · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
9.DG.60EudidymiteNa2Be2Si6O15 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DG.65ElpiditeNa2ZrSi6O15 · 3H2OOrth.
9.DG.75SenkevichiteCsKNaCa2Ti[O|Si7O18(OH)]Tric. 1 : P1
9.DG.80FluorcanasiteK3Na3Ca5Si12O30F4 · H2OMon. m : Bm
9.DG.85MiseriteK1.5-x(Ca,Y,REE)5(Si6O15)(Si2O7)(OH,F)2 · yH2OTric.
9.DG.90FrankameniteK3Na3Ca5(Si12O30)(F,OH)4 · H2OTric.
9.DG.92Charoite(K,Sr)15-16(Ca,Na)32[Si6O11(O,OH)6]2[Si12O18(O,OH)12]2[Si17O25(O,OH)18]2(OH,F)4 · ~3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
9.DG.97Eveslogite(Na,K,Ca,Sr,Ba)48 [(Ti,Nb,Mn,Fe2+)12Si48O144(OH)12](F,OH,Cl)14Mon. 2/m : P2/m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O]·(Ca·3H2O)Mon.èrite[Ca4Si6O16(OH)2 · 2H2O]·(Ca·5H2O)Orth. · 2H2OOrth. · 18H2OTric. 1 : P1 (OH)36Mon.·7H2OTric. 1 : P1 · 12.5H2OOrth.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

14.5.1WollastoniteCaSiO3Tric. 1 : P1
14.5.4RankiniteCa3Si2O7Mon. 2/m : P21/b
14.5.11AfwilliteCa3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2OMon. m : Bb
14.5.12XonotliteCa6(Si6O17)(OH)2Mon. 2/m
14.5.14HillebranditeCa2(SiO3)(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
14.5.15JaffeiteCa6(Si2O7)(OH)6Trig. 3 : P3
14.5.16SuoluniteCa2(H2Si2O7) · H2OOrth.
14.5.18OkeniteCa10Si18O46 · 18H2OTric. 1 : P1
14.5.19RiversideiteCa5(HSi3O9)2 · 2H2OOrth.
14.5.20TrabzoniteCa4(Si3O9)(OH)2Orth. mm2 : Ama2
14.5.21GyroliteNaCa16Si23AlO60(OH)8 · 14H2OTric.
14.5.22FoshallasiteCa3[Si2O7] · 3H2O(?)
14.5.24Clinotobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O]·(Ca·3H2O)Mon.
14.5.25NekoiteCa3Si6O15·7H2OTric. 1 : P1
14.5.26Plombièrite[Ca4Si6O16(OH)2 · 2H2O]·(Ca·5H2O)Orth.
14.5.27JenniteCa9(Si3O9)2(OH)8 · 8H2OTric.

Other InformationHide

Thermal Behaviour:
the 11Å phase dehydrates in the 100-300oC range; at ~300oC it is replaced by the 9Å phase, which undergoes dehydroxylation in the 300-700oC range; from here wollastonite starts to form
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for TobermoriteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Heddle, M.F. (1880) Preliminary notice of substances which may prove to be new minerals. Mineralogical Magazine, 4, 117-123.
Currie, J. (1905). Note on some new localities for Gyrolite and Tobermorite. Mineralogical Magazine, 14, 93-95.
Claringbull, G.F. and Hey, M.H. (1952) A reexamination of tobermorite. Mineralogical Magazine, 29, 960-962.
McConnell, J.D.C. (1954), The hydrated calcium silicates riversideite, tobermorite and plombierite, Mineralogical Magazine: 30: 293-305.
American Mineralogist (1954): 39: 1038.
Megaw, H.D., and Kelsey, C.H. (1956): Crystal Structure of Tobermorite. Nature 177, 390-391.
Mitsuda, T., & Taylor, H. F. W. (1978). Normal and anomalous tobermorites. Mineral. Mag, 42(322), 229-35.
Hamid, S.A. (1981): The crystal structure of the 11Å natural tobermorite Ca2.25[Si307.5(OH)1.5].1 H20. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie 154, 189-198.
