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Waxy, Earthy
6 - 6½
Named after Nicolas Varlamoff, born April 12th 1910 in Stanitza Krasnokoudkaya ( S-Russia) and died in Brazila April 10th 1976. Became a Belgian citizen in 1951 and worked in DRCongo in tin and tungsten exploration, later for the UN.
Originally inadequately described from Cerro Rico, Potosi, Bolivia, as "Souxite" by Dr Roberto Herzenberg, who discovered that some of the secondary tin oxide resulting from the oxidation of tin-rich sulphosalts was soluble in acids and therefore was not cassiterite. Better studied material was later re-described as "Varlamoffite", which some considered to be merely a variety of Cassiterite - although it is probably not.

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Classification of VarlamoffiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959), Questionable

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
B : With medium-sized cations; chains of edge-sharing octahedra

4 : AX2

Physical Properties of VarlamoffiteHide

Waxy, Earthy
Light yellow
6 - 6½ on Mohs scale

Chemical Properties of VarlamoffiteHide


Type Occurrence of VarlamoffiteHide

Synonyms of VarlamoffiteHide

Other Language Names for VarlamoffiteHide

Simplified Chinese:水锡石

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Turquoise12 photos of Varlamoffite associated with Turquoise on
Kesterite 11 photos of Varlamoffite associated with Kesterite on
Muscovite9 photos of Varlamoffite associated with Muscovite on
Wavellite7 photos of Varlamoffite associated with Wavellite on
Cassiterite5 photos of Varlamoffite associated with Cassiterite on
Mushistonite4 photos of Varlamoffite associated with Mushistonite on
Wolframite3 photos of Varlamoffite associated with Wolframite on
Malachite3 photos of Varlamoffite associated with Malachite on
Goshenite3 photos of Varlamoffite associated with Goshenite on
Amblygonite2 photos of Varlamoffite associated with Amblygonite on

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.DB.05ArgutiteGeO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DB.05CassiteriteSnO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DB.05PlattneritePbO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m)
4.DB.05PyrolusiteMnO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DB.05RutileTiO2Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DB.10ByströmiteMgSb2O6Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P4/nmm
4.DB.10Tapiolite-(Fe)(Fe,Mn)(Ta,Nb)2O6Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DB.10Tapiolite-(Mn)(Mn,Fe)(Ta,Nb)2O6Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : P42/mnm
4.DB.15bAkhtenskiteε-Mn4+O2Hex. 6/mmm (6/m 2/m 2/m) : P63/mmc
4.DB.15aRamsdelliteMn4+O2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.DB.25Samarskite-(Y)(Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.25SrilankiteZrTi2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.25Samarskite-(Yb)(Yb,Y,Fe3+,Fe2+,U,Th,Ca)2(Nb,Ta)2O8Mon. 2/m : P2/b
4.DB.30FerberiteFeWO4Mon. 2/m : P2/b
4.DB.30HübneriteMnWO4Mon. 2/m : P2/b
4.DB.30Sanmartinite(Zn,Fe)WO4Mon. 2/m : P21/b
4.DB.30HeftetjerniteScTaO4Mon. 2/m
4.DB.30HuanzalaiteMgWO4Mon. 2/m : P2/b
4.DB.35Columbite-(Fe)FeNb2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Fe)FeTa2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.35Columbite-(Mn)(Mn,Fe)(Nb,Ta)2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Mn)MnTa2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
4.DB.35Tantalite-(Mg)(Mg,Fe2+)(Ta,Nb)2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.DB.50Carmichaelite(Ti,Cr,Fe)[O2-x(OH)x]Mon. 2/m : P21/b
4.DB.55AlumotantiteAlTaO4Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for VarlamoffiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
American Mineralogist (1949): 34: 618.
Mineralogicheskii Zhurnal, Kiev (1993): 15: 94-101.
American Mineralogist (1995): 80: 850.

