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Orange-red, red-brown, brown, bright red, yellow, whitish; pale straw-yellow; colourless or weakly tinted in transmitted light.
Sub-Adamantine, Resinous
2½ - 3
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
The name reflects its vanadium content.
Isostructural with:
Apatite Group. Apatite Supergroup. The vanadate analogue of Mimetite and Pyromorphite. Forms solid solutions with Mimetite and Pyromorphite. Forms a series toward Mimetite up to approximately V:As = 1:1 (Mimetite-Vanadinite Series), and a very limited series toward Pyromorphite.

Vanadinite is a secondary lead chlorovanadate. It is almost always found in the oxidation zone of lead deposits in arid climates resulting from the alteration of vanadiferous sulphides and silicates of the gangue and wall rocks.

First discovered by Señor A.M. del Rio (1764-1849), Professor, School of Mines of Mexico, Zimapan, before the element vanadium was discovered in 1830.

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Classification of VanadiniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

B : Phosphates, etc., with additional anions, without H2O
N : With only large cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 0.33:1

8 : A5(XO4)3Zq

22 : Phosphates, Arsenates or Vanadates with other Anions
2 : Phosphates, arsenates or vanadates with chloride

Pronounciation of VanadiniteHide

PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of VanadiniteHide

Sub-Adamantine, Resinous
Transparent, Translucent, Opaque
Orange-red, red-brown, brown, bright red, yellow, whitish; pale straw-yellow; colourless or weakly tinted in transmitted light.
May exhibit zoned colouration due to varying composition.
White to pale yellow and light brownish yellow
2½ - 3 on Mohs scale
None Observed
Irregular/Uneven, Conchoidal
6.88 g/cm3 (Measured)    6.95 g/cm3 (Calculated)
Density decreases with the substitution of Ca for Pb; reported values range between ~6.5 to 7.1.

Optical Data of VanadiniteHide

Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 2.416 nε = 2.350
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.066
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Visible in tinted material in transmitted light.

Chemical Properties of VanadiniteHide

Common Impurities:

Crystallography of VanadiniteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
6/m - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 10.3174 Å, c = 7.3378 Å
a:c = 1 : 0.711
Unit Cell V:
676.45 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Well developed hexagonal prisms [0001] with smooth faces and sharp edges; commonly cavernous, also acicular, hairlike, fibrous, rounded, globular, skeletalized. Crystals may exhibit concentric zones of varying composition.

Crystallographic forms of VanadiniteHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Vanadinite no.1 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Vanadinite no.2 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Vanadinite no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by

Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Type Occurrence of VanadiniteHide

Synonyms of VanadiniteHide

Other Language Names for VanadiniteHide

Varieties of VanadiniteHide

Arsenatian VanadiniteApatite Supergroup , Pyromorphite Subgroup.
A variety of Vanadinite containing arsenic in substitution for V up to As:V = 1:1, an intermediate between Vanadinite and Mimetite in composition (Mimetite-Vanadinite Series).
Cuprian Vanadinite

Relationship of Vanadinite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
AlforsiteBa5(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
ChlorapatiteCa5(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)Hex. 6/m : P63/m
JohnbaumiteCa5(AsO4)3OHHex. 6/m : P63/m
MimetitePb5(AsO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
PieczkaiteMn5(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
StronadelphiteSr5(PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
SvabiteCa5(AsO4)3FHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
Unnamed (F-analogue of Pyromorphite)Pb5(PO4)3F
Unnamed (OH-analogue of Mimetite)Pb5(AsO4)3(OH)
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Baryte608 photos of Vanadinite associated with Baryte on
Calcite231 photos of Vanadinite associated with Calcite on
Descloizite192 photos of Vanadinite associated with Descloizite on
Goethite149 photos of Vanadinite associated with Goethite on
Mottramite95 photos of Vanadinite associated with Mottramite on
Wulfenite91 photos of Vanadinite associated with Wulfenite on
Mimetite40 photos of Vanadinite associated with Mimetite on
Manganese Oxides39 photos of Vanadinite associated with Manganese Oxides on
Quartz36 photos of Vanadinite associated with Quartz on
Siderite32 photos of Vanadinite associated with Siderite on