Merlino, S., Bonaccorsi, E. and Armbruster, T. (1999) Tobermorites: their real structure and order-disorder (OD) character. American Mineralogist, 84: 1613-1621.
Merlino, S., Bonaccorsi, E. and Armbruster, T. (2000) The real structures of clinotobermorite and tobermorite 9 Å: OD character, polytypes, and structural relationships. European Journal of Mineralogy, 12,411-429.
Merlino, S., Bonaccorsi, E., and Armbruster, T. (2001): The real structure of tobermorite-11Å: normal and anomalous forms, OD character and polytypic modifications. European Journal of Mineralogy 13(3), 577-590.
J. Kikuma, M. Tsunashima, T. Ishikawa, S. Matsuno, A. Ogawa, K. Matsui and M. Sato (2009): Hydrothermal formation of tobermorite studied by in situ X-ray diffraction under autoclave condition. J. Synchrotron Rad. 16, 683-686.
Biagioni, C., Bonaccorsi, E., Lezzerini, M., Merlino, S. (2016): Thermal behaviour of Al-rich tobermorite. European Journal of Mineralogy: 28(1): 23-32

Internet Links for TobermoriteHide

Localities for TobermoriteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Tasmania
    • Central Highlands municipality
      • Liawenee
Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
Bottrill, R. S. & Baker, W. E. (2008): A Catalogue of the Minerals of Tasmania. Geological Survey Bulletin 73, Mineral Resources Tasmania, 254 pp.
    • Circular Head municipality
      • Cape Grim district; Tschernich, R. (1992): Zeolites of the World, p.49
      • Marrawah district
        • Redpa
    • Kentish municipality
      • Moina - Middlesex District
Bottrill & Baker (in prep) Catalogue of minerals of Tasmania
    • Meander Valley municipality
      • Upper Mersey Valley
  • Victoria
    • Rural City of Benalla
Aust.Jour. Earth Sci. 46:251 (1999)
  • Styria
    • Bad Radkersburg
      • Klöch
R. Exel: Die Mineralien und Erzlagerstätten Österreichs (1993); Postl, W. et al. (2008)
    • Feldbach
      • Mühldorf
Postl, W., Taucher, J. & Moser, B. (1996): Neue Mineralfunde im oststeirischen Vulkangebiet. Mitt. Abt. Miner. Landesmuseum Joanneum, 60/61, 3-76.
  • Qobustan District (Gobustan; Kobustan)
    • Caspian Sea
Novgorodova M.I., Mamedov Yu.G.. Native aluminium from mud volcano at the Bulla island (caspian Sea), - Lithology and Mineral Resourses,1996,N4,p. 339-349
  • Québec
    • Chaudière-Appalaches
      • Les Appalaches RCM
        • Saint-Joseph-de-Coleraine
Canadian Museum of Nature & Horvath collections
  • Aisén del General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo Region
    • Aisén Province (Aysén Province)
Aguirre, L., Dominguez-Bella, S., Morata, D., Wittke, O. (1998) An occurrence of tobermorite in Tertiary basalts from Patagonia, Chile. The Canadian Mineralogist, 36, 1149-1155.
  • Hebei Province
    • Baoding Prefecture
      • Laiyuan Co.
Cao Zhengmin, Bi Yurun, and Wang Peiying (1986): Acta Scientiarium Naturalium Universitatis Pekinensis 32(2)
    • Handan Prefecture
      • She Co.
Cao Zhengmin, Bi Yurun, and Wang Peiying (1987): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 6(2), 158-163
  • Cienfuegos Province
А.Е.Задов и др. Новые находки и исследования минералов группы тоберморита, //Записки ВМО, 1995, т.124, N2, с.36-54.
Czech Republic
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Ústí Region
Z.Dvořák,M.Radoň-Vzácné a nové minerály Českého středohoří (čas. Minerál 2/2009)
  • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
    • Vysočina Region
      • Havlíčkův Brod District
        • Havlíčkův Brod (Německý Brod; Deutschbrod)
          • Chotěboř (Chotieborsch; Potiworz)
Pauliš, P.: Nejzajímavější mineralogická naleziště Čech II. Kutná Hora: Kuttna, 2003, s. 96 - 98.
