Help mindat.org|Log In|Register|
Home PageMindat NewsThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusManagement TeamContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatSponsor a PageSponsored PagesTop Available PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on Mindat
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryAdvanced Locality SearchRandom MineralSearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch ArticlesSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
Keyword(s):
 
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
StatisticsThe ElementsMember ListBooks & MagazinesMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryHow to Link to MindatDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day Gallery

Abhurite

This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
Formula:
Sn21Cl16(OH)14O6
Colour:
Colourless
Hardness:
2
Specific Gravity:
4.42
Crystal System:
Trigonal
Name:
Named as a new mineral by Matzko et al. (1985), after its discovery locality, in the Sharm Abhur Cove, Jiddah (Jeddah), Red Sea, Mintaqat Makkah, Saudi Arabia. However, the mineral was first described by Griffin et al. (1977) as a new basic tin chloride found on pewter plates from a shipwreck off Hidra island, Norway. It was published, but not formally admitted to the IMA.
This mineral is formed from the reaction of pure tin with sea water, and has exclusively been associated with tin ingots from shipwrecks. If discovered today it would be unlikely this would be accepted as a true mineral.


Hide all sections | Show all sections

Classification of AbhuriteHide

Approved
Approval Year:
1983
First Published:
1977
3.DA.30

3 : HALIDES
D : Oxyhalides, hydroxyhalides and related double halides
A : With Cu, etc., without Pb
10.5.9.1

10 : OXYHALIDES AND HYDROXYHALIDES
5 : Am(O,OH)pXq
8.8.1

8 : Halides - Fluorides, Chlorides, Bromides and Iodides; also Fluoborates and Fluosilicates
8 : Halides of Pb

Physical Properties of AbhuriteHide

Transparency:
Transparent
Comment:
opalescent
Colour:
Colourless
Streak:
White
Hardness:
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Fragile
Cleavage:
None Observed
Fracture:
Hackly
Density:
4.42 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.417 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of AbhuriteHide

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 2.060 nε = 2.110
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.050
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High

Chemical Properties of AbhuriteHide

Formula:
Sn21Cl16(OH)14O6
IMA Formula:
Sn2+21O6(OH)14Cl16

Age informationHide

Age range:
Quaternary : 0.0002 Ma to 0 Ma - based on data given below.

Crystallography of AbhuriteHide

Crystal System:
Trigonal
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.0175 Å, c = 44.014 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 4.394
Unit Cell V:
3,825.08 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
3
Morphology:
Thin, six-sided crystals, platy to tabular on (0001), showing {0115} and {0001}. As cryptocrystalline crusts.
Twinning:
on {0001}

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
2.5313 (100)
2.8175 (50)
2.8915 (70)
3.244 (35)
3.271 (35)
3.404 (50)
4.139 (50)
Comments:
Recorded on type material

Type Occurrence of AbhuriteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
blisterlike protuberances
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, Canada
National Museum of National History, Washington, DC, USA
Geological Setting of Type Material:
On the surface of a tin ingot recovered from a ship wrecked possibly 100 years ago.
Reference:
Matzko J J, Evans H T, Mrose M E, Aruscavage P (1985) Abhurite, a new tin hydroxychloride mineral, and a comparative study with a synthetic basic tin chloride. The Canadian Mineralogist 23, 233-240

Synonyms of AbhuriteHide

Other Language Names for AbhuriteHide

Dutch:Abhuriet
German:Abhurit
Italian:Abhurite
Latvian:Abhurīts
Portuguese:Abhurite
Spanish:Abhurita

Common AssociatesHide

AragoniteCaCO3
KutnohoriteCa(Mn,Mg,Fe)(CO3)2
RomarchiteSnO

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

3.DA.05MelanothalliteCu2Cl2OOrth.
3.DA.10aAtacamiteCu2(OH)3ClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.DA.10bBotallackiteCu2(OH)3ClMon. 2/m : P21/m
3.DA.10bClinoatacamiteCu2(OH)3ClMon. 2/m
3.DA.10aHibbingiteFe2+2(OH)3ClOrth.
3.DA.10aKempiteMn2+2(OH)3ClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
3.DA.10cParatacamiteCu3(Cu,Zn)(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
3.DA.10bBelloiteCu(OH)ClMon. 2/m : P21/b
3.DA.10cHerbertsmithiteCu3Zn(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.DA.10cKapellasiteCu3Zn(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
3.DA.10cGillarditeCu3Ni(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
3.DA.10cHaydeeiteCu3Mg(OH)6Cl2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
3.DA.15ClaringbulliteCu4ClF(OH)6Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
3.DA.15BarlowiteCu4BrF(OH)6Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
3.DA.20SimonkolleiteZn5Cl2(OH)8 · H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
3.DA.25ButtgenbachiteCu19(NO3)2(OH)32Cl4 · 2H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
3.DA.25ConnelliteCu19(SO4)(OH)32Cl4 · 3H2OHex. 6 m2 : P62c
3.DA.35PonomareviteK4Cu4Cl10OMon.
3.DA.40AnthonyiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 3H2OMon. 2/m
3.DA.40CalumetiteCu(OH,Cl)2 · 2H2OOrth.
3.DA.45KhaidarkaniteNa0.34Cu4Al3(OH)14F3 · 2H2OMon.
3.DA.50BobkingiteCu5Cl2(OH)8 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
3.DA.55AvdoniniteK2Cu5(OH)4Cl8 · H2OMon. 2/m
3.DA.60DroninoiteNi6Fe2+3(OH)16Cl2 · 4H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

