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About UreaHide

Colourless, pale yellow, pale brown
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
The name is the common trivial name of this compound (derived from Greek "oura", urine). The systematic name is carbonic acid diamide.
Derived from bat guano and urine, stable only under very arid conditions.

Classification of UreaHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
Approval Year:
First Published:

C : Miscellaneous Organic Minerals
A : Miscellaneous Organic Minerals

4 : Miscellaneous

32 :

Physical Properties of UreaHide

Colourless, pale yellow, pale brown
yellowish white
1.33 g/cm3 (Measured)    
Sink- float method in Nujol and α-bromonaphthalene.

Optical Data of UreaHide

Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.484 nε = 1.603
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.119
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:

Chemical Properties of UreaHide


Crystallography of UreaHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
4 2m - Scalenohedral
Space Group:
P4 21m
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.646(1) Å, c = 4.701(1) Å
a:c = 1 : 0.833
Unit Cell V:
149.86 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)

Type Occurrence of UreaHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Damp incoherent mass of crystals.
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Western Australia Museum, Perth, Australia, S4688.
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Cave guano from warm arid environment.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of UreaHide

Other Language Names for UreaHide


Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

10.CA.05RefikiteC20H32O2Orth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 2
10.CA.20AbelsoniteNi(C31H32N4)Tric. 1 : P1
10.CA.25KladnoiteC6H4(CO)2NHMon. 2/m
10.CA.30Tinnunculite (of Chesnokov & Shcherbakova)C10H12N8O8Orth.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

32.1EvenkiteC21H44Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcm
32.3SimonelliteC19H24Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnna
32.6CarpathiteC24H12Mon. 2/m : P21/b
32.7RefikiteC20H32O2Orth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 2
32.10KladnoiteC6H4(CO)2NHMon. 2/m
32.11AcetamideCH3CONH2Trig. 3m : R3c
32.15AbelsoniteNi(C31H32N4)Tric. 1 : P1

Other InformationHide

Special Storage/
Display Requirements:
Stable only under very arid conditions.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for UreaHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Wohler, M.F. (1828) Artificial formation of urea. The Philosophical Magazine: 4: 309-310.
Worsham, J., Levy, H., Peterson, S. (1957) The positions of hydrogen atoms in urea by neutron diffraction. Acta Crystallographica: 10: 319-323.
Bridge, P.J. (1973) Urea, a new mineral, and neotype phosphammite from Western Australia. Mineralogical Magazine: 39: 346–348.
Fleischer, M. (1974) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 59: 873-875.
Pryor, A.W., Sanger, P.L. (1970) Collection and interpretation of neutron diffraction measurements on urea. Acta Crystallographica: A26: 543-558.
Mullen, H.E (1978) A simple refinement of density distributions of bonding electrons. V. Bond electron density distribution in Urea, CO(NH2)2, at 123 K. Acta Crystallographica: B34: 1624-1627.
Swaminathan, S., Craven, B.M. (1984) The crystal structure and molecular thermal motion of urea at 12, 60 and 123 K from neutron diffraction. Acta Crystallographica: B40: 300-306.
Acta Crystallographica (1999).

Internet Links for UreaHide

Localities for UreaHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia (TL)
  • Western Australia
    • Laverton Shire
      • Lake Rason
Mineralogical Magazine (1973): 39: 346-348.
Saudi Arabia
  • Mintaqah Makkah
Saudi Geological Survey Open-File Report SGS-OF-2004-12, 68 p.
United Arab Emirates
  • Fujayrah Emirate (Fujairah)
Audra, P., Bosák, P., Gázquez, F., Cailhol, D., Skála, R., Lisá, L., ... & Zupan Hajna, N. (2017). Bat urea-derived minerals in arid environment. First identification of allantoin, C 4 H 6 N 4 O 3, in Kahf Kharrat Najem Cave, United Arab Emirates. International Journal of Speleology, 46(1), 9.
  • Arizona
    • La Paz Co.
      • Buckskin Mts
        • Santa Maria District (Planet District; Swansea District; Bill Williams District)
          • Planet
A.R. Kampf
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