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Puy-de-Dôme
      • Clermont-Ferrand
        • Ceyrat
XRD analysis (B. Devouard and E. Médard, Clermont-Ferrand)
      • Saint-Dier-d'Auvergne
        • Saint-Jean-des-Ollières
Boisson, J.-M. & Leconte, J. (2014): Analyses 2012-2013 MNHN-MICROMONTEURS. La revue de Micromonteurs, 21.
  • Occitanie
    • Aveyron
      • Espalion
Boutry C., Pelisson P., Pillard F. (1986), Les zéolites d'Espalion, Le Cahier des Micromonteurs, n°2, pp: 3-7
  • Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur
    • Alpes-de-Haute-Provence
Favreau G., Meisser N., Chiappero P.J. (2004), Saint-Maime (Alpes-de-Haute-Provence): un exemple de pyrométamorphisme en région provençale, n°3, pp: 59-92
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Hegau
      • Immendingen
S. Weiß: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990; Tschernich, R. (1992), Zeolites of the World, p.42
  • Bavaria
    • Franconia
      • Maroldsweisach
Pöllmann, H. (1991): Die Afwillit-Portlandit Paragenese im Basalt des Zeilbergs bei Maroldsweisach/Unterfranken. Aufschluss, 42, 257-266
  • Hesse
    • Odenwald
      • Roßdorf
Zeolite collection of Volker Betz
    • Vogelsberg
      • Ortenberg
Kolitsch, U. (1997): Tacharanit vom Gaulsberg bei Ortenberg (Vogelsberg, Hessen). Mineralien-Welt 8 (2), 25-26
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Eifel
      • Adenau
        • Hoffeld
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1987
      • Daun
        • Üdersdorf
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
      • Hillesheim
        • Zilsdorf
Hentschel, G.,Begleitmineralien des Basaltes vom Arensberg bei Zilsdorf/Eifel, Notizbl. Hess. L.-Amt Bodenforsch., 101, 310-316, 1973
      • Mayen
        • Ettringen
          • Bellerberg volcano
[Hentschel, G., Seltene Minerale in Calcium-reichen Auswürflingen vom Bellerberg bei Mayen/Eifel, Aufschluß 29, 77-83, 1978] [Lapis, 15 (5), 9-36]
in the collection of Christof Schäfer
            • Southern lava flow
Hentschel, G., Dent Glasser, L.S., Lee, C.K. (1983): Jasmundite. Ca22(Si04)8O4S2. a new mineral, N. Jb. Mineral., Mh., 337-342.
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise (München), 1983
      • Mendig
        • Bell
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag München, 1983
  • Veszprém Co.
    • Balaton Uplands
      • Bakony Mts
        • Sümegprága
      • Bazsi
        • Prága Hill
Kovács-Pálffy, P. et al. (2005): A Magyar Állami Földtani Intézet Évi Jelentése, 95-118.
      • Tapolcai Basin
        • Uzsa (Uzsabánya)
Szakáll & Gatter: Hun. Min. Spec., 1993; Kovács, I. et al. (2009): Guide to the Bakony-Balaton Volcanic Highland, Field Trip 1, 7th September 2009. MinPet2009 field trip booklet, 23 pp.
        • Zalahaláp
Szakáll & Gatter: Hun. Min.Spec., 1993; Kónya-MÁFI,2008
  • Southern Region
    • Vestmannaeyjar archipelago (Westman islands)
      • Surtsey Island
Jacobsson et al (1992) Encrustations from Lava Caves in Surtsey, Iceland. A Preliminary Report: Surtsey Research Progress Report X: 73-78 Reykjevik, Iceland.
  • Negev
Gross, S. (1977): The Mineralogy of the Hatrurim Formation, Israel. Geological Survey of Israel, Bulletin no. 70, 80 pp.
  • Latium
    • Rome Province
Caponera, I., Fiori, S., Pucci, R., & Signoretti, E. (2007). I minerali dei Colli Albani. Un aggiornamento sugli ultimi dieci anni di ricerche. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 31 (2), 74-91.
