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About KirchhoffiteHide

Gustav Kirchhoff
Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous
6 - 6½
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Member of:
Named in 2010 by Atali A. Agakhanov, Leonid A. Pautov, Vladimir Yu. Karpenko, Elena Sokolova, and Frank C. Hawthorne in honor of Gustav Kirchhoff [March 12, 1824 Königsberg, East Prussia (Germany)– October 17, 1887 (Berlin, Germany] who was co-discoverer of cesium and who co-developed the field of chemical spectroscopy. Kirchhoff also developed, among many other discoveries, laws governing electrical circuits and proposed the fundamentals of what he termed "black body radiation."
Boron analogue of tetragonal pollucite.

Classification of KirchhoffiteHide

Approval year:
First published:

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
G : Tektosilicates with zeolitic H2O; zeolite family
B : Chains of single connected 4-membered rings

1 : Zeolite group - True zeolites

Physical Properties of KirchhoffiteHide

Vitreous, Sub-Vitreous
6 - 6½ on Mohs scale
None Observed
3.622 g/cm3 (Measured)    3.639 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of KirchhoffiteHide

Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.592 nε = 1.600
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.008
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:

Chemical Properties of KirchhoffiteHide

IMA Formula:

Crystallography of KirchhoffiteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 13.019(2) Å, c = 12.900(2) Å
a:c = 1 : 0.991
Unit Cell V:
2,186.48 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0019219KirchhoffiteAgakhanov A A, Pautov L A, Karpenko V Y, Sokolova E, Hawthorne F C (2012) Kirchhoffite, CsBSi2O6, a new mineral species from the Darai-Pioz Alkaline Massif,Tajikistan: Description and crystal structure The Canadian Mineralogist 50 523-5292012Upper Dara-Pioz alkaline massif, Garm district, Tajikistan0293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
5.32 Å(32)
3.48 Å(82)
3.26 Å(100)
2.770 Å(67)
2.373 Å(21)
2.294 Å(41)
2.109 Å(34)
1.768 Å(22)
The crystal structure of kirchhoffite was refined to an R1 index of 3.1% based on 487 observed reflections collected on a four-circle diffractometer with MoKα X-radiation. In the structure, there are two tetrahedrally coordinated sites: Si is occupied by silicon, = 1.610 Å, B is occupied by boron, = 1.465 Å, and Cs is [12]-coordinated,
= 3.301 Å. Tetrahedra form a [BSi2O6] framework, the topology of which is identical to that of tetragonal pollucite, CsAlSi2O6. The [12]-coordinated Cs atoms occupy the channels along [111] formed by six-membered rings of tetrahedra. Kirchhoffite, CsBSi2O6, is a B analogue of the tetragonal modification of pollucite.

Type Occurrence of KirchhoffiteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Occurs as colorless equant grains 10 to 80 μm in diameter
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Fersman Mineralogical Museum, Moscow, russia, reg. no. 3923/1
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:
Agakhanov, A.A., Pautov, L.A., Karpenko, V.Y., Sokolova, E., Hawthorne, F.C., (2012) Kirchhoffite, CsBSi2O6, a new mineral species from the Darai-Pioz Alkaline Massif, Tajikistan: Description and crystal structure. The Canadian Mineralogist: 50: 523-529.