8.8.2MatlockitePbFClTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
8.8.3LaurelitePb7F12Cl2Hex. 6 : P6
8.8.4CotunnitePbCl2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
8.8.5MendipitePb3Cl2O2Orth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
8.8.6DamaraitePb3Cl(OH)O2Orth. mm2 : Pmc21
8.8.7LaurionitePbCl(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
8.8.8ParalaurionitePbCl(OH)Mon. 2/m : B2/m
8.8.9PenfielditePb2Cl3(OH)Hex. 6 : P6
8.8.10FiedleritePb3FCl4(OH) · H2OMon. 2/m
8.8.11BlixitePb2(O,OH)2ClOrth.
8.8.12PseudocotunniteK2PbCl4Orth.
8.8.13DiaboleitePb2CuCl2(OH)4Tet. 4mm : P4mm
8.8.14PseudoboleitePb31Cu24Cl62(OH)48Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I4/mmm
8.8.15ChloroxiphitePb3CuO2Cl2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/m
8.8.17BideauxitePb2AgCl3(F,OH)2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
8.8.18BoleiteKPb26Ag9Cu24(OH)48Cl62Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Pm3m
8.8.19AravaipaitePb3AlF9 · H2OTric.
8.8.20YedlinitePb6Cr3+Cl6(O,OH,H2O)8Trig. 3 : R3
8.8.21KolaritePbTeCl2Orth.
8.8.22HematophanitePb4Fe3O8(OH,Cl)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m)

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.
Industrial Uses:
none

References for AbhuriteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Griffin, W.L., Nilsen, B., Jensen, B.B. (1977) Mineralogiske undersøkelser av tinntallerkener fra Hidra-vraket. Norsk Sjøfartsmuseums Årsberetning: 1976: 111-114.
Von Schnering, H.G., Nesper, R., Pelshenke, H. (1981) Sn21Cl16(OH)14O6, das sogenannte basische Zinn(II)-chlorid. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung: 36b: 1551-1560. [in German with English abstract]
Matzko, J.J., Evans, H.T., Jr., Mrose, M.E., Aruscavage, P. (1985) Abhurite, a new tin hydroxychloride mineral, and a comparative study with a synthetic basic tin chloride. The Canadian Mineralogist: 23: 233-240.
Jambor, J.L (1989) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 74: 500. http://rruff.info/rruff_1.0/uploads/AM74_500.pdf
Edwards, R., Gillard, R.D., Williams, P.A. (1992) The stabilities of secondary tin minerals: abhurite and its relationships to Sn(II) and Sn(IV) oxides and oxyhydroxides. Mineralogical Magazine: 56: 221-226. http://rruff.info/rruff_1.0/uploads/MM56_221.pdf
Jambor, J.L(1993) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 78: 235-236. http://rruff.info/rruff_1.0/uploads/AM78_233.pdf
Anthony, J. W. et al. (1997) Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. 3, 1.
Dunkle S E, Craig J R, Rimstidt J D, Lusardi W R (2003) Romarchite, hydroromarchite and abhurite formed during the corrosion of pewter artifacts from the Queen Anne's Revenge (1718). The Canadian Mineralogist 41, 659-669 http://rruff.info/rruff_1.0/uploads/CM41_659.pdf

Internet Links for AbhuriteHide

Localities for AbhuriteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Jamaica
 
  • Kingston Parish
Dunkle, S. E. (2002): Romarchite and Other Corrosion Phases on Metal Artifacts from the Queen Anne’s Revenge (1718). Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Geological Sciences
Norway
 
  • Vest-Agder
    • Flekkefjord
      • Hidra (Hitterø)
J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. III (1997); Griffin, W. L., Nilsen, B. & Jensen, B, B (1977): Mineralogiske undersøkelser av tinntallerkener fra Hidra-vraket. Norsk Sjøfartsmuseums Årsberetning 1976, 111-114
Saudi Arabia (TL)
 
  • Mintaqah Makkah
    • Jiddah (Jeddah)
Matzko, J. J., Evans, H. T., Jr., Mrose, M. E. and Aruscavage, P. (1985) Abhurite, a new tin hydroxychloride mineral, and a comparative study with a synthetic basic tin chloride. Canadian Mineralogist. 23, 233-240
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • St Ives District
Golley, P. & Williams R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh publications, 108p. (p. 6)
  • Wales
    • Isle of Anglesey
National Museum of Wales collection.
USA
 
  • Florida
    • Monroe Co.
Dunkle, S. E. (2002): Romarchite and Other Corrosion Phases on Metal Artifacts from the Queen Anne’s Revenge (1718). Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Geological Sciences
  • North Carolina
    • Carteret Co.
      • Beaufort
Dunkle, S. E. (2002): Romarchite and Other Corrosion Phases on Metal Artifacts from the Queen Anne’s Revenge (1718). Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Science in Geological Sciences. ; Canadian Mineralogist 41:659-669
Mineral and/or Locality  
Mindat.org is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization.
Copyright © mindat.org and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2017, except where stated. Mindat.org relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: September 20, 2017 03:15:50 Page generated: August 18, 2017 05:39:11
Go to top of page