      • Campagnano di Roma
• Stoppani, F.S. & Curti, E. (1982): I minerali del Lazio. Editoriale Olimpia, Firenze, 291 pp.
      • Rome
        • Valleranello
Pucci, R. (2004): Vertumnite e tobermorite in un nodulo termometamorfosato nella leucitite di Vallerano (RM). Il Cercapietre, 1-2/2004, 70-71.
    • Viterbo Province
      • Montalto di Castro
        • Pietra Massa Locality
Passaglia, E. & Turconi, B. (1982): Silicati ed altri minerali di Montalto di Castro - VT. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/1982, 97-110.
  • Liguria
    • Genova Province
      • Tiglieto
        • Olbicella
  • Sicily
    • Catania Province
      • Northern Iblean plateau
Sicurella, G., Russo, S., Ciriotti, M.E., Blass, G. (2010): Mineralogia della formazione di Monte Caliella, Palagonia (Catania, Sicilia). Micro (località), 2/2010, 371-408
Sicurella, G., Russo, S., Ciriotti, M.E., Blass, G. (2010): Mineralogia della formazione di Monte Caliella, Palagonia (Catania, Sicilia). Micro (località), 2/2010, 371-408.
  • Trentino-Alto Adige (Trentino-Südtirol)
    • Trento Province
      • Lagarina Valley
        • Mori
          • Pannone
G. Gottardi, E. Passaglia (1967): Tobermorite "non espandibile" e Gyrolite del Monte Biaena (Trento). Periodico di Mineralogia, XXXVI, pagg. 1079-1083.
        • Mt. Baldo
          • Avio
- Exel R. (1980): Die Mineralien Tirols. Band 1. Südtirol und Trentino. Athesia Druck, Bolzano-Bozen, 213 pp. - Exel R. (1987): Guida mineralogica del Trentino e del Sudtirolo. Casa Editrice Athesia, Bolzano-Bozen, 205 pp.
          • Brentonico
Gottardi G., Passaglia E. (1965): Tobermorite “non espandibile” di Prà de la Stua (Trento). Period. Mineral. 35 197-204.; Mitsuda, T., & Taylor, H. F. W. (1978). Normal and anomalous tobermorites. Mineral. Mag, 42(322), 229-35.
  • Umbria
    • Perugia Province
      • Spoleto
Stoppa F., Scordari F., Mesto E., Sharygin V.V. and Bortolozzi G. - Calcium-aluminium-silicate-hydrate "cement" phases and rare Ca-zeolite association at Colle Fabbri, Central Italy (2010). Centr.Eur.J.Geosci. 2 (2), pag. 175-187 .
  • Veneto
    • Padova Province
      • Euganei Hills
        • Cinto Euganeo
          • Faedo
Passaglia E. and Taglavini A. (1995): Erionite from Faedo, Colli Euganei, Italy. N.Jb.Miner.Mh.,4, pagg.185-191.
        • Galzignano Terme
Fabris, L., Guastoni, A. (2014): Provincia di Padova. In: Zorzi, F., Boscardin, M., (eds.), Minerali del Veneto. Alla scoperta dei tesori della nostra regione. Museo di Storia Naturale e Archeologia di Montebelluna - Treviso, Cierre Edizioni, Sommacampagna, pages 121-141.
    • Vicenza Province
      • Altavilla Vicentina
Antonio Zordan collection
      • Altissimo
        • Del Tesoro Mt.
Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
      • Astico Valley
        • Rotzo
Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
      • Cornedo Vicentino
        • Spagnago
Lapis, 15 (12), 27-32+50.; Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
      • Crespadoro
        • Chiampo Valley
Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
      • Gambellara
        • S. Marco hill
"Minerali del Vicentino - La natrolite" M. Boscardin, S. Pegoraro. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana n. 1 / 2000 pp. 4-11
      • Posina
        • Pasubio Massif
          • Punta della Lucche
Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
      • San Vito di Leguzzano-Schio
Boscardin M., Daleffe A., Rocchetti I., Zordan A. “I minerali nel Vicentino”, Museo “G. Zannato”, Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), 2011.
