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Aburayhan-e Biruni
Ca18(SiO3)8.5(CO3)8.5SO4 · 15H2O(?)
Specific Gravity:
Named by S.T. Badalov and I.M Golovanov in 1957 in honor of Abū Rayḥān Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad Al-Bīrūnī (English: Aburayhan-e Biruni) (4/5 September 973, Kath, Khwarezm, Samanid Empire (modern-day Uzbekistan) - 13 December 1048, Ghazni, Ghaznavid Empire), great Persian scholar and scientist. He was one of the greatest scholars of the medieval Islamic era; a polymath well versed in physics, mathematics, astronomy, and natural sciences. He was also an historian, chronologist and linguist. In mineralogy, he built an apparatus and determined the specific gravity of metals and minerals with remarkable precision.
This page provides mineralogical data about Birunite.

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Classification of BiruniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959), Questionable
First Published:

Physical Properties of BiruniteHide

in one direction
2.36 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Optical Data of BiruniteHide

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.527 nγ = 1.531
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Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.004
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:

Chemical Properties of BiruniteHide

Ca18(SiO3)8.5(CO3)8.5SO4 · 15H2O(?)
IMA Formula:
Ca18(SiO3)8.5(CO3)8.5(SO4) · 15H2O

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
2.595 (10)
1.781 (10)
1.939 (8)
1.712 (4)
1.292 (3)
1.339 (8) in original publication assumed to be a misprint.

Other InformationHide

Thermal Behaviour:
Endothermal break at 120-200°C, another broad endothermal break at 550-720°C, and an exothermal peak at 770-870°C.
Dissolves in 10% HCl slowly, leaves scarcely any residue, and forms a silica gel immediately.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for BiruniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Badalov, S.T., Golovanov, I.M. (1957) Birunite - a new mineral of the thaumasite group. Doklady Akademii Nauk Uzbekistan S.S.R: 12: 17-21 (in Russian).
Fleischer, M. (1959) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 44: 906-910.

Internet Links for BiruniteHide

Localities for BiruniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Occitanie
    • Aveyron
Kruszewski, Ł., Gatel, P., Thiéry, V., Moszumańska, I., Kusy, D. (2018)(?): Lapanouse-de-Sévérac (France): an example of unique crystallochemical behaviour of slag minerals and new mineral potential. Coal and Peat Fires, vol. 5, xx-xx (in review/correction); Ł. Kruszewski EPMA/PXRD/Rietveld data
  • Amman
Pitty, A. F., & Alexander, W. R. (2010). A natural analogue study of cement buffered, hyperalkaline groundwaters and their interaction with a repository host rock IV: an examination of the Khushaym Matruk (central Jordan) and Maqarin (northern Jordan) sites. NDA-RWMD Technical Report, NDA, Moors Row, UK.
  • Irbid
    • Maqarin area
Khoury, H. N., Salameh, E., & Abdul-Jaber, Q. (1985). Characteristics of an unusual highly alkaline water from the Maqarin area, northern Jordan. Journal of Hydrology, 81(1), 79-91.
  • Tashkent Viloyati (Toshkent)
Badalov, S.T. & Golovanov, I.M. (1957): Birunite - a new mineral of the thaumasite group. Doklady Akademii Nauk Uzbekistan SSR, 12, 17-21 (in Russian).
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