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Vauquelinite

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About VauqueliniteHide

04285200014946954601105.jpg
Louis Nicolas Vauquelin
Formula:
Pb2Cu(CrO4)(PO4)(OH)
Colour:
Olive-green, apple-green, brown to nearly black
Lustre:
Adamantine, Resinous
Hardness:
2½ - 3
Specific Gravity:
6.16
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Name:
Named after Louis Nicolas Vauquelin (1763-1829), Professor of Chemistry, University of Paris (France) and discoverer of chromium.
Fornacite-Vauquelinite Series. The phosphate analogue of fornacite.

Related to the Brackebuschite Supergroup.


Classification of VauqueliniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
7.FC.05

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
F : Chromates
C : With PO4, AsO4, SiO4
43.4.3.1

43 : COMPOUND PHOSPHATES, ETC.
4 : Anhydrous Compound Phosphates, etc·, Containing Hydroxyl or Halogen
22.5.1

22 : Phosphates, Arsenates or Vanadates with other Anions
5 : Phosphates, arsenates or vanadates with chromate, molybdate, niobate or tantalate

Physical Properties of VauqueliniteHide

Adamantine, Resinous
Transparency:
Translucent
Colour:
Olive-green, apple-green, brown to nearly black
Streak:
Greenish or brownish
Hardness:
2½ - 3 on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
6.16 g/cm3 (Measured)    6.16 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of VauqueliniteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 2.110 nβ = 2.220 nγ = 2.220
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.110
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
strong
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X = Light green
Y = Light brown
Z = Light brown
Comments:
2V = near zero.

Chemical Properties of VauqueliniteHide

Formula:
Pb2Cu(CrO4)(PO4)(OH)
IMA Formula:
CuPb2(CrO4)(PO4)(OH)

Crystallography of VauqueliniteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Cell Parameters:
a = 13.754(5) Å, b = 5.806(6) Å, c = 9.563(3) Å
β = 94.55°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 2.369 : 1 : 1.647
Unit Cell V:
761.25 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals commonly minute and frequently wedge-shaped; irregularly aggregated; and mammillary fibrous forms; reniform; botryoidal; granular, compact.
Twinning:
On {102}.

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
Oxidation zone of some hydrothermal deposits.

Type Occurrence of VauqueliniteHide

Synonyms of VauqueliniteHide

Other Language Names for VauqueliniteHide

Relationship of Vauquelinite to other SpeciesHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
85 photos of Vauquelinite associated with CrocoitePbCrO4
17 photos of Vauquelinite associated with PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
7 photos of Vauquelinite associated with EmbreyitePb5(CrO4)2(PO4)2 · H2O
7 photos of Vauquelinite associated with MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
7 photos of Vauquelinite associated with PhoenicochroitePb2(CrO4)O
6 photos of Vauquelinite associated with QuartzSiO2
6 photos of Vauquelinite associated with HemihedritePb10Zn(CrO4)6(SiO4)2(OH)2
5 photos of Vauquelinite associated with CoronaditePb(Mn4+6Mn3+2)O16
4 photos of Vauquelinite associated with Goethiteα-Fe3+O(OH)
4 photos of Vauquelinite associated with Manganese Oxides

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.FC.10FornacitePb2Cu(CrO4)(AsO4)(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
7.FC.10MolybdofornacitePb2Cu(MoO4,CrO4)(AsO4,PO4)(OH)Mon.
7.FC.15HemihedritePb10Zn(CrO4)6(SiO4)2(OH)2Tric.
7.FC.15IranitePb10Cu(CrO4)6(SiO4)2(OH)2Tric.
7.FC.20CassedanneitePb5(CrO4)2(VO4)2 · H2OMon.
7.FC.20EmbreyitePb5(CrO4)2(PO4)2 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

43.4.3.2FornacitePb2Cu(CrO4)(AsO4)(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
43.4.3.3MolybdofornacitePb2Cu(MoO4,CrO4)(AsO4,PO4)(OH)Mon.
43.4.3.4UM1994-19-PO:CuHMoPbPb2Cu(PO4)(MoO4,AsO4,CrO4,GaO4)(OH)

