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About TorreyiteHide

John Torrey
(Mg,Mn2+)72Mn2+2Zn4(SO4)2(OH)22 · 8H2O
Rarely colourless, white, usually light brown with a red gray tint, rarely very pale blue gray; colourless in transmitted light.
Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Pearly, Dull
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Named in 1949 by Joan Prewitt-Hopkins in honor of John Torrey [August 15, 1796 New York, New York, USA - March 10, 1873 New York, New York, USA], American medical doctor, botanist, mineralogist and chemist; a founding member of the New York Lyceum of Natural History and its first Curator, and subsequently its President. He was a Professor of Chemistry, an author, and was appointed U.S. Assayer for the new U.S. mint in New York City in 1853. He studied the minerals of the Franklin deposits in New Jersey. Originally called "delta-mooreite", but renamed when it was discovered that the two species have a different structure.
Isostructural with:
The magnesium analogue of Lawsonbauerite.

A secondary mineral occurring in manganese-rich veinlets and fractures in the Precambrian metamorphosed Zn-Mn-Fe deposit at Sterling Hill, Ogdensburg, NJ. Torreyite does not particularly resemble mooreite with which it may be associated. Torrey crystals are very rare, but are essentially rod-like to slightly bladed rods. Torreyite may be confounded with torreyite when massive, but when in contact the torreyite is frequently a dull brown with a slightly red tint while associated mooreite in slightly lighter in color and an ashen tan color. When a cleavage may be observed, mooreite has a micaceous appearance with a pearly luster.

Classification of TorreyiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
D : Sulfates (selenates, etc.) with additional anions, with H2O
D : With only medium-sized cations; sheets of edge-sharing octahedra

1 : (AB)m(XO4)pZq·xH2O, where m:p > 6:1

25 : Sulphates
9 : Sulphates of Mn

Physical Properties of TorreyiteHide

Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous, Pearly, Dull
Transparent, Translucent
Frequently dull
Rarely colourless, white, usually light brown with a red gray tint, rarely very pale blue gray; colourless in transmitted light.
May be tan to light brown as a surface coating when slightly oxidized.
White to colorless
On {010}, good.
Micaceous is an accurate description of the cleavage except that the folia are not broad as in a platy mica, but the cleavage follows the rod-like habit common to the mineral.
2.665 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.65 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of TorreyiteHide

Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.570 nβ = 1.584 nγ = 1.585
Measured: 40° , Calculated: 28°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.015
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
r > v
Refractive index is decidedly higher than mooreite

Chemical Properties of TorreyiteHide

(Mg,Mn2+)72Mn2+2Zn4(SO4)2(OH)22 · 8H2O
IMA Formula:
Mg9Zn4(SO4)2(OH)22 · 8H2O

Crystallography of TorreyiteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.522 Å, b = 9.433 Å, c = 16.443 Å
β = 94.91°
a:b:c = 1.115 : 1 : 1.743
Unit Cell V:
1,626.04 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Massive; granular to foliated.
Intricately polysynthetically twinned with twin plane in the zone [010] (visible under magnification).

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
10.2 Å(100)
8.0 Å(10)
6.93 Å(5)
6.10 Å(30)
5.16 Å(50)
4.69 Å(10)
4.52 Å(20)
4.10 Å(5)
3.84 Å(40)
3.71 Å(10)
3.47 Å(20)
3.29 Å(20)
3.13 Å(10)
2.915 Å(5)
2.795 Å(2)
2.729 Å(40)
2.666 Å(5)
2.606 Å(10)
2.552 Å(2)
2.480 Å(5)
2.376 Å(5)2.291
2.229 Å(5)
2.096 Å(1)
2.042 Å(1)
1.855 Å(1)
1.798 Å(2)
1.764 Å(5)
1.735 Å(5)
1.697 Å(10)
1.622 Å(1)
1.587 Å(5)
1.566 Å(50)
1.533 Å(2)
1.501 Å(5)
1.401 Å(2)
ICDD 33-874; pattern superficially resembles that of mooreite, but with a slight shift to larger d spacings. There are also mismatching d values when compared to mooreite.

Type Occurrence of TorreyiteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Harvard University 113732
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Secondary veinlets and fractures in a Pre-cambrian metamorphosed Zn-Mn-Fe deposit.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of TorreyiteHide

