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Tritomite-(Ce)

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Formula:
Ce5(SiO4,BO4)3(OH,O)
Colour:
Dark brown; reddiah brown
Lustre:
Greasy
Hardness:
5½ - 6
Specific Gravity:
4.15 - 4.25
Name:
From Greek τρί (tri), threefold and τομος (tomos), a cut, because the crystal shows a three-sided cross sections (Weibye 1850). It was later renamed as tritomite-(Ce), with a suffix, -(Ce), in according to the "Levinson modifieres" indicating cerium being the dominant rare-earth element.
First discovered in 1849 by Paul Christian Weibye (1819-1865) on Låven, Langesundsfjorden, Norway and described in a paper the following year (Weibye 1850). The first chemical analysis gave mainly a silicate of cerium and lanthanum. Later Engström (1877) showed it to be a borosilicate.
A mineral in the Britholite Group of the Apatite Supergroup (Pasero et al. 2010). A borosilicate whith REEs strongly prevalent over Ca in the M sites for stoichometric reason (Pasero et al. 2010).

The minerals is metamict amorphous. Recrystallization by heating at 600°-1000° in air or under water gives an XRD pattern of an apatite structure phase and CeO2 phase or a combination of both (Neumann et al. 1957, Neumann 1985). The relationship of tritomite-(Ce) to caryocerite and melanocerite-(Ce) another minerals described from the Langesundsfjord, Norway, has been much discussed. Caryocerite is now considered as a Th-bearing variety of melanocerite-(Ce). Melanocerite-(Ce) has recently been suggested to be to be potentially discredited, once its identity with tritomite-(Ce) is ascertained (Pasero et al. (2010).
It has also been suggested that it is probable that both tritomite-(Ce) and melanocerite-(Ce) have a common crystalline precursor, a boron-rich apatite group mineral (sensu lato) with considerable substitution within the general formula A5C3O12X, where A is (Ca, Na, REE, Th); C is (P, Si, B, C), and X is (F, OH, O). A complicating factor for present day identification is the degree and extent of metamictization, during which elemental leaching and replacement have taken place (Larsen 1996).


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Classification of Tritomite-(Ce)Hide

Approved
First Published:
1850
9.AH.25

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
H : Nesosilicates with CO3, SO4, PO4, etc.
54.2.5.1

54 : NESOSILICATES Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates
2 : Borosilicates and Some Beryllosilicates with B in [4] coordination
17.5.22

17 : Silicates Containing other Anions
5 : Borosilicates

Physical Properties of Tritomite-(Ce)Hide

Greasy
Transparency:
Opaque
Colour:
Dark brown; reddiah brown
Streak:
Pale brown
Hardness:
5½ - 6 on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
None Observed
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
Density:
4.15 - 4.25 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Chemical Properties of Tritomite-(Ce)Hide

Formula:
Ce5(SiO4,BO4)3(OH,O)

Type Occurrence of Tritomite-(Ce)Hide

Other Language Names for Tritomite-(Ce)Hide

Relationship of Tritomite-(Ce) to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
Britholite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OHHex. 6/m : P63/m
Britholite-(La)Ca2(La,Ce,Ca)3(SiO4,PO4)3(OH,F)
Britholite-(Y)(Y,Ca)5(SiO4)3OHHex. 6/m : P63/m
Calciobritholite(Ca,Y)5(SiO4,PO4)3(OH)
Fluorbritholite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
Fluorbritholite-(Y)(Y,Ca)5(SiO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
Fluorcalciobritholite(Ca,REE)5(SiO4,PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
Tritomite-(Y)Y5(SiO4,BO4)3(O,OH,F)