  • Honshu Island
    • Chugoku Region
      • Okayama Prefecture
        • Takahashi City
          • Bicchu-cho (Bitchu-cho)
            • Fuka
Henmi, C., & Kusachi, I. (1992). Clinotobermorite, Ca5Si6 (O, OH) 18· 5H2O, a new mineral from Fuka, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. Mineralogical Magazine, 56(3), 353-358.; KUSACHI, I., & HENMI, C. (1991). Sillenite from fuka, okayama prefecture, Japan. Mineralogical Journal, 15(8), 343-348.
    • Kanto Region
      • Chiba Prefecture
        • Awa-gun
          • Tawara-mura
Dr. Kameki Kinoshita collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
        • Minamiboso City
          • Tomiyama-machi
Mitsuda, T., & Taylor, H. F. W. (1978). Normal and anomalous tobermorites. Mineral. Mag, 42(322), 229-35.; Masutomi Museum specimen (Kyoto)
      • Kanagawa Prefecture
        • Yamakita
Dr. Kameki Kinoshita collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
    • Kinki region
      • Mie Prefecture
        • Ise City
Minakawa, T., Inaba, S., Noto, S. (1986) Oyelite from Suisho-dani, Ise, Mie Prefecture. Ganseki Koubutsu Koushou Gakkaishi, 81, 138-142
        • Toba City
Yamada, S. (2004) Nihonsan-koubutsu Gojuon-hairetsu Sanchi-ichiranhyou (111 pp.)
Yamada, S. (2004) Nihonsan-koubutsu Gojuon-hairetsu Sanchi-ichiranhyou (111 pp.)
    • Tohoku Region
      • Fukushima Prefecture
Matsuyama, F. (2001)
  • Shikoku Island
    • Kochi Prefecture
      • Kochi City
        • Rendai
Mineralogical Journal Vol. 13 (1986) , No. 6 pp368-375
  • Amman
Pitty, A. F., & Alexander, W. R. (2010). A natural analogue study of cement buffered, hyperalkaline groundwaters and their interaction with a repository host rock IV: an examination of the Khushaym Matruk (central Jordan) and Maqarin (northern Jordan) sites. NDA-RWMD Technical Report, NDA, Moors Row, UK.
  • Irbid
    • Maqarin area
Khoury, H. N., Salameh, E., & Abdul-Jaber, Q. (1985). Characteristics of an unusual highly alkaline water from the Maqarin area, northern Jordan. Journal of Hydrology, 81(1), 79-91.; Pitty, A. F., & Alexander, W. R. (2010). A natural analogue study of cement buffered, hyperalkaline groundwaters and their interaction with a repository host rock IV: an examination of the Khushaym Matruk (central Jordan) and Maqarin (northern Jordan) sites. NDA-RWMD Technical Report, NDA, Moors Row, UK.; Khoury, H. and Nassir, S. (1982): High temperature mineralization in the bituminous limestone in Maqarin area - North Jordan. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Abhandlungen, 144, 197-213.
  • Zacatecas
    • Mun. de Concepción del Oro
Specimen in the collection of Miguel Romero [Rock Currier 2010]
    • Mun. de Mazapil
      • Noche Buena
Panczner (1987): 100-378.; Mitsuda, T., & Taylor, H. F. W. (1978). Normal and anomalous tobermorites. Mineral. Mag, 42(322), 229-35.
  • Khomas Region
    • Windhoek District
      • Aris
Yakovenchuk, V.N., Ivanyuk, G.Yu., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Selivanova, E.A., Mikhailova, J.A., Krivovichev, S.V., Zolotarev, A.A. and Zalkind, O.A. (2011): Ellingsenite, Na5Ca6Si18O38(OH)13·6H2O, a new martinite-related mineral from phonolite of the Aris alkaline complex (Namibia). Canadian Mineralogist, 49, 1165-1173.
New Zealand
  • North Island
    • Northland Region
      • Kaipara District
Baker, C. K. & Black, P. M. (1980): Assimilation and metamorphism at a basalt-limestone contact, Tokatoka, New Zealand. Mineralogical Magazine 43, 797-807.