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

22.5.2EmbreyitePb5(CrO4)2(PO4)2 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
22.5.3CassedanneitePb5(CrO4)2(VO4)2 · H2OMon.
22.5.4FornacitePb2Cu(CrO4)(AsO4)(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
22.5.5MolybdofornacitePb2Cu(MoO4,CrO4)(AsO4,PO4)(OH)Mon.
22.5.6Mendozavilite-NaFe[Na2(H2O)15Fe3+(H2O)6][Mo8P2Fe3+3O35(OH)2]Mon. 2/m : B2/m
22.5.7Paramendozavilite[KAl4(H2O)30][Mo12P6Fe3+6O60(OH)13]Mon.
22.5.8Betpakdalite-CaCa[Ca2(H2O)17Ca(H2O)6][Mo6+8As5+2Fe3+3O36(OH)]Mon. 2/m : B2/m
22.5.9Betpakdalite-NaCa[Na2(H2O)17Ca(H2O)6][Mo6+8As5+2Fe3+3O34(OH)3]Mon. 2/m : B2/m
22.5.10Obradovicite-KCu[K2(H2O)17Cu(H2O)6][Mo8As2Fe3+3O34(OH)3]Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmna
22.5.11Melkovite[Ca2(H2O)15Ca(H2O)6][Mo8P2Fe3+3O36(OH)]Mon. 2/m : B2/m
22.5.12RankachiteCa0.5(V4+,V5+)(W6+,Fe3+)2O8(OH) · 2H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
22.5.13OlmsteaditeKFe2+2(Nb5+,Ta5+)(PO4)2O2 · 2H2OOrth.
22.5.14JohnwalkiteK(Mn2+,Fe2+,Fe3+)2(Nb5+,Ta5+)(PO4)2O2 · 2(H2O,OH)Orth.

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Partially soluble in HNO3.

Reported as an alteration product of pyromorphite and as incrustation pseudomorphs after dolomite.
Health Risks:
Contains lead and chromium. Do not inhale dust and wash hands after handling.

References for VauqueliniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Berzelius (1818) Afhandlingar I Fysik, Kemi och Mineralogi, Stockholm: 6: 246 (as Vauqueline).
Berzelius, J.J. (1819) Nouveau système de Minèralogie. Translated from the Swedish. 8vo, Paris: 202.
Haüy, R.J. (1822) Traité de minéralogie. second edition, 4 volumes, with fol. Atlas: 3: 363 (as Plomb chromé).
Haidinger (1827) Edinburgh Journal of Science: 7: 213.
Phillips, Wm., augmented by Allan, R. (1837) Mineralogy, Fourth edition London: 369 (as Chromate of Lead and Copper).
John (1845) Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie, Heidelberg, Stuttgart: 67 (as Chromphosphokupferbleispath).
Blum, J.R. (1863) Die Pseudomorphosen des Mineralreichs. Stuttgart, nachträge 3, Erlangen: 197.
Nordenskiöld (1867) Ak. Stockholm, Őfv.: 24: 655 (as Laxmannite).
Nordenskiöld (1869) Annalen der Physik, Halle, Leipzig: 137: 299 (as Laxmannite).
Hermann (1870) Journal für praktische Chemie, Leipzig: 1: 196, 447 (as Phosphorchromit).
Davies (1877) Mineralogical Magazine: 1: 112.
Koksharov, N. von (1878) Materialien zur Mineralogie Russlands. 11 volumes with atlas: vol. 8: 345.
Pisani (1880) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 3: 196.
Des Cloizeaux (1882) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 5: 53.
Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 916.
Lacroix, A. (1910) Minéralogie de la France et des ses colonies, Paris. 5 volumes: vol. 4: 448.
Petterd, W.F. (1910) Catalogue of the Minerals of Tasmania. 221pp., Hobart: 196.
Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 153.
Goldschmidt, V. (1923) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text, Heidelberg: vol. 9: 54.
Chirva (1935) Annals Leningrad State University, Series Geology: 1: 19 [Min. Abs.: 7: 460].
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 650-652.
Zeitschrift für Kristallographie (1968): 126: 433.
Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie (1980): 103: 469.

Internet Links for VauqueliniteHide

Localities for VauqueliniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Yancowinna Co.
      • Broken Hill district
        • Broken Hill
          • Broken Hill South Mine (BHS Mine; South Mine)
Australian Min. 3:1 (1997)
  • South Australia
    • Eyre Peninsula
      • Middleback Range
        • Iron Knob
Australian Jour.Min. v.6, no. 1
  • Western Australia
    • Roebourne Shire
      • Whim Creek
P. Downes, J. Bevan & A. Bevan (1998) - Minerals of the Whim Creek copper mine, Western Australia - Australian Journal of Mineralogy, Vol. 4, N°1, pp 13-29
Austria
 
  • Carinthia
    • Sankt Veit an der Glan District
      • Tauchendorf
        • Grassendorf
G. Blass, H. W. Graf: Carinthia II 191./111.:145-147 (2001)
Brazil
 
  • Minas Gerais
Hintze: Handbuch der Mineralogie
Eberhard Reich info taken from old specimen label.
DR Congo
 