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Bastnäsite-(Ce)2 photos of Tritomite-(Ce) associated with Bastnäsite-(Ce) on mindat.org.
Nepheline2 photos of Tritomite-(Ce) associated with Nepheline on mindat.org.
Astrophyllite1 photo of Tritomite-(Ce) associated with Astrophyllite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.AH.05Iimoriite-(Y)Y2[SiO4][CO3]Tric.
9.AH.10Tundrite-(Ce)Na2Ce2Ti(SiO4)(CO3)2O2Tric. 1 : P1
9.AH.10Tundrite-(Nd)Na2(Nd,Ce)2Ti(SiO4)(CO3)2O2
9.AH.15SpurriteCa5(SiO4)2(CO3)Mon.
9.AH.20TernesiteCa5(SiO4)2(SO4)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
9.AH.25Britholite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3OHHex. 6/m : P63/m
9.AH.25Britholite-(Y)(Y,Ca)5(SiO4)3OHHex. 6/m : P63/m
9.AH.25ChlorellestaditeCa5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
9.AH.25Fluorbritholite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
9.AH.25FluorellestaditeCa5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5FHex.
9.AH.25HydroxylellestaditeCa5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(OH)Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mcm
9.AH.25MattheddleitePb5(SiO4)1.5(SO4)1.5(Cl,OH)Hex. 6/m : P63/m
9.AH.25Tritomite-(Y)Y5(SiO4,BO4)3(O,OH,F)
9.AH.25Fluorcalciobritholite(Ca,REE)5(SiO4,PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
9.AH.25Fluorbritholite-(Y)(Y,Ca)5(SiO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

54.2.5.2Tritomite-(Y)Y5(SiO4,BO4)3(O,OH,F)
54.2.5.3Melanocerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4,BO4)3(OH,0)Hex.
54.2.5.4Proshchenkoite-(Y)Ca(Y,REE,Ca,Na,Mn)15Fe2+(P,Si)Si6B3O34F14Trig. 3m : R3m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

17.5.1ManandoniteLi2Al4(Si2AlB)O10(OH)8Orth.
17.5.2ReedmergneriteNaBSi3O8Tric.
17.5.3SearlesiteNa(H2BSi2O7)Mon. 2 : P21
17.5.4OleniteNa(Al3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3(OH)Trig.
17.5.5ElbaiteNa(Li1.5Al1.5)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.6KalborsiteK6Al4BSi6O20(OH)4ClTet.
17.5.7BoromuscoviteKAl2(BSi3O10)(OH)2Mon.
17.5.8PoudretteiteKNa2B3Si12O30Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P6/mcc
17.5.9LiddicoatiteCa(Li2Al)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.10DatoliteCa(HBSiO5)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.5.11DanburiteCaB2Si2O8Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
17.5.12HowliteCa2B5SiO9(OH)5Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.5.13BakeriteCa4(H5B5Si3O20)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
17.5.14OyeliteCa10Si8B2O29 · 12.5H2OOrth.
17.5.15KornerupineMg3Al6(Si,Al,B)5O21(OH)Orth.
17.5.16HarkeriteCa12Mg4Al(BO3)3(SiO4)4(CO3)5 · H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
17.5.17SerendibiteCa4[Mg6Al6]O4[Si6B3Al3O36]Tric. 1 : P1
17.5.18Stillwellite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Ca)BSiO5
17.5.19Tadzhikite-(Ce)Ca4Ce3+2Ti◻(B4Si4O22)(OH)2Mon.
17.5.20Melanocerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)5(SiO4,BO4)3(OH,0)Hex.
17.5.21Okanoganite-(Y)(Na,Ca)3(Y,Ce)12Si6B2O27F14
17.5.23Tritomite-(Y)Y5(SiO4,BO4)3(O,OH,F)
17.5.24Cappelenite-(Y)Ba(Y,Ce)6Si3B6O24F2Trig. 3 : P3
17.5.25Dumortierite(Al,Fe3+)7(SiO4)3(BO3)O3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
17.5.26Holtite(Ta0.60.4)Al6BSi3O18(O,OH)2.25Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
17.5.27DraviteNa(Mg3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.28 FerridraviteNaFe3+3(Mg2Fe3+4)(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3O
17.5.29Axinite-(Mg)Ca2MgAl2BSi4O15OHTric.
17.5.30Uvite SeriesCa(Mg3)MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(F/OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.31GarrelsiteBa3NaSi2B7O16(OH)4Mon.
17.5.32TienshaniteKNa3Na6Ca2Ba6Mn6(Ti4+,Nb)6B12Si36O114(O,OH,F)11Hex. 6/m : P6/m
17.5.33LeucospheniteBaNa4Ti2B2Si10O30Mon.
17.5.34TaramelliteBa4(Fe3+,Ti,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2ClxOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmn
17.5.35TitantaramelliteBa4(Ti,Fe3+,Fe2+,Mg)4(B2Si8O27)O2ClxOrth.
17.5.36NagashimaliteBa4(V,Ti)4B2Si8O27(O,OH)2ClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmn
17.5.37Chromium-draviteNa(Mg3)Cr3+6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig.
17.5.38WawayandaiteCa6Mn2BBe9Si6O23(OH,Cl)15Mon.
17.5.39Werdingite(Mg,Fe)2Al14Si4B4O37Tric.
17.5.40Axinite-(Mn)Ca2Mn2+Al2BSi4O15(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
17.5.41AxiniteTric.
17.5.42TinzeniteCa2Mn2+4Al4[B2Si8O30](OH)2Tric.
17.5.44SchorlNa(Fe2+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig. 3m : R3m
17.5.45Fluor-buergeriteNa(Fe3+3)Al6(Si6O18)(BO3)3O3FTrig. 3m : R3m
17.5.46FeruviteCa(Fe2+)3MgAl5(Si6O18)(BO3)3(OH)3(OH)Trig.
17.5.47Axinite-(Fe)Ca2Fe2+Al2BSi4O15OHTric. 1 : P1
17.5.48HomiliteCa2(Fe2+,Mg)B2Si2O10Mon.
17.5.49Grandidierite(Mg,Fe2+)(Al,Fe3+)3(SiO4)(BO3)O2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
17.5.50Hyalotekite(Pb,Ba,K)4(Ca,Y)2(B,Be)2(Si,B)2Si8O28(F,Cl)Tric. 1 : P1
17.5.51Hellandite-(Y)(Ca,REE)4Y2Al◻2(B4Si4O22) (OH)2Mon.