Internet Links for VarlamoffiteHide

Localities for VarlamoffiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Tamanghasset Province
    • Ahaggar Mtn (Hoggar Mtn)
  • New South Wales
    • Cowper Co.
      • Doradilla
Burton, G.R., Trigg, S.J., Black, L.P. (2007) A Middle Triassic age for felsic intrusions and associated mineralisation in the Doradilla prospect area, New South Wales. Quarterly Notes Geological Survey of New South Wales No. 125.
  • Upper Austria
    • Mühlviertel
      • Perg
        • St Georgen an der Gusen
Brandstetter, G. & M. Reich (1998): Luftenberg - eine bedeutende Pegmatitmineralisation in Oberösterreich. OÖ. Geonachr. 13, 11-25; Brandstetter, G. & Reich, M. (1999): Luftenberg - eine bedeutende Pegmatitmineralisation in Oberösterreich. Mineralien-Welt 10 (3), 12-18.
  • Oruro Department
    • Poopó Province
      • Pazña
        • Monserrat-Antequera district
Kempff, O., Paar, W.H., Tawackoli, S.: "Minerales de Bolivia", 115pp (La Paz, 2009)
Kempff, O., Paar, W.H., Tawackoli, S.: "Minerales de Bolivia", 115pp (La Paz, 2009)
  • Potosí Department
    • Potosí City
Am. Min. 32, 372 (1947)
    • Sud Chichas Province
      • Atocha-Quechisla District
        • Cerro Chorolque
Dr Fritz Berndt collection and wet chemistry analysis (1950s); Salomon Rivas y Federico Ahlfeld (1998) Los Minerales de Bolivia y sus Parajes. (Santa Cruz)
  • Guangdong Province
    • Heyuan Prefecture
      • Lianping Co.
Lianshun Feng (1986): Geology and Prospecting 22(3), 21-27
    • Shaoguan Prefecture
      • Lechang Co.
Yile Xu and Zuoyou Hu (1985): Geology and Prospecting 21(4), 25-27
  • Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
    • Guilin Prefecture
      • Gongcheng Co.
Chujun Deng, Xuezheng Chen, Jinding Liu, Yulin Zhou, Suju Zhang, and Peicheng Chen (1982): Acta Petrologica Mineralogica et Analytica 1(3), 31-36
    • Liuzhou Prefecture
      • Rongshui Co.
        • Yuanbao Mts (Yuanbaoshan)
Lijun Zhu (1989): Journal of Guizhou Institute of Technology 18(3), 52-59; Lijun Zhu (1991): Journal of Guizhou Institute of Technology 20(3), 17-25
  • Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
    • Ulanhad League (Chifeng Prefecture)
      • Hexigten Banner (Keshiketeng Co.)
Zhenhua Zhou, Aishun Wang, and Tao Li (2011): Mineral Deposits 30(5), 867-889; Zhenhua Zhou, Aishun Wang, and Tao Li (2011): Mineral Deposits 30(5), 867-889; Ottens, B., and Neumeier , G. (2012): Mineralogical Record 43, 529-563
  • Yunnan Province
    • Honghe Autonomous Prefecture
      • Gejiu Co.
        • Gejiu Sn-polymetallic ore field
Chen, J., Halls, C., and Stanley, C.J. (1992): Chinese Journal of Geochemistry 11(2), 140-155.
Mingxiu Wei (1985): Geochimica 15(1), 37-44; Chengdian Pen (1986): Mineral Deposits 5(3), 37-48
    • Wenshan Autonomous Prefecture
      • Maguan Co.
        • Dulong ore field
Kaiji Yu (1984): Geology and Prospecting 20(11), 1-8
Kaiji Yu (1984): Geology and Prospecting 20(11), 1-8
Czech Republic
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Karlovy Vary Region
      • Horní Slavkov (Schlaggenwald)
        • Krásno (Schönfeld)
Sejkora, J. & Tvrdý, J. (2009): Seltene und neue Mineralien aus den Zinnlagerstätten des Erzreviers Horni Slavkov. Lapis 34 (7-8), 53-62; 70 (in German).
Sejkora, J. & Tvrdý, J. (2009): Seltene und neue Mineralien aus den Zinnlagerstätten des Erzreviers Horni Slavkov. Lapis 34 (7-8), 53-62; 70 (in German).
  • Moravia (Mähren; Maehren)
    • Vysočina Region
      • Třebíč District