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

8.BN.05AlforsiteBa5(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05Belovite-(Ce)NaCeSr3(PO4)3FTrig. 3 : P3
8.BN.05Carbonate-rich FluorapatiteCa5(PO4,CO3)3(F,O)Hex.
8.BN.05Carbonate-rich HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4,CO3)3(OH,O)Hex.
8.BN.05ChlorapatiteCa5(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05Mimetite-MPb5(AsO4)3ClMon. 2/m : P21/b
8.BN.05Johnbaumite-MCa5(AsO4)3OHMon. 2/m : P21/m
8.BN.05FluorapatiteCa5(PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05HedyphaneCa2Pb3(AsO4)3ClHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
8.BN.05HydroxylapatiteCa5(PO4)3(OH)Hex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05JohnbaumiteCa5(AsO4)3OHHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05MimetitePb5(AsO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05FluorstrophiteSrCaSr3(PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05SvabiteCa5(AsO4)3FHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
8.BN.05Belovite-(La)NaLaSr3(PO4)3FTrig. 3 : P3
8.BN.05FluorcaphiteSrCaCa3(PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05Kuannersuite-(Ce)NaCeBa3(PO4)3F0.5Cl0.5Trig. 3 : P3
8.BN.05Hydroxylapatite-MCa5(PO4)3OHMon. 2/m : P21/b
8.BN.05PhosphohedyphaneCa2Pb3(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05StronadelphiteSr5(PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05FluorphosphohedyphaneCa2Pb3(PO4)3FHex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.05Carlgieseckeite-(Nd)NaNdCa3(PO4)3FTrig. 3 : P3
8.BN.05Miyahisaite(Sr,Ca)2Ba3(PO4)3F Hex. 6/m : P63/m
8.BN.10ArctiteNa2Ca4(PO4)3FTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide 6/m : P63/m 6/m : P63/m 6/m : P63/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

22.2.1SampleiteNaCaCu5(PO4)4Cl · 5H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmmm
22.2.2LavendulanNaCaCu5(AsO4)4Cl · 5H2OMon. 2/m
22.2.3ChlorapatiteCa5(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
22.2.5ShubnikoviteCa2Cu8(AsO4)6(OH)Cl · 7H2O
22.2.6RichelsdorfiteCa2Cu5Sb(AsO4)4(OH)6Cl · 6H2OMon. 2/m
22.2.7AlforsiteBa5(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
22.2.9PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
22.2.10MimetitePb5(AsO4)3ClHex. 6/m : P63/m
22.2.11Mimetite-MPb5(AsO4)3ClMon. 2/m : P21/b
22.2.16LeningraditePbCu3(VO4)2ClOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Ibam
22.2.17HedyphaneCa2Pb3(AsO4)3ClHex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
22.2.18NealitePb4Fe2+(As3+O3)2Cl4 · 2H2OTric. 1 : P1

Other InformationHide

Readily soluble in HNO3 to a yellow solution; soluble in HCl to a green solution with the deposition of lead chloride.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for VanadiniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Brongniart, A. (1807) Traité élémentaire de minéralogie, 2 volumes, 8vo, Paris: 2: 204 (as Chromate de plomb brun).
Rose (1833) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 29: 455 (as Vanadinbleierz).
Kobell, Fr. Von (1838) Grundzüge der Mineralogie. Nürnberg: 283 (as Vanadinit).
Vrba (1880) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 4: 353.
Frenzel (1881) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 3: 505.
Silliman (1881) American Journal of Science: 22: 198.
Döring (1883) Bol. ac. cienc. Córdoba: 5: 498.
Genth (1885) Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society: 22: 365.
Penfield (1886) American Journal of Science: 32: 441.
Goldschmidt (1900) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 32: 561 (Jannasch analysis).
Bowman (1903) Mineralogical Magazine: 13: 324.
Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 71.
Wagner and Marchand (1921) Transactions of the Geological Society of South Africa: 23: 59.
Goldschmidt, V. (1923) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 9: 49.
Barthoux (1924) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 47: 36.
Hintze, Carl (1924) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [4A]: 618.
Comucci (1926) Reale accademia nazionale dei Lincei, Rome. Att., [6]: 3: 335.
Lietz (1931) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 77: 454.
Hendricks, Jefferson, and Mosley (1932) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie, Leipzig: 81: 352.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 895-898.
Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) New Occurrences of Vanadium Minerals (Mottramite, Descloizite, and Vanadinite) in the Caldbeck Area of Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 31, n° 235: 289-295.
Baker, W. E. (1966) An X-ray diffraction study of synthetic members of the pyromorphite series. American Mineralogist 51, 1712-1721.
Canadian Mineralogist (1989): 27: 189.
Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., and Nichols, M.C. (2000) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume IV. Arsenates, Phosphates, Vanadates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 680pp.: 616.
Laufek, F., Skála, R., Haloda, J., Cisařová, I. (2006) Crystal structure of vanadinite: Refinement of anisotropic displacement parameters. Journal of the Czech Geological Society, 51(3-4), 271-275.
Mikio Masaoka & Atsushi Kyono (2006) Single crystal growth of lead vanado-chlorapatite Pb5(VO4)3Cl using CsCl flux method. Materials Letters, 60, 3922-3926.

Internet Links for VanadiniteHide

Localities for VanadiniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListShow

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