Synonyms of KirchhoffiteHide

Other Language Names for KirchhoffiteHide


Relationship of Kirchhoffite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
AlflarseniteNaCa2Be3Si4O13(OH) · 2H2OMon. 2 : P21
AmiciteK2Na2Al4Si4O16 · 5H2OMon. 2
AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2OTric. 1 : P1
Bellbergite(K,Ba,Sr)2Sr2Ca2(Ca,Na)4[Al3Si3O12]6 · 30H2OHex.
BikitaiteLiAlSi2O6 · H2OTric. 1 : P1
BoggsiteCa8Na3(Si,Al)96O192 · 70H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Imma
Brewsterite-Ba(Ba,Sr)[Al2Si6O16] · 5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
Brewsterite-Sr(Sr,Ba,Ca)[Al2Si6O16] · 5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
Chabazite-Levyne SubgroupM[Al2Si4O12] · 6H2O
ChiavenniteCaMnBe2Si5O13(OH)2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
ClinoptiloliteM3-6(Si30Al6)O72 · 20H2O
CowlesiteCaAl2Si3O10 · 6H2OOrth.
Dachiardite-Ca(Ca,Na2,K2)5Al10Si38O96 · 25H2OMon.
Dachiardite-KK4(Si20Al4O48) · 13H2OMon.
Dachiardite-Na(Na2,Ca,K2)5Al10Si38O96 · 25H2OMon.
DirenzoiteNaK6MgCa2(Al13Si47O120) · 36H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmn
EdingtoniteBa[Al2Si3O10] · 4H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
EpistilbiteCaAl2Si6O16 · 5H2OMon.
ErioniteM2[Al4Si14O36] · 15H2O
FaujasiteM3.5[Al7Si17O48] · 32H2O
FerrieriteZeolite Group.
FerrochiavenniteCa1-2Fe[(Si,Al,Be)5Be2O13(OH)2] · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
Flörkeite(K3Ca2Na)[Al8Si8O32] · 12H2OTric. 1 : P1
Garronite-CaNa2Ca5Al12Si20O64 · 27H2OTet. 4 2m : I4m2
GaultiteNa4Zn2Si7O18 · 5H2OOrth. mm2 : Fdd2
Gismondine-BaBa2Al4Si4O16 · 4-6H2O
Gismondine-CaCaAl2Si2O8 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
GmeliniteIn 1997, gmelinite was split into Gmelinite-Ca, Gmelinite-Na and Gmelinite-K.
GobbinsiteNa5(Si11Al5)O32 · 11H2OOrth.
GoosecreekiteCa[Al2Si6O16] · 5H2OMon.
GottardiiteNa3Mg3Ca5Al19Si117O272 · 93H2OOrth.
HeulanditeHeulandite is the name applied to specimens with unknown dominance of the extra-framework cations.
HsianghualiteCa3Li2(Be3Si3O12)F2Iso. 4 3 2 : I41 3 2
LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
LovdariteK2Na6Be4Si14O36 · 9H2OOrth. mm2
MaricopaitePb7Ca2(Si,Al)48O100 · 32H2OOrth.
MartinandresiteBa2(Al4Si12O32) · 10H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmn
Mazzite-Mg(Mg,K,Ca)5(Si26Al10)O72 · 28H2OHex.
Mazzite-NaNa8[Al4Si14O36]2 · 30H2OHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
Merlinoite(K,Na)5(Ca,Ba)2Al9Si23O64 · 23H2OOrth.
Montesommaite(K,Na)9Al9Si23O64 · 10H2OOrth.
Mordenite(Na2,Ca,K2)4(Al8Si40)O96 · 28H2OOrth.
MutinaiteNa3Ca4Si85Al11O192 · 60H2OOrth.
NabesiteNa2BeSi4O10 · 4H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
Natrolite SubgroupA subgroup of the Zeolite Group.
OffretiteKCaMg(Si13Al5)O36 · 15H2OHex. 6 m2 : P6m2
PahasapaiteLi8(Ca,Li,K)10.5Be24(PO4)24 · 38H2OIso. 2 3 : I2 3
ParthéiteCa2(Si4Al4) O15 (OH)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
Paulingite-Ca(Ca,K,Na,Ba, ◻)10 (Si, Al)42O84 · 34H2OIso.
Paulingite-K(K2,Ca,Na2,Ba)5[Al10Si35O90] · 45H2OIso.
Paulingite-Na(Na2,K2,Ca,Ba)5[Al10Si35O90] · 45H2OIso.
PerlialiteK9Na(Ca,Sr)[Al2Si4O12]6 · 15H2OHex.
Phillipsite subgroupZeolite Group.
Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