        • Třebíč
Škoda, R. & Čopjaková, R. (2006) Herzenbergite And Sn-bearing Tinzenite From The NYF Pegmatite In Třebíč Pluton, Moldanubicum, Czech Republic. Acta Miner.-Petrograph.,Abstract Series 5, Szeged, p.107
Democratic Republic of Congo (Zaïre)
  • Kivu
Niggli, E. (1952). Untersuchungen an Varlamoffit. Leidse Geologische Mededelingen, 17(1), 207-214.
  • Maniema
[Clark, 1993 - "Hey's Mineral Index"]
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Allier
      • Ébreuil
        • Échassières
G. Aubert : "Les coupoles granitiques de Montebras et d'Echassières (Massif Central Français) et la genèse de leur minéralisations (BRGM, 1969)
  • Nouvelle-Aquitaine
    • Creuse
      • Soumans
        • Montebras
Patrice Queneau Collection
    • Haute-Vienne
      • Nantiat
        • Vaulry
          • Vaulry Mines
Collected by Michel Blondieau
P. Devismes : "Atlas photographique des minéraux d'alluvions", BRGM, 1978.
  • Pays de la Loire
    • Loire-Atlantique
P. Devismes : "Atlas photographique des minéraux d'alluvions", BRGM, 1978.
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Black Forest
      • Wolfach
        • Oberwolfach
          • Rankach valley
BLAß, G. & GRAF, H. W. (1996): Neue Mineralienfunde aus dem Siegerland und von der Grube Clara im Schwarzwald. - Mineralien-Welt 7 (4), 14-16 (in German); WALENTA, K. (1997): Neue Mineralfunde von der Grube Clara 7. Folge. - Lapis 22 (11), 37-47. (in German)
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Sauerland
      • Iserlohn
        • Letmathe
Schnorrer-Köhler, G. (1986) Neue Minerale von der Schlackenhalde der ehemaligen Zinkhütte Genna in Letmathe/Sauerland. Aufschluss 37 (2), 55-67.; Bender/Marl, D. & Krimmelbein/Altena, W. (1994) Aktuelle Übersicht: Mineralien der Zinkhütte Genna/Sauerland. Stand Juni 1994. Mineralien-Welt, 4/94, 10.
  • Honshu Island
    • Kinki Region
      • Kyoto Prefecture
        • Kameoka City
Matsubara, S. (2002) Catalogue of Japanese Minerals (National Science Museum)
  • Kyushu Region
    • Oita Prefecture
      • Bungo-Ohno City
University of Tokyo collection
  • Issyk-Kul'skaya Oblast
    • Inyl'chek Range
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow; Fleischer M, Cabri L J, Chao G Y, Mandarino J A, Pabst A (1982) New mineral names. American Mineralogist 67, 1074-1082
  • Dornogovi Aimag
    • Modotin
Petr Paulis, Die Zinn-Wolfram Lagerstätte Modoto (Bajan Mod) in der Mongolei, Mineralien Welt 6/95 p47-55
  • Fès-Meknès Region
    • Meknès Prefecture
      • Meknès
        • El Hammam (El Hamman)
Ph. M. Sonnet : "Burtite, Calcium Hexahydrostannate, a New Mineral from El Hamman, Central Morocco", Canadian Mineralogist, Vol. 19, 1981, pp. 397-401.
Econ Geol (1989) 84:575-590
  • Kunene Region
    • Damaraland District
Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2007): Namibia. Mineralien und Fundstellen. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag, Haltern: 417 (in English).
- Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2007): Namibia. Mineralien und Fundstellen. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag, Haltern, 411 pp. (in English)
  • Vila Real District
    • Peso da Régua
      • Poiares
de Sousa, M. B.; Ramos, J. M. Farinha (1987): Mineralogy and geology of the tin-mineralized veins of the Figueiral Valley ( Covelinhas , Peso de Regua, northeastern Portugal). Memorias e Noticias, Publicacoes do Museu e Laboratorio Mineralogico e Geologico da Universidade de Coimbra 103, 13-32 (in Portuguese).