  • Telemark
    • Porsgrunn
      • Bjørkedalen
Andersen, F.,Berge, S.A. & Burvald, I. (1996): Die Mineralien des Langesundsfjords und des umgebenden Larvikit-Gebietes, Oslo-Region, Norwegen. MineralienWelt 7(4):21-100
Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 pp
    • Skien
Jamtveit B., Dahlgren S. and Austrheim H. (1997): High-grade contact metamorphism of calcareous rocks from the Oslo Rift, Southern Norway. American Mineralogist. 82 : 1241 - 1254
  • West Bank
    • Hatrurim Formation
Sokol, E.V., Gaskova, O.L., Kokh, S.N., Kozmenko, O.A., Seryotkin, Y.V., Vapnik, Y., Murashko, M.N. (2011): Chromatite and its Cr3+- and Cr6+-bearing precursor minerals from the Nabi Musa Mottled Zone complex, Judean Desert. American Mineralogist 96, 659-674.
  • Lower Silesia (Dolnośląskie)
    • Kłodzko District
      • Nowa Ruda (Neurode)
        • Przygórze
Kruszewski, Ł., Ciesielczuk, J., Misz-Kennan, M. (2012): What have meteorites to do with coal fires? A case of Upper and Lower Silesian Basins. Mineralogia Special Papers 40: 28-30
  • Brașov Co.
    • Racoş Commune
Szakáll, S., Kristály, F., 2010. Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Sfântu Gheorghe-Miercurea Ciuc-Târgu Mureş. 2010.
  • Caraş-Severin Co.
    • Banat Mts
Marincea, S., Dumitraş. D-G., Ghinet, C, Fransolet, A.-M., Hatert, F. & Rondeaux, M. (2011): Gehlenite from three occurrences of high-temperature skarns, Romania: new mineralogical data. Canadian Mineralogist. 49, 1001-1014
  • Harghita Co.
    • Odorheiu Secuiesc (Székelyudvarhely; Oderhellen)
      • Racoş (Racoşu de Jos)
Szakáll, S. & Kristály, F., Eds. (2010): Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Csík County Nature and Conservation Society, Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania, 321 pp.
  • Hunedoara Co.
    • Hunedoara
Marincea, Ş., Bilal, E., Verkaeren, J., Pascal, M.-L., and Fonteilles, M. (2001) Superposed paragenesis in spurrite-, tilleyite- and gehlenite-bearing skarns from Cornet Hill, Apuseni Mountains, Romania. Canadian Mineralogist: 39: 1435-1453.; Marincea, Ş., Dumitraş, D. G., Călin, N., Anason, A. M., Fransolet, A. M., & Hatert, F. (2013). Spurrite, tilleyite and associated minerals in the exoskarn zone from Cornet Hill (Metaliferi Massif, Apuseni Mountains, Romania). The Canadian Mineralogist, 51(3), 359-375.
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
      • Verkhoyansk
        • Yana River Basin
          • Yana-Adycha Region
            • Arga-Ynnakh-Khaya granite Massif
Yakovenchuk, V.N., Pakhomovsky, Ya.A., Konoplyova, N.G., Panikorovskii, T.L., Mikhailova, Yu.A., Bocharov, V.N., Krivovichev, S.V., Ivanyuk, G.Yu. (2017): Epifanovite, NaCaCu5(PO4)4[AsO2(OH)2]·7H2O a new mineral from the Këster deposit (Sakha-Yakutia, Russia). Zapiski RMO, 146(3), 30-38.; Yakovenchuk, V. N., Pakhomovsky, Y. A., Konopleva, N. G., Panikorovskii, T. L., Bazai, A., Mikhailova, J. A., ... & Krivovichev, S. V. (2018). Batagayite, CaZn 2 (Zn, Cu) 6 (PO 4) 4 (PO 3 OH) 3· 12H 2 O, a new phosphate mineral from Këster tin deposit (Yakutia, Russia): occurrence and crystal structure. Mineralogy and Petrology, 1-11.