  • Haut-Katanga
    • Kipushi
Piret, P., Deliens, M., & Piret-Meunier, J. (1985). Occurrence and crystal structure of kipushite, a new copper-zinc phosphate from Kipushi, Zaire. Canadian Mineralogist, 23, 35-42.
  • Lualaba
    • Kolwezi mining district
      • Kolwezi
Handbook of Mineralogy.; Deliens, M. (1996) Overzicht van de mineralogie van de koper-, kobalt- en uraniumvoorkomens in Zuid-Shaba (Zaïre). Pages 35-49 in: Schatten der Aarde. Van mineraal tot juweel. Tentoonstelling in de abdij Saint-Gérard de Brogne van 27 april tot 27 oktober 1996. Catalogus opgemaakt onder de leiding van R. Warin, AGAB en P. Van hee, MKA (in Dutch).; Wilson, W.E. (2018) The Musonoi mine, Kolwezi District, Lualaba Province, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Mineralogical Record, 49(2), 236-304.
France
 
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Puy-de-Dôme
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 651.
  • Grand Est
    • Haut-Rhin
      • Colmar-Ribeauvillé
        • Ste Marie-aux-Mines
Wittern, Journée: "Mineralien finden in den Vogesen", von Loga (Cologne), 1997
  • Nouvelle-Aquitaine
    • Dordogne
      • Nontron
Queneau Patrice Collection
Germany
 
  • Baden-Württemberg
    • Freiburg
      • Ortenaukreis
        • Oberwolfach
Kolitsch, U. & Götzinger, M. (2000): Einige Neufunde aus der Grube Clara im mittleren Schwarzwald: Eulytin, Namibit, Volborthit, Gearksutit, Spertiniit, Monazit-(La), Protasit, Sainfeldit, Cyanotrichit und Vauquelinit. Erzgräber 14, 33-47. (in German)
  • Hesse
    • Darmstadt
      • Bergstraße
        • Bensheim
          • Gronau
PETITJEAN collection
        • Lautertal (Odenwald)
          • Raidelbach
            • Katzenstein
O Dziallas collection
          • Reichenbach
            • Borstein
Collection of Steffen Michalski, ex-collection and collected by Klaus PETITJEAN
Collection of Steffen Michalski, ex-collection and collected by Klaus PETITJEAN;
            • Hohenstein
Collection of Steffen Michalski, ex-collection and collected by Klaus PETITJEAN
Lapis 25(2), 21 (2000)
Lapis 25(2), 13-30 (2000)
Collection of Steffen Michalski, ex-collection and collected by Klaus PETITJEAN
Lapis, 12 (10), 23-32+ 58.
Collection of Steffen Michalski, ex-collection and collected by Klaus PETITJEAN
            • Teufelsstein
Collection of Steffen Michalski, ex-collection and collected by Klaus PETITJEAN
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Cologne
      • Rheinisch-Bergischer Kreis
        • Gummersbach
          • Niedergelpe
Weiss, S. (1990) Mineralfundstellen Atlas, Deutschland West. Weise Verlag, München, 320 pages.
  • Saxony
    • Vogtlandkreis
      • Bösenbrunn
        • Schönbrunn
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
    • Zwickau
      • Glauchau
        • Callenberg
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
Greece
 
  • Attica
    • East Attica
      • Lavreotiki
        • Lavrion Mining District
          • Lophos
            • Agrileza mines
Wendel, W. & Markl, G. (1996): Eine Antimonit-Paragenese und weitere Neufunde aus Lavrion. Lapis, 21 (11), 40-42; 62; Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
Hungary
 
  • Fejér County
    • Szabadbattyán
Japan
 
  • Hyogo Prefecture
    • Yabu City
      • Oya-cho
http://staff.aist.go.jp/miyagi.iso14000/Works/Review/coop/0028/874.html (Dr. Takashi Yamada lecture to the Mineralogical Society)
Kazakhstan
 
  • Karaganda Region
    • Karkaraly
Pavel M. Kartashov data
    • Shet
Pavel M. Kartashov data
Namibia
 
  • Otjozondjupa Region
    • Omatako
Bezing, L. von, Bode, R. & Jahn, S. (2007): Namibia. Minerals and Localities. Edition Schloss Freudenstein, Bode Verlag, Haltern, 369 pp. (in English)
Russia
 
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
    • Verkhny Ufaley
Sehrig, M. (2012): Krokoit aus dem Ural - nicht nur aus Beresovka. Lapis, 37 (12), 30-31 (in German).
      • Ufaley District (Ufalei District)
Local geolofist S.V.Kolesnichenko data
  • Sverdlovsk Oblast
    • Beryozovsky
No reference listed
American Mineralogist, Volume 88, pages 475–479, 2003
Pavel M. Kartashov data