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
      • Verkhoyansk
        • Yana River Basin
          • Yana-Adycha Region
            • Arga-Ynnakh-Khaya granite Massif
Pavel M. Kartashov analytical data
      • Verkhoyansk Fold Belt
        • Verkhoyansk Silver Province
          • Deputatsky ore cluster
Zhdanov Yu.Ya., Solov'ev L.I. (1998): Geology and mineralogical composition of the oxidized zone in the Deputatsk tin ore deposit. Otechestvennaya Geol. (6), 77-79 (in Russian).
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Primorskiy Kray
      • Kavalerovo Mining District
        • Karadubsky ore field
N.V., Gorelikova analytical data
Gonevchuk, V. G., Korostelev, P. G., & Semenyak, B. I. (2005). Genesis of the Tigrinoe tin deposit (Russia). Geology Of Ore Deposits C/C Of Geologiia Rudnykh Mestorozhdenii, 47(3), 223.
Saudi Arabia
  • Mintaqah Ha'il
Economic Geology (1996) 91:1414-1434
  • Castile and Leon
    • Salamanca
      • Golpejas-Vega de Tirados
        • Golpejas Mining group
Calvo, M. (2009): Minerales y Minas de España. Vol. IV, Óxidos e Hidróxidos. Escuela Técnica Superior de Ingenieros de Minas de Madrid - Fundación Gómez Pardo. 752 pp.
  • Viloyati Sogd (Viloyati Sughd; Viloyati Khodzhent; Viloyati Leninabad)
    • Zeravshan Range
      • Pendzhikent (Penjikent; Panjakent)
        • Kaznok Valley
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • Callington District
        • Calstock
          • Gunnislake
            • Clitters United Mines
No reference listed
Richard De Nul photo
Golley, P., and Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.; Weiss, S., Green, D.H., Hooper, J.J., and Elton, N. (2007): Lapis 32(11), 13-25
        • Stoke Climsland
          • Callington
            • Kit Hill United Mines (incl. Kit Hill Great Consols)
Golley, P., and Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 105 pp.
      • Gwennap CP
        • Redruth
          • St Day
Dale Foster Collection
      • Mount's Bay District
        • St Hilary
Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
      • St Agnes District
        • Perranzabuloe
          • Perranporth
Golley, P., and Williams, R. (1995): Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications (Truro), 104 pp.; Weiß, S., Merry, M. & Ansermet, S. (2017): Neufunde aus Cornwall: Cannonit, Arthurit, Auriacusit. Lapis, 42 (1), 20-23; 62 (in German).
Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
        • St Agnes
          • West Wheal Kitty group
No reference listed
      • St Austell District
        • Bodmin
          • Lanivet
            • Mulberry Downs
Goley, P. and Williams R. (1995) Cornish Mineral Reference Manual. Endsleigh Publications
        • Treverbyn
          • Stenalees
Leon Hupperichs collection
Williamson, B.J., Stanley, C.J., and Wilkinson, J.J. (1997): Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology 127, 119-128.; Barstow, R. W. (1982). Variscite from Hensbarrow china clay works, St. Austell, Cornwall. Mineralogical magazine, 46, 512.
      • St Day
No reference listed
  • Colorado
    • Park Co.
      • Lake George (Badger Flats) Beryllium Area (Mountain Dale)
Jim Hall
  • New Mexico
    • Catron Co.
      • Taylor Creek District
        • Sawmill Creek
NMGS 37th Field Conference
  • South Dakota
    • Pennington Co.
      • Keystone District
        • Keystone
Rocks & Minerals: 57: 160 &/or 60: 110 & 112.
John R. Ydren collection
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