  • Northern Region
    • Murmanskaya Oblast'
      • Khibiny Massif
Pekov, I.V. & Podlesnyi, A.S. (2004): Kukisvumchorr Deposit: Mineralogy of Alkaline Pegmatites and Hydrotermalites. Mineralogical Almanac, vol. 7, 140 pages + xxiv photo's pages
  • Urals Region
    • Middle Urals
      • Sverdlovskaya Oblast'
        • Asbest
Antonov A.A. [Антонов А.А.] (2003): Mineralogy of rodingites of the Bazhenovsk ultrabasic massif [Минералогия родингитов Баженовского гипербазитого массива]. Nauka, Sankt-Peterburg, 129 pp. (in Russian).
        • Sysert' District
          • Polevskoi (Polevskoi Zavod)
Zadov, A. E.; Grabezhev, A. I.; Pertsev, N. N.; Chukanov, N. V.; Pribavkin, S. V. (2006): Tobermorite-plombierite metasomatites of the Gumeshevsk skarn-porphyry copper deposit, Middle Urals. Doklady Earth Sciences 407A, 495-497. ; American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 323–333, 2009; Grabezhev, A. I., Pertsev, N. N., Zadov, A. E., Pribavkin, S. V., & Murzin, V. V. (2007). Calcic hydrosilicate metasomatic rocks at the Gumeshevsk skarn-porphyry copper deposit in the central Urals, Russia. Petrology, 15(5), 514-522.
  • Prešov Region
    • Vranov nad Topľou Co.
Ďuďa,R., et al., 1981: Mineralógia severnej časti Slanských vrchov. Min.Slovaca, Monografia 2, 98s
South Africa
  • Northern Cape Province
    • Kalahari manganese field
      • Hotazel
Gutzmer, J. & Cairncross, B. (1993): Recent discoveries from the Wessels mine South Africa. Mineralogocal Record 24 (5): 365-368; Merlino, S., Bonaccorsi, E., & Armbruster, T. (2001). The real structure of tobermorite 11Å normal and anomalous forms, OD character and polytypic modifications. European Journal of Mineralogy, 13(3), 577-590.; Biagioni, C., Bonaccorsi, E., Lezzerini, M., Merlini, M., & Merlino, S. (2012). Thermal behaviour of tobermorite from N’Chwaning II mine (Kalahari Manganese Field, Republic of South Africa). I. Thermo-gravimetric and X-ray diffraction studies. European Journal of Mineralogy, 24(6), 981-989.; Gutzmer, J. (1996). Genesis and alteration of the Kalahari and Postmasburg manganese deposits, Griqualand West, South Africa (Doctoral dissertation, Rand Afrikaans University).
  • Castile-La Mancha
    • Ciudad Real
      • Campo de Calatrava volcanoes
Calvo, M., Viñals, J., Sanz, A. and Martí, J. (2013). Zeolites and asociated minerals in the vacuoles of some of the Campo de calatrava volcanoes - Ciudad Real, Spain. Mineral Up,3, 54-69
  • Catalonia
    • Barcelona
      • Maresme
        • Fogars de la Selva
Bareche, E. (2005) "Els minerals de Catalunya. Segle XX" Grup Mineralògic Català, Barcelona, 269 pages.
  • Skåne
    • Hässleholm
      • Häglinge
The Swedish Museum of Natural History collection # 19930479
  • Taiwan Province
    • Taitung Co.
Kung-Suan Ho et al (2009) The First occurrence of Suolonite in Taiwan. Coll and Res 22:1-13
  • Black Sea Region
    • Rize Province
Am Min 73:11-12 p 1497; Sarp H, Burri G (1987) Yeni bir mineral, trabzonit, Ca4 Si3 O10 2H2O. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Turkey 30, 57-60
  • Northern Ireland
    • Co. Antrim
      • Glenoe
Henmi, C., Kusachi, I., Henmi, K., Sabine, P.A., and Young, B.R. (1973) A new mineral bicchulite, the natural analogue of gehlenite hydrate, from Fuka, Okayama Prefecture, Japan and Carneal, County Antrim, Northern Ireland, Mineralogical Journal, 7, 243-251.