Other Language Names for TorreyiteHide


Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
5 photos of Torreyite associated with PyrochroiteMn(OH)2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.DD.05FelsőbányaiteAl4(SO4)(OH)10 · 4H2OMon. 2 : P21
7.DD.10LangiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2OMon. m
7.DD.10PosnjakiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · H2OMon. m : Pm
7.DD.10WroewolfeiteCu4(SO4)(OH)6 · 2H2OMon. m : Pm
7.DD.15SpangoliteCu6Al(SO4)(OH)12Cl · 3H2OTrig. 3m : P3 1c
7.DD.20KtenasiteZnCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 6H2OMon.
7.DD.25ChristeliteCu2Zn3(SO4)2(OH)6 · 4H2OTric.
7.DD.30CampigliaiteMn2+Cu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 4H2OMon.
7.DD.30DevillineCaCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.DD.30OrthoserpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2OOrth. mm2 : Pca21
7.DD.30SerpieriteCa(Cu,Zn)4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
7.DD.30NiedermayriteCdCu4(SO4)2(OH)6 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
7.DD.30EdwardsiteCu3Cd2(SO4)2(OH)6 · 4H2O Mon. 2/m : P21/b
7.DD.35Carrboydite(Ni1-xAlx)(SO4)x/2(OH)2 · nH2OHex.
7.DD.35Glaucocerinite(Zn1-xAlx)(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2OHex.
7.DD.35Honessite(Ni1-xFe3+x)(OH)2[SO4]x/2 · nH2OTrig.
7.DD.35Hydrohonessite(Ni1-xFe3+x)(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2OHex.
7.DD.35MotukoreaiteMg6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6][SO4]2 · 6H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.DD.35Mountkeithite[(Mg1-xFe3+x)(OH)2][SO4]x/2 · nH2OHex.
7.DD.35ShigaiteMn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2OTrig.
7.DD.35WermlanditeMg7Al2(OH)18[Ca(H2O)6][SO4]2 · 6H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3c1
7.DD.35WoodwarditeCu1-xAlx(OH)2(SO4)x/2 · nH2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.DD.35ZincaluminiteZn6Al6(SO4)2(OH)16 · 5H2O
7.DD.35Hydrowoodwardite(Cu1-xAlx)(OH)2[SO4]x/2 · nH2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
7.DD.35ZincowoodwarditeZn1-xAlx(OH)2[SO4]x/2 · nH2OTrig.
7.DD.35NatroglaucoceriniteZn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2OHex.
7.DD.35NikischeriteFe2+6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2OTrig.
7.DD.40Lawsonbauerite(Mn2+,Mg)9Zn4(SO4)2(OH)22 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.DD.45MooreiteMg92Mn2Zn4(SO4)2(OH)26 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
7.DD.50NamuwiteZn4(SO4)(OH)6 · 4H2OTrig. 3 : P3
7.DD.55BechereriteZn7Cu(OH)13[(SiO(OH)3(SO4)]Trig. 3 : P3
7.DD.60Ramsbeckite(Cu,Zn)15(SO4)4(OH)22 · 6H2OMon. 2/m
7.DD.65VonbezingiteCa6Cu3(SO4)3(OH)12 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.DD.70RedgilliteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
7.DD.75ChalcoalumiteCuAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2OMon. 2 : P21
7.DD.75Nickelalumite(Ni,Cu)Al4(SO4,(NO3)2)(OH)12 · 3H2OMon.
7.DD.75KyrgyzstaniteZnAl4(SO4)(OH)12 · 3H2OMon.
7.DD.80GuarinoiteZn6(SO4)(OH)10 · 5H2OHex.
7.DD.80Schulenbergite(Cu,Zn)7(SO4)2(OH)10 · 3H2OTrig.
7.DD.80ThérèsemagnaniteNaCo4(SO4)(OH)6Cl · 6H2OTrig. 3 : P3
7.DD.80UM1992-30-SO:CCuHZn(Zn,Cu)7(SO4,CO3)2(OH)10 · 3H2OTrig. 3 : P3
7.DD.85MontetrisaiteCu6(SO4)(OH)10 · 2H2OOrth. mm2 : Cmc21

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide,Mg)9Zn4(SO4)2(OH)22 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

25.9.1SzmikiteMnSO4 · H2OMon.
25.9.2JôkokuiteMnSO4 · 5H2OTric.
25.9.3MallarditeMnSO4 · 7H2OMon. 2/m : P2/m
25.9.4ManganolangbeiniteK2Mn2(SO4)3Iso. 2 3 : P21 3
25.9.5Chvaleticeite(Mn,Mg)SO4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
25.9.6DespujolsiteCa3Mn4+(SO4)2(OH)6 · 3H2OHex. 6 m2 : P62c
25.9.7ApjohniteMn2+Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon.
25.9.8ShigaiteMn6Al3(OH)18[Na(H2O)6](SO4)2 · 6H2OTrig.
25.9.9Ilesite(Mn,Zn,Fe)SO4 · 4H2OMon. 2/m
25.9.10MooreiteMg92Mn2Zn4(SO4)2(OH)26 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P2/b
25.9.12Lawsonbauerite(Mn2+,Mg)9Zn4(SO4)2(OH)22 · 8H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
25.9.13Dietrichite(Zn,Fe2+,Mn2+)Al2(SO4)4 · 22H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b

Fluorescence of TorreyiteHide

Not fluorescent in UV

Other InformationHide

Soluble in acids.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for TorreyiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Bauer, L.H., Berman, H. (1929) Mooreite, a new mineral and fluoborite from Sterling Hill, New Jersey. American Mineralogist: 14: 165-172. (as Delta-Mooreite)
Prewitt-Hopkins, J. (1949) X-ray study of holdenite, mooreite, and torreyite. American Mineralogist: 34: 589-595.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 575-576.
Treiman, A.H., Peacor, D.R. (1982) The crystal structure of lawsonbauerite, (Mn,Mg)9Zn4(SO4)2(OH)22·8H2O, and its relation to mooreite. American Mineralogist: 67: 1029-1034.
Dunn, P.J. (1995) Franklin and Sterling Hill, New Jersey: the world's most magnificent mineral deposits. Published privately. part 5: 639-640.

Internet Links for TorreyiteHide

Localities for TorreyiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex County
      • Franklin Mining District
        • Ogdensburg
          • Sterling Hill
Bauer, L.H. & Berman, H.: Am.Min.:14:165-172 (1929); Bauer, L.H. & Berman, H.: Am.Min.:14:103(abstract) (1929); Prewitt-Hopkins, J.: Am.Min.:34:589-595 (1949); Dunn, P.J., et al: Am.Min.:64:949-952 (1979); Dunn(1995):Pt5:639-640.
Peter Chin
Mineral and/or Locality  
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