URGENT MESSAGE: We need $75,000 to survive. Click here to find out why.
Log InRegister
Home PageAbout MindatThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusWho We AreContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatCorporate SponsorshipSponsor a PageSponsored PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on Mindat
Learning CenterWhat is a mineral?The most common minerals on earthInformation for Educators
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryAdvanced Locality SearchRandom MineralRandom LocalitySearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch ArticlesSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
StatisticsThe ElementsUsersBooks & MagazinesMineral MuseumsMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day Gallery


This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
Hide all sections | Show all sections

About TunelliteHide

George G. Tunell, Jr.
SrB6O9(OH)2 · 3H2O
Colourless, grayish white
Sub-Vitreous, Pearly
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Named by R.C. Erd, V. Morgan, and J.R. Clark in 1961 in honor of George Gerard Tunell, Jr. (4 April 1900, Chicago, Illinois, USA - 4 July 1996, Montecito, California, USA), professor of geochemistry, University of California. President of the Mineralogical Society of America (1950) and Roebling Medal recipient in 1973. He made major advances in X-ray crystallography, physical chemistry, and thermodynamic analysis of minerals, especially metallic ores.
This page provides mineralogical data about Tunellite.

Classification of TunelliteHide

First Published:

F : Hexaborates
C : Phyllo-hexaborates

6 : Hexaborates

9 : Borates
3 : Borates of Ca and Sr

Physical Properties of TunelliteHide

Sub-Vitreous, Pearly
Pearly on cleavages
Colourless, grayish white
2½ on Mohs scale
Perfect on {100}
Distinct on {001}
2.40(1) g/cm3 (Measured)    2.391 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of TunelliteHide

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.519 nβ = 1.534 nγ = 1.569
Calculated: 68°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.050
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
r > v weak

Chemical Properties of TunelliteHide

SrB6O9(OH)2 · 3H2O

Crystallography of TunelliteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 14.415(3) Å, b = 8.213(1) Å, c = 9.951(2) Å
β = 114.05°
a:b:c = 1.755 : 1 : 1.212
Unit Cell V:
1,075.83 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals to 10cm elongated on [001], compact fine grained nodules.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Type Occurrence of TunelliteHide

Other Language Names for TunelliteHide

Simplified Chinese:四水锶硼石

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Ulexite14 photos of Tunellite associated with Ulexite on mindat.org.
Hydroboracite7 photos of Tunellite associated with Hydroboracite on mindat.org.
Colemanite3 photos of Tunellite associated with Colemanite on mindat.org.
Pararealgar1 photo of Tunellite associated with Pararealgar on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

6.FC.05NobleiteCaB6O9(OH)2 · 3H2OMon. 2/m
6.FC.15GinoriteCa2B14O20(OH)6 · 5H2OMon.
6.FC.15StrontioginoriteCaSrB14O20(OH)6 · 5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
6.FC.20FabianiteCaB3O5OHMon. 2/m : P21/b

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide · 3H2OMon. 2/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

9.3.3FabianiteCaB3O5OHMon. 2/m : P21/b
9.3.4UralboriteCa2[B3O3(OH)5 · OB(OH)3]Mon.
9.3.6OlshanskyiteCa2[B3O3(OH)6](OH) · 3H2O
9.3.8KorzhinskiteCa(B2O4) · H2O
9.3.9TyretskiteCa2B5O9OH · H2OTric.
9.3.12InyoiteCa(H4B3O7)(OH) · 4H2OMon. 2/m
9.3.13GoweriteCa[B5O8(OH)][B(OH)3] · 3H2OMon.
9.3.14ColemaniteCa[B3O4(OH)3] · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
9.3.15PentahydroboriteCaB2O(OH)6 · 2H2OTric.
9.3.16HexahydroboriteCa[B(OH)4]2 · 2H2O or CaB2O4 · 6H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
9.3.17MeyerhofferiteCa2(H3B3O7)2 · 4H2OTric. 1 : P1
9.3.18PriceiteCa2B5O7(OH)5 · H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
9.3.19GinoriteCa2B14O20(OH)6 · 5H2OMon.
9.3.20ProbertiteNaCaB5O7(OH)4 · 3H2OMon. 2/m
9.3.21UlexiteNaCa[B5O6(OH)6] · 5H2OTric. 1 : P1
9.3.22HydroboraciteCaMg[B3O4(OH)3]2 · 3H2OMon.
9.3.23InderboriteCaMg(H3B3O7)2 · 8H2OMon. 2/m
9.3.24WardsmithiteCa5Mg[B4O7]6 · 30H2OHex.
9.3.27VeatchiteSr2B11O16(OH)5 · H2OMon. m : Bb
9.3.28Veatchite-ASr2B11O16(OH)5 · H2OTric.
9.3.29 P-VeatchiteSr2B11O16(OH)5 · H2O
9.3.30 BalavinskiteSr2B6O11 · 4H2O
9.3.32StrontioginoriteCaSrB14O20(OH)6 · 5H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for TunelliteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Erd, R.C., Morgan, V., Clark, J.R. (1961) Tunellite, a new hydrous strontium borate from the Kramer Borate District, California. U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper: 424-C: 294-297.
Fleischer, M. (1962) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 47: 414-420.
Clark, J.R. (1963) Boron-oxygen polyanion in the crystal structure of tunellite. Science: 141: 1178-1179.
Clark, J.R. (1964) The crystal structure of tunellite, SrB6O9(OH)2·3H2O. American Mineralogist: 49: 1549-1568.
International Mineralogical Association (1967) Commission on new minerals and mineral names. Mineralogical Magazine: 36: 131-136.
Burns, P.C., Hawthorne, F.C. (1994) Hydrogen bonding in tunellite. The Canadian Mineralogist: 32: 895-902.
Grew, E.S., Anovitz, L.M. (1996) BORON: Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, second edition, as revised (2002).