      • Larne
McConnell, J.D.C. (1954) The hydrated calcium silicates riversideite, tobermorite, and plombierite. Mineralogical Magazine, 30(224), 293-304.; McConnell, J.D.C. (1955) A Chemical, Optical and X-ray Study of Scawtite from Ballycraigy, Larne, N Ireland. American Mineralogist, 40(5-6), 510-514.; Harker, R.I. (1965) Scawtite and its synthesis. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 34, n° 268, 232-236 (referring to McConnell, 1954).
  • Scotland
    • North West Highlands
      • Isle of Skye
Livingstone, A. (1988): Reyerite, tobermorite, calcian analcime, and bytownite from amygdales in a Skye basalt. Mineralogical Magazine 52, 711-713.
        • Minginish
McConnell, J. D. C. (1954). The hydrated calcium silicates riversideite, tobermorite, and plombierite. Mineral. Mag, 30(224), 293-304.
        • Trotternish
[Specimen in the Natural History Museum, London]
Sweet, J. M., Bothwell, D. I., & Williams, D. L. (1961). Tacharanite and Other Hydrated Calcium Silicates from Portree, Isle of Skye. Mineral. Mag, 32, 745-53.
    • Strathclyde
      • Isle of Mull
Heddle, M.F. (1880) Preliminary notice of substances which may prove to be new minerals. Mineralogical Magazine, 4, 117-123; MM 30 (1954), 293; HB2/2 (1995)
      • Kilbirnie
Webb, A. B. S. T. (1971). Tobermorite from Castle Hill near Kilbirnie, Ayrshire. Mineralogical Magazine, 38, 253.
  • Arizona
    • Gila Co.
      • Dripping Spring Mts
        • Banner District
          • Christmas area
            • Christmas
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 397, 428; Cesbron, F.P. & S.A. Williams (1980), Apachite and gilalite, two new copper silicates from Christmas, AZ, Mineralogical Magazine: 43: 639-641.
  • Arkansas
    • Hot Spring Co.
Erickson, Ralph Leroy; Blade, Lawrence Vernon (1963) Geochemistry and petrology of the alkalic igneous complex at Magnet Cove, Arkansas. USGS Prof. Paper 425
  • California
    • Fresno Co.
      • Big Creek-Rush Creek District
        • Rush Creek deposit
          • Big Creek
Bob Walstrom, p.c.
    • Riverside Co.
      • Crestmore
American Mineralogist: 51: 56-74; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 477, 478.
          • Sky Blue Hill
Woodford, A.O., Crippen, R.A., and Garner, K.B. (1941) Section Across Commercial Quarry, Crestmore, California. American Mineralogist: 26: 352-381.
  • Idaho
    • Adams Co.
Ream, Lanny R. 2004. Idaho Minerals, 2nd edition, Revised and Updated
    • Idaho Co.
      • Skookumchuck Creek
Ream, Lanny R. 2004. Idaho Minerals, 2nd edition, Revised and Updated
  • Nevada
    • Esmeralda Co.
NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • North Carolina
    • Durham Co.
      • Durham
Kenny Gay message 15.09.2005 Smithsonian Institution Mineral Reference Collection No.171448-00
  • Oregon
    • Grant Co.
      • Ritter
Micro Probe Volume VII Number 8 Fall 1993
    • Lake Co.
      • Lakeview
Nevada Bureau of Mines and Geology NBMG Open-File Report 96-3 By Stephen B. Castor, Christopher D. Henry, Lisa A. Shevenell
  • Texas
    • Culberson Co.
      • Apache Peak area
Rocks & Minerals: 66(3): 196-224.; Am Min 51:1766-1774
  • Utah
    • Salt Lake Co.
      • Oquirrh Mts
        • Bingham District (West Mountain District)
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah; North, Jerry (2010) Displays of Nature : History, Minerals & Crystals of Utah's Bingham Canyon Copper Mine.; Mitsuda, T., & Taylor, H. F. W. (1978). Normal and anomalous tobermorites. Mineral. Mag, 42(322), 229-35.
  • Virginia
    • Highland Co.
      • Doe Hill
Minerals of Virginia 1990 by R. V. Dietrich; R. S. Mirchell and W. F. Giannini (1987) Tacharanite in an amygdaloidal basalt, Highland County, Virginia. Mineralogical Magazine 51:467-468
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