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Toshio Sudo
Na0.5(Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)8O18)(OH)12 · 5H2O
White, light yellow, light green, deep blue to azure
Waxy, Dull
1 - 2
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Named by V.A. Frank-Kamenetskii, N.V. Logvinenko, and V.A. Drits in 1963 in honor of Toshio Sudo (1911-2000), professor of mineralogy, University of Tokyo, Japan. He was an expert in clay mineralogy, especially in the alteration processes by which clay minerals are formed.
Aliettite-Corrensite Group

A 1:1 regular interstratification of a chlorite group mineral and a smectite group mineral.

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Classification of TosuditeHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First Published:

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
C : Phyllosilicates with mica sheets, composed of tetrahedral and octahedral nets

71 : PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
4 : Sheets of 6-membered rings interlayered 1:1, 2:1, and octahedra

Physical Properties of TosuditeHide

Waxy, Dull
White, light yellow, light green, deep blue to azure
1 - 2 on Mohs scale
2.83 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Optical Data of TosuditeHide

Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.542 - 1.564 nβ = 1.570 nγ = 1.548 - 1.574
Measured: 59°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.006 - 0.010
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:

Chemical Properties of TosuditeHide

Na0.5(Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)8O18)(OH)12 · 5H2O
IMA Formula:
Na0.5(Al,Mg)6(Si,Al)8O18(OH)12 · 5H2O
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of TosuditeHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2 - Sphenoidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.17 Å, b = 8.97 Å, c = 24.2 Å
β = 94°
a:b:c = 0.576 : 1 : 2.698
Unit Cell V:
1,119.54 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Microscopically crystalline

Type Occurrence of TosuditeHide

Other Language Names for TosuditeHide


Varieties of TosuditeHide

Aluminum TosuditeA clay mineral with a 1:1 regular interstratification of dioctahedral Al chlorite Donbassite and Smectite.
AlushtiteA clay mineral with a 1:1 regular interstratification of di-trioctahedral Li-Mg chlorite Cookeite-Sudoite series (with Cookeite/Sudoite ratio close to 1:1) and dioctahedral Smectite.
Lithium TosuditeA clay mineral with a 1:1 regular interstratification of trioctahedral Li chlorite Cookeite and dioctahedral Smectite.
Magnesium TosuditeA clay mineral with a 1:1 regular interstratification of trioctahedral Mg chlorite Sudoite and dioctahedral Smectite.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Manganese Oxides3 photos of Tosudite associated with Manganese Oxides on

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.EC.05MinnesotaiteFe2+3Si4O10(OH)2Tric. 1 : P1
9.EC.05TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2Tric. 1 : P1
9.EC.10PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2Tric. 1
9.EC.15CeladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Fe3+(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.15MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.15RoscoeliteK(V3+,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.15ChromphylliteK(Cr,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.15FerroaluminoceladoniteK(Fe2+,Mg)(Al,Fe3+)(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.15FerroceladoniteK(Fe2+,Mg)(Fe3+,Al)(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20AnniteKFe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20HendricksiteK(Zn,Mg,Mn2+)3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20NorrishiteKLiMn3+2(Si4O10)O2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20PolylithioniteKLi2Al(Si4O10)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.20FluorotetraferriphlogopiteKMg3(Fe3+Si3O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20Wonesite(Na,K)(Mg,Fe,Al)6((Al,Si)4O10)2(OH,F)4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20TrilithioniteK(Li1.5Al1.5)(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.20ShirokshiniteKNaMg2(Si4O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20ShirozuliteK(Mn2+,Mg)3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20AspidoliteNaMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20FluorophlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20Suhailite(NH4)Fe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20YangzhumingiteKMg2.5(Si4O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20OrloviteKLi2Ti(Si4O10)OFMon. 2 : B2
9.EC.20OxyphlogopiteK(Mg,Ti,Fe)3[(Si,Al)4O10](O,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.35Anandite(Ba,K)(Fe2+,Mg)3((Si,Al,Fe)4O10)(S,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.35BityiteLiCaAl2(AlBeSi2O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.35ClintoniteCa(Mg,Al)3(Al3SiO10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.35Oxykinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Mg,Ti,Fe3+,Fe2+)3((Si,Al)4O10)(O,OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.35FluorokinoshitaliteBaMg3(Al2Si2O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.40Beidellite(Na,Ca0.5)0.3Al2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.40Kurumsakite(Zn,Ni,Cu)8Al8V5+2Si5O35 · 27H2O (?)
9.EC.40Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.40NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.40VolkonskoiteCa0.3(Cr,Mg,Fe)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.40Yakhontovite(Ca,Na)0.5(Cu,Fe,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 3H2OMon.
9.EC.45SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.45SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.45SpadaiteMgSiO2(OH)2 · H2O (?)
9.EC.45SwineforditeLi(Al,Li,Mg)4((Si,Al)4O10)2(OH,F)4 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.45ZincsiliteZn3(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.45FerrosaponiteCa0.3(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
9.EC.50VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2OMon. 2/m
9.EC.55ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.55Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Mon. 2/m
9.EC.55FranklinfurnaceiteCa2Fe3+Mn2+3Mn3+(Zn2Si2O10)(OH)8Mon. 2 : B2
9.EC.55DonbassiteAl4.33(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Mon. 2 : B2
9.EC.55GlagoleviteNa(Mg,Al)6(AlSi3O10)(OH,O)8Tric. 1 : P1
9.EC.60AliettiteCa0.2Mg6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.60Corrensite(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2OOrth.
9.EC.60HydrobiotiteK(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.60Karpinskite(Ni,Mg)2Si2O5(OH)2 (?)
9.EC.60Rectorite(Na,Ca)Al4((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 2H2OMon.
9.EC.60BrinrobertsiteNa0.3Al4(Si4O10)2(OH)4 · 3.5 H2OMon.
9.EC.70BurckhardtitePb2(Fe3+Te6+)[AlSi3O8]O6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1m
9.EC.75Ferrisurite(Pb,Ca)2.4Fe3+2(Si4O10)(CO3)1.7(OH)3 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.75Niksergievite(Ba,Ca)2Al3(AlSi3O10)(CO3)(OH)6 · nH2OMon.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide,O)10Mon.,Na)Al3(AlSi3O10)(OH)5Mon.,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2OOrth.,Ca)Al4((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 2H2OMon.,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 4H2OMon.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for TosuditeHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Frank-Kamenetskii, V.A., Logvinenko, N.V., Drits, V.A. (1963) A dioctahedral mixed-layer clay mineral - tosudite. Zapiski Vserossijskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva: 92: 560-565. (in Russian)
Fleischer, M. (1964) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 49: 816-821.
Shimoda, S. (1969) New data for tosudite. Clays and Clay Minerals: 17: 179-184.
Fleischer, M. (1970) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 55: 1067-1073.
Nishiyama, T., Shimoda, S., Shimosaka, K., Kanaoka, S. (1975) Lithium-bearing tosudite. Clays and Clay Minerals: 23: 337-342.
Fin'ko, V.I., Drits, V.A., Slonimskaya, N.V. (1977) Lithium tosudite from hydrothermal altered rocks of Lover Preamurie, - Izvestiya AN SSSR, ser. geologicheskaya: 12: 73-78. (in Russian)
Bailey, S.W. (1982) Nomenclature for regular interstratifications. American Mineralogist: 67: 394-398.
Kartashov, P.M. (1989) On Li-bearing Alushtite from Crimea and its position in the tosudite group. Novye Dannye o Mineralah, Moscow, "Nauka": 36: 67-83. (in Russian)