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Weakly to strongly radioactive
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Tritomite-(Ce)Hide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Weibye, P. C. (1850): Neue Mineralien aus Norwegen, beschrieben von P.H. [sic!] Weibye; analysirt von N.J. Berlin, K.A. Sjögren und J.B. von Borck (Erster Theil). [1.Tritomit, 2. Katapleiit, 3.Atheriasit, 4. Eudnophit.], Annalen der Physik und Chemie (herausgegeben zu Berlin von J.C. Poggendorff), 79: 299-304
Brøgger, W.C.(1890): Die Mineralien der Syenitpegmatitgänge der südnorwegischen Augit- und Nephelinsyenite. Zeitschrift fur Kristallographie und Mineralogie, 16, 663 pp + 28 plates
Neumann, H., Sverdrup, T. & Sæbø. P.C. (1957): X-ray powder patterns for mineral identification, Ill-silicates. Norske Vidensk. Akad. Oslo, 1., Mat-Naturvit. Klasse 1957, No.6: 1-18
Larsen, A.O. (1996): Rare earths minerals from the syenite pegmatites in the Oslo Region, Norway. in Jones, A.P., Wall, F. & Williams, C.T. (eds): Rare Earth Minerals: Chemistry, Origin and Ore Deposits. London ; Melbourne : Chapman & Hall, 1996. 373p. p. 151-165
American Mineralogist (1962): 47: 9-25.
Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, 278 pp. [p.153-154]
Raade, G. (1996) Minerals originally described from Norway. Including notes on type material. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrift: 11: 104 pp. + plates 1-7.
Larsen, A.O. (1996): Rare earths minerals from the syenite pegmatites in the Oslo Region, Norway. in Jones, A.P., Wall, F. & Williams, C.T. (eds): Rare Earth Minerals: Chemistry, Origin and Ore Deposits. London ; Melbourne : Chapman & Hall, 1996. 373p. p. 151-165
Pasero, M., Kampf, A. R., Ferraris, C., Pekov, I. V., Rakovan, J. and White, T. J. (2010): Nomenclature of the apatite supergroup minerals. European Journal of Mineralogy 22, 163-179.