RoggianiteCa2Be(OH)2Al2Si4O13 · 2.5H2OTet.
Stilbite subgroupM6-7[Al8-9Si27-28O72] · nH2O
Terranovaite(Na,Ca)8(Si68Al12)O160 · 29H2OOrth.
Thomsonite-CaNaCa2[Al5Si5O20] · 6H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
Thomsonite-SrNa(Sr,Ca)2[Al5Si5O20] · 7H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
Tschernichite(Ca,Na2)[Al2Si4O12] · 4-8H2OTet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/mmm
TschörtneriteCa4(Ca,Sr,K,Ba)3Cu3[Al3Si3O12]4(OH)8 · nH2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
UM1999-33-SiO:AlHKNaK7Na5Al12Si20O64 · 24H2O
UM2002-40-SiO:AlCaHKMgNa(Mg,Ca,Na,K)7.5(Al12.8Si51.2)O128 · 65H2OTet. 4 2 2 : P41 2 2
Unnamed (Ca analogue of Merlinoite)(Ca,K,Na)5(Ca,Ba)2Al9Si23O64 · 23H2O ?
WairakiteCa(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2OMon. 2/m
WeinebeneiteCaBe3(PO4)2(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
Wenkite(Ba,K)4(Ca,Na)6[(Si,Al)20O39(OH)2](SO4)3 · 0.5H2OHex.
WillhendersoniteKCa[Al3Si3O12] · 5H2OTric.
YugawaraliteCaAl2Si6O16 · 4H2OMon.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.GB.05AnalcimeNa(AlSi2O6) · H2OTric. 1 : P1
9.GB.05HsianghualiteCa3Li2(Be3Si3O12)F2Iso. 4 3 2 : I41 3 2
9.GB.05LithositeK6Al4Si8O25 · 2H2OMon.
9.GB.05LeuciteK(AlSi2O6)Tet. 4/m : I41/a
9.GB.05Pollucite(Cs,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d
9.GB.05WairakiteCa(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2OMon. 2/m
9.GB.10LaumontiteCaAl2Si4O12 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
9.GB.15YugawaraliteCaAl2Si6O16 · 4H2OMon.
9.GB.20RoggianiteCa2Be(OH)2Al2Si4O13 · 2.5H2OTet.
9.GB.25GoosecreekiteCa[Al2Si6O16] · 5H2OMon.
9.GB.30Montesommaite(K,Na)9Al9Si23O64 · 10H2OOrth.
9.GB.35ParthéiteCa2(Si4Al4) O15 (OH)2 · 4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide · H2OTric. 1 : P1,Na)2(Al2Si4O12) · 2H2OIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Ia3d · 2H2OMon. 2/m · 4H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m 4 3 2 : I41 3 2

Fluorescence of KirchhoffiteHide

Not fluorescent

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for KirchhoffiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Agakhanov, A.A., Pautov, L.A., Karpenko, V.Yu., Sokolova, E., Hawthorne, F.C. (2010) Kirchhoffite IMA 2009-094, CNMNC Newsletter. Mineralogical Magazine: 74: 375-377.
Agakhanov, A.A., Pautov, L.A., Karpenko, V.Y., Sokolova, E., Hawthorne, F.C., (2012) Kirchhoffite, CsBSi2O6, a new mineral species from the Darai-Pioz Alkaline Massif, Tajikistan: Description and crystal structure. The Canadian Mineralogist: 50: 523-529.
Belakovskiy, D., Cámara, F., Diego Gatta, G. (2014) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 99: 870-875.

Internet Links for KirchhoffiteHide

Localities for KirchhoffiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Tajikistan (TL)
  • Districts of Republican Subordination
Agakhanov, A.A., Pautov, L.A., Karpenko, V.Y., Sokolova, E., Hawthorne, F.C., (2012) Kirchhoffite, CsBSi2O6, a new mineral species from the Darai-Pioz Alkaline Massif, Tajikistan: Description and crystal structure. The Canadian Mineralogist: 50: 523-529.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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