Internet Links for TunelliteHide

Localities for TunelliteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Aegean Region
    • Kütahya Province
      • Emet
        • Doğanlar village
J. García-Veigas, L. Rosell, X. Alcobé, I. Subias, F. Ortí, I. Gündogan and C. Helvaci (2010) Fontarnauite, a New Sulphate-Borate Mineral from the Emet Borate District (Turkey). Macla 13, 97-98.
        • Emet Borate deposit
American Mineralogist; April 1979; v. 64; no. 3-4; p. 362-366
  • Central Anatolia Region
    • Eskişehir Province
      • Kirka
Baysal, O. (1972) : A mineralogical study and genesis of Sarıkaya (Kırka) borate deposits. Hacettepe University, Ankara.; Lapis 17(1), 12 (1992)
  • Marmara Region
    • Balikesir Province
      • Bigadiç
CAHIT HELVACI & RICARDO N. ALONSO (2000) Borate Deposits of Turkey and Argentina; A Summary and Geological Comparison. Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences, Vol. 9, 2000, pp. 1-27
  • California
    • Inyo Co.
Erd, R.C., V. Morgan & J.R. Clark (1961), Tunellite, a new hydrous strontium borate from the Kramer borate district, California: USGS PP 424-C, article No. 255: C294-C297; Murdoch, Joseph & Robert W. Webb (1966), Minerals of California, Centennial Volume (1866-1966): California Division Mines & Geology Bulletin 189: 375.
      • Furnace Creek District (Furnace Creek Borate District; Death Valley Area Borate Deposits; Ryan area)
        • Ryan
Collected it in the mine-Rock Currier; Erd, R.C., V. Morgan & J.R. Clark (1961), Tunellite, a new hydrous strontium borate from the Kramer borate district, California: USGS PP 424-C, article No. 255: C294-C297; McAllister, James Franklin (1970) Geology of the Furnace Creek borate area, Death Valley, Inyo County, California. California Division of Mines and Geology Map Sheet 14, 9 pp.: 8; Minette, J.W. and Wilber, D.P. (1973) Hydroboracite from the Thompson mine, Deathe Valley. Mineralogical Record: 4: 21-23.
    • Kern Co.
      • Kramer District (Kramer Borate District)
Cal Div of Mines & Geology "Mineral Information Service" V. 22 N. 10 Oct 1969
U.S.Geol.Surv.,Prof.Pap.(1961) 424-C, 294-297
Erd, R.C., V. Morgan & J.R. Clark (1961), Tunellite, a new hydrous strontium borate from the Kramer borate district, California: USGS PP 424-C, article No. 255: C294-C297; Clark, Joan R. (1963), Boron-oxygen polyion in the crystal structure of tunellite: Science: 141: 1178; Clark, Joan R. (1964), The crystal structure of tunellite, SrB6O9(OH)2-3H2O: American Mineralogist: 49: 1549-1568.
Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22: 152; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 241, 255.
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • East Kramer District
Morgan, V. and Erd, R.C. (1969) Minerals of the Kramer borate district, California California Division of Mines and Geology Mineral Information Service: 22: 169; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 255.
Mineral and/or Locality  
Mindat.org is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization.
Copyright © mindat.org and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2018, except where stated. Mindat.org relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: June 23, 2018 17:06:13 Page generated: June 14, 2018 07:09:03
Go to top of page