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Kirchhoffite

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Gustav Kirchhoff
Formula:
Cs(BSi2O6)
Colour:
Colorless
Lustre:
Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous
Hardness:
6 - 6½
Specific Gravity:
3.622
Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Member of:
Name:
Named in 2010 by Atali A. Agakhanov, Leonid A. Pautov, Vladimir Yu. Karpenko, Elena Sokolova, and Frank C. Hawthorne in honor of Gustav Kirchhoff [March 12, 1824 Königsberg, East Prussia (Germany)– October 17, 1887 (Berlin, Germany] who was co-discoverer of cesium and who co-developed the field of chemical spectroscopy. Kirchhoff also developed, among many other discoveries, laws governing electrical circuits and proposed the fundamentals of what he termed "black body radiation."
Boron analogue of tetragonal pollucite.


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Classification of KirchhoffiteHide

Approved
Approval Year:
2009
9.GB.05

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
G : Tektosilicates with zeolitic H2O; zeolite family
B : Chains of single connected 4-membered rings
77.1.1.8

77 : TECTOSILICATES Zeolites
1 : Zeolite group - True zeolites

Physical Properties of KirchhoffiteHide

Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
Colorless
Hardness:
6 - 6½ on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
None Observed
Fracture:
Conchoidal
Density:
3.622 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.639 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of KirchhoffiteHide

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.592 nε = 1.600
Birefringence:
0.008
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.008
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic

Chemical Properties of KirchhoffiteHide

Formula:
Cs(BSi2O6)
IMA Formula:
CsBSi2O6

Crystallography of KirchhoffiteHide

Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Class (H-M):
4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
I41/acd
Setting:
I41/acd
Cell Parameters:
a = 13.019(2) Å, c = 12.900(2) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 0.991
Unit Cell V:
2,186.48 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
16

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
5.32 (32)
3.48 (82)
3.26 (100)
2.770 (67)
2.373 (21)
2.294 (41)
2.109 (34)
1.768 (22)
Comments:
The crystal structure of kirchhoffite was refined to an R1 index of 3.1% based on 487 observed reflections collected on a four-circle diffractometer with MoKα X-radiation. In the structure, there are two tetrahedrally coordinated sites: Si is occupied by silicon, = 1.610 Å, B is occupied by boron, = 1.465 Å, and Cs is [12]-coordinated,
= 3.301 Å. Tetrahedra form a [BSi2O6] framework, the topology of which is identical to that of tetragonal pollucite, CsAlSi2O6. The [12]-coordinated Cs atoms occupy the channels along [111] formed by six-membered rings of tetrahedra. Kirchhoffite, CsBSi2O6, is a B analogue of the tetragonal modification of pollucite.

Type Occurrence of KirchhoffiteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Occurs as colorless equant grains 10 to 80 μm in diameter
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Fersman Mineralogical Museum, Moscow, russia, reg. no. 3923/1
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of KirchhoffiteHide