Internet Links for Tritomite-(Ce)Hide

Localities for Tritomite-(Ce)Hide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Norway
 
  • Telemark
    • Porsgrunn
      • Langangen
        • Slevolden
Burvald, Ingulv (1993): To forekomster av nefelin-syenitt-pegmatitt i Telemark. STEIN 20 (3), 176-179
      • Mørje
        • Sagåsen
Andersen, F.,Berge, S.A. & Burvald, I. (1996): Die Mineralien des Langesundsfjords und des umgebenden Larvikit-Gebietes, Oslo-Region, Norwegen. MineralienWelt 7(4):21-100
Larsen, A.O., Åsheim, A. and Gault, R. A. (2005): Minerals of the eudialyte group from the Sagåsen larvikite quarry, Porsgrunn, Norway. Norsk Bergverksmuseum Skrifter 30: 58-62
Engvoldsen,T.,Andersen, F.,Berge, S.A. & Burvald, I. (1991): Pegmatittmineraler fra Larvik ringkompleks. STEIN 18(1),15-71
  • Vestfold
    • Larvik
RRUFF Project Specimen ID: R060046, Mindat-Photo id 311382
Brøgger, W.C. (1890): Die Mineralien der Syenitpegmatitgänge der südnorwegischen Augit-und Nephelinsyenite. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie und Mineralogie 16, 483-489
Brøgger, W.C. (1890): Die Mineralien der Syenitpegmatitgänge der südnorwegischen Augit-und Nephelinsyenite. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie und Mineralogie 16, 483-489
        • Barkevik area
          • Kjeøya
Svein A. Berge observation 1991
Svein A. Berge observation in field 1978
Svein A. Berge collection (find 1975)
Brøgger, W.C. (1890): Die Mineralien der Syenitpegmatitgänge der südnorwegischen Augit-und Nephelinsyenite. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie und Mineral.16. 663 pp
Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240p
Weibye, P. C. (1850): Neue Mineralien aus Norwegen, beschrieben von P.H. [sic!] Weibye; analysirt von N.J. Berlin, K.A. Sjögren und J.B. von Borck (Erster Theil). [1.Tritomit, 2. Katapleiit, 3.Atheriasit, 4. Eudnophit.], Annalen der Physik und Chemie (herausgegeben zu Berlin von J.C. Poggendorff), 79: 299-304
        • Stokkøya (Stokø; Stockö; Stocköe)
Brøgger, W.C. (1890): Die Mineralien der Syenitpegmatitgänge der südnorwegischen Augit-und Nephelinsyenite. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie und Mineralogie 16, 483-489
        • Vesle Arøya
Engvoldsen, T., Andersen, F., Berge, S. A. & Burvald, I. (1991): Pegmatittmineraler fra Larvik ringkompleks. STEIN 18 (1), 15-71
      • Tjølling
        • Håkestad
Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 pp
      • Tvedalen
K.E.Larsen collection
Larsen, A. O. (ed.) (2010): The Langesundsfjord. History, geology, pegmatites, minerals. Bode Verlag Gmbh, Salzhemmendorf, Germany, 240 pp
    • Sandefjord
Berge, S. A. & Hansen, R. (1975): Mineraler fra Sandefjord. NAGS-nytt nr 1, 10-12 (in norwegian)
Romania
 
  • Harghita Co.
Hirtopanu Paulina, Andersen C. Jens, Fairhurst J. Robert and Jakab Gyula (2013) Allanite-(Ce) and its associations, from the Ditrau alkaline intrusive massif. Proc. Rom. Acad., Series B, 2013, 15(1), p. 59–74
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Prebaikalia (Pribaikal'e)
      • Buriatia (Buryatia)
        • Mama River Basin
          • Maigunda River
Pavel m. kartashov data
Sweden
 
  • Småland
    • Jönköping
      • Gränna
Thulin, H. (1996): Norra Kärr. Litiofilen 13: 17-51 ; Thulin, H. (2000): Norra Kärr-Några nya fynd och undersökningar. Litiofilen, 17 (2): 25-45: RRUFF specimen R060370
Mineral and/or Locality  
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