Internet Links for TosuditeHide

Localities for TosuditeHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Liège Province
[var: Alushtite] Brown G., Bourguignon P., Thorez J. (1974) A lithium-bearing aluminian mixed layer bmontmorillonite-chlorite from Huy, Belgium, - Clay Miner., 10(3), pp. 135-144. & Kartashov P.M. (1989) On Li-bearing Alushtite from Crimea and its position in the tosudite group, - Novye Dannye o Mineralah, Moscow, "Nauka", v.36, pp. 67-83 (in Rus.)
Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Serb Republic
    • Banja Luka
      • Prijedor
        • Ljubija
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Allier
      • Ébreuil
Merceron T., Inoue A., Bouchet A., Meunier A. (1988) Lithium-bearing donbassite and tosudite from Echassieres, Massif Central, France, - Clays and Clay Minerals, 36(1), p. 39-46.
  • Nouvelle-Aquitaine
    • Creuse
      • Evaux
        • Budelière
Econ Geol (1994) 89:757-777
  • Saxony
    • Erzgebirge
Starke R., Landgraf K-F., Felix S. (1984) Tosudite von Ehrenfriedersdorf - weitere mineralogishe daten, - Ztschr. geol. wiss., 12(4), s. 509-516 (in Germ.)
  • Maharashtra
    • Mumbai District (Bombay District)
      • Murud-Janjira
A.G. Dessai, Eur. J. Mineral. , 1990, 2, pp. 667-685.
  • Friuli-Venezia Giulia
    • Udine Province
      • Forni Avoltri
Ciriotti, M.E., Möckel, S., Blaβ, G., Bortolozzi, G. (2006). Cualstibite: ritrovamenti italiani. MICRO (UK report), 2006, 19-24.
  • Hokkaido
    • Iburi Province
      • Shiraoi-gun
        • Shiraoi-cho
米田哲朗. (1989). 北海道南白老重晶石・カオリン鉱床の粘土鉱物組成. 粘土科学, 29(2), 69-80.
  • Honshu Island
    • Chubu Region
      • Gifu Prefecture
        • Gujo City
Ichikawa A., Shimoda S. (1976) Tosudite from Hokuno mine, Hokuno, Gifu prefecture, Japan, - Clays and Clay Miner., 24(3), pp.142-148.
      • Niigata Prefecture
        • Aga-machi (Higashi-Kanbara-gun)
          • Mikawa-mura
Gaines et al. 1997, Dana's System of Mineralogy.
    • Kinki region
      • Hyogo Prefecture
Gaines et al. 1997, Dana's System of Mineralogy.
    • Tohoku Region
      • Akita Prefecture
        • Odate
Kimbara K., Nagata H. (1974) Clay minerals in the core samples of the mineralized zone of Niida, Southern part of Odate, Akita prefecture, Japan, with special reference to the mineralogical properties of sudoite and tosudite, - J. Japan Miner. Economic Geology, 69(7), p.239-254.
      • Aomori Prefecture
Sudo T., Kodama H. (1957) An aluminium mixed-layer mineral of montmorillonite-chlorite, - Ztschr. Kristallogr., 109(4/6). s. 379-387.
      • Fukushima Prefecture
        • Koriyama
Shimoda S. (1969) New data for Tosudite, - Clays and Clay Miner., 17(3), p. 179-184.; Gaines et al. 1997, Dana's System of Mineralogy.
  • Kyushu Region
    • Kagoshima Prefecture
Kawano, M., & Tomita, K. (1991). Mineralogy and genesis of clays in postmagmatic alteration zones, Makurazaki volcanic area, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. Clays and Clay Minerals, 39(6), 597-608.
  • Zambezia Province
    • Alto Ligonha District
Gomes Figueiredo C.S. (1967) Alteration of spodumene and lepidolite with formation of dioctahedral chlorite plus dioctahedral montmorillonite interstratifications with dioctahedral chlorite, - Mem. et Notic. Miner. Univer. Coimbra, v.64, p. 32-57.
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Khabarovskiy Kray
      • Sikhote Alin Mts
        • Nikolaevsk-na-Amure
- Fin'ko V.I., Drits V.A., Slonimskaya N.V. (1977) Lithium tosudite from hydrothermal altered rocks of Lover Preamurie, - Izvestiya AN SSSR, ser. geologicheskaya, №12, p. 73-78 (in Rus.).
Kol'tsov A.B. e.a. (1988) Condition of formation and synthesis of Li-tosudite, - Zapiski VMO, 5, pp. 615-622 (in Rus.)
South Korea
Cho, H. G., & Kim, S. J. (1994). Li-bearing tosudite from the Bubsoo mine, Korea. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie Monatshefte, (3), 130-137.
  • Andalusia
    • Málaga
M.D. Ruiz Cruz, B. Andreo : "Tosudite in very low-grade metamorphic graywackes from the Malaga area (Betic Cordilleras, Spain)", Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, 1391-1399.
  • England
    • Gloucestershire
      • Forest of Dean
Diederik Visser List #39, July 2006
  • Crimea Oblast'
    • Crimea peninsula
[var: Alushtite] - Dvoichenko P.A. (1914) Minerals of Crimea, - Zapiski Krymskogo obshchestva estestvoispytatelei, v.4, part unofficial, p. 104 (in Rus.)
Alexander I. Tischenko (1996). Minerals of the Crimea - World of stones, 1996, #9, p. 9-18
[var: Alushtite] Kartashov P.M. (1989) On Li-bearing Alushtite from Crimea and its position in the tosudite group, - Novye Dannye o Mineralah, Moscow, "Nauka", v.36, pp. 67-83 (in Rus.)
American Mineralogist, 49, 816 (1964); Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
      • Bakhchisaray area
[var: Alushtite] Kartashov P.M. (1989) On Li-bearing Alushtite from Crimea and its position in the tosudite group, - Novye Dannye o Mineralah, Moscow, "Nauka", v.36, pp. 67-83 (in Rus.)
      • Sudak Area
        • Morskoye Village
[var: Alushtite] Geologiya SSSR (The geology of USSR) (1969) - Nedra (Moscou), 1969, vol. VIII, 575 p.
  • Donetsk (Donets'k) Oblast'
    • Central Donbass
Kovalenko A.P., Bol'shakov A.P. (1976) Tosudite- a new mineral for mercury deposits of Donbass, - Doklady AN SSSR, 229(6), pp.1440-1443 (in Rus.)
  • California
    • San Diego Co.
      • Mesa Grande District
        • Gem Hill
Gaines et al. 1997, Dana's System of Mineralogy.
      • Pala District
        • Pala
          • Tourmaline Queen Mountain (Pala Mtn; Queen Mtn)
Gaines et al. 1997, Dana's System of Mineralogy.
  • Maine
    • Oxford Co.
      • Buckfield
King & Foord, 1994. Mineralogy of Maine, V. 1.; King and Foord, 2000, Addenda to Volume 1, Mineralogy of Maine, v. 2.
      • Newry
Van King
  • Nevada
    • Washoe Co.
      • Cottonwood District
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data
NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
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