Relationship of Kirchhoffite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
AlflarseniteNaCa2Be3Si4O13(OH) · 2H2OMon. 2 : P21
AmiciteK2Na2Al4Si4O16 · 5H2OMon. 2
Ammonioleucite(NH4,K)(AlSi2O6)Tet.
AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2OTric. 1 : P1
Bellbergite(K,Ba,Sr)2Sr2Ca2(Ca,Na)4[Al3Si3O12]6 · 30H2OHex.
BikitaiteLiAlSi2O6 · H2OTric. 1 : P1
BoggsiteCa8Na3(Si,Al)96O192 · 70H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Imma
Brewsterite-Ba(Ba,Sr)[Al2Si6O16] · 5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
Brewsterite-Sr(Sr,Ba,Ca)[Al2Si6O16] · 5H2O
Chabazite-Levyne SubgroupA subgroup of the Zeolite Group.
ChiavenniteCaMnBe2Si5O13(OH)2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
ClinoptiloliteNote on the distinguishing differences between clinoptilolite and heulandite (hhttp://rruff.
CowlesiteCaAl2Si3O10 · 6H2OOrth.
Dachiardite-Ca(Ca,Na2,K2)5Al10Si38O96 · 25H2OMon.
Dachiardite-KK4(Si20Al4O48)·13H2OMon.
Dachiardite-Na(Na2,Ca,K2)5Al10Si38O96 · 25H2OMon.
DirenzoiteNaK6MgCa2(Al13Si47O120) · 36H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmn
EdingtoniteBa[Al2Si3O10] · 4H2O
EpistilbiteCaAl2Si6O16 · 5H2OMon.
ErioniteThis name now refers to a group of related minerals.
Faujasite
Faujasite-Ca(Ca,Na2,Mg)3.5[Al7Si17O48] · 32H2OIso.
FerrieriteZeolite Group.
FerrochiavenniteCa1-2Fe[(Si,Al,Be)5Be2O13(OH)2] · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
Flörkeite(K3Ca2Na)[Al8Si8O32] · 12H2OTric. 1 : P1
Garronite-CaNa2Ca5Al12Si20O64 · 27H2OTet. 4 2m : I4m2
GaultiteNa4Zn2Si7O18 · 5H2OOrth. mm2 : Fdd2
Gismondine-BaBa2Al4Si4O16 · 4-6H2O
Gismondine-CaCaAl2Si2O8 · 4H2O
GmeliniteIn 1997, gmelinite was split into Gmelinite-Ca, Gmelinite-Na and Gmelinite-K.
GobbinsiteNa5(Si11Al5)O32 · 11H2OOrth.
GoosecreekiteCa[Al2Si6O16] · 5H2OMon.
GottardiiteNa3Mg3Ca5Al19Si117O272 · 93H2OOrth.
Harmotome(Ba0.5,Ca0.5,K,Na)5[Al5Si11O32] · 12H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
Heulandite subgroupNote on the distinguishing differences between heulandite and clinoptilolite (http://rruff.
HsianghualiteCa3Li2(Be3Si3O12)F2
LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
LovdariteK2Na6Be4Si14O36 · 9H2OOrth. mm2
MaricopaitePb7Ca2(Si,Al)48O100 · 32H2OOrth.
Mazzite-Mg(Mg,K,Ca)5(Si26Al10)O72 · 28H2OHex.
Mazzite-NaNa8[Al4Si14O36]2 · 30H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
Merlinoite(K,Na)5(Ca,Ba)2Al9Si23O64 · 23H2OOrth.
Montesommaite(K,Na)9Al9Si23O64 · 10H2OOrth.
Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2OOrth.
MutinaiteNa3Ca4Si85Al11O192 · 60H2OOrth.
NabesiteNa2BeSi4O10 · 4H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
Natrolite SubgroupA subgroup of the Zeolite Group.
OffretiteKCaMg(Si13Al5)O36 · 15H2OHex. 6 m2 : P6m2
PahasapaiteLi8(Ca,Li,K)10.5Be24(PO4)24 · 38H2OIso. 2 3 : I2 3
ParthéiteCa2(Si4Al4) O15 (OH)2•4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
Paulingite-Ca(Ca,K,Na,Ba,◻)10 (Si, Al)42O84•34H2OIso.
Paulingite-K(K2,Ca,Na2,Ba)5[Al10Si35O90] · 45H2OIso.
Paulingite-Na(Na2,K2,Ca,Ba)5[Al10Si35O90] · 45H2OIso.
PerlialiteK9Na(Ca,Sr)[Al2Si4O12]6 · 15H2OHex.
PhillipsiteZeolite Group.
Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
RoggianiteCa2Be(OH)2Al2Si4O13 · 2.5H2OTet.
Stilbite subgroupThis name now refers to the zeolite subgroup including the Barrerite - Stilbite-Ca - ...
Terranovaite(Na,Ca)8(Si68Al12)O160 · 29H2OOrth.
Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
Thomsonite-SrNa(Sr,Ca)2[Al5Si5O20] · 7H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
Tschernichite(Ca,Na2)[Al2Si4O12] · 4-8H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/mmm
TschörtneriteCa4(Ca,Sr,K,Ba)3Cu3[(OH)2|Al3Si3O12]4 · nH2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
WairakiteCa(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2OMon. 2/m
WeinebeneiteCaBe3(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
Wenkite(Ba,K)4(Ca,Na)6[(SO4)3|(Si,Al)20O39(OH)2] · 0.5H2OHex.
WillhendersoniteKCa[Al3Si3O12] · 5H2OTric.
YugawaraliteCaAl2Si6O16 · 4H2OMon.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.GB.05Ammonioleucite(NH4,K)(AlSi2O6)Tet.
9.GB.05AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2OTric. 1 : P1
9.GB.05HsianghualiteCa3Li2(Be3Si3O12)F2
9.GB.05LithositeK6Al4Si8O25 · 2H2OMon.
9.GB.05LeuciteK(AlSi2O6)Tet. 4/m : I41/a
9.GB.05Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.GB.05WairakiteCa(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2OMon. 2/m
9.GB.10LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
9.GB.15YugawaraliteCaAl2Si6O16 · 4H2OMon.
9.GB.20RoggianiteCa2Be(OH)2Al2Si4O13 · 2.5H2OTet.
9.GB.25GoosecreekiteCa[Al2Si6O16] · 5H2OMon.
9.GB.30Montesommaite(K,Na)9Al9Si23O64 · 10H2OOrth.
9.GB.35ParthéiteCa2(Si4Al4) O15 (OH)2•4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

77.1.1.1AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2OTric. 1 : P1
77.1.1.2Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
77.1.1.3WairakiteCa(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2OMon. 2/m
77.1.1.4LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
77.1.1.5HsianghualiteCa3Li2(Be3Si3O12)F2

Fluorescence of KirchhoffiteHide

Not fluorescent

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for KirchhoffiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
IMA Proposals approved - March 2010
Atali A. Agakhanov, Leonid A. Pautov, Vladimir Yu. Karpenko, Elena Sokolova, and Frank C. Hawthorne (2010) Kirchovite IMA 2009-094, CNMNC Newsletter. Mineralogical Magazine, 74:375-377.

Internet Links for KirchhoffiteHide

Localities for KirchhoffiteHide

ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Tajikistan (TL)
 
  • Region of Republican Subordination
    • Tien Shan Mtn
      • Alai Range (Alayskiy)
IMA Approvals - Mar. 2010; Agakhanov, A.A., Pautov, L.A., Sokolova, E., Hawthorne, F.C., Karpenko, V.Yu., Siidra, O.I., Muftakhov, V.A. (2016): Odigitriaite, CsNa5Ca5[Si14B2O38]F2, a new cesium borosilicate mineral from the Darai-Pioz alkaline massif, Tajikistan: Description and crystal structure. Mineralogical Magazine, 80, (in press).
Mineral and/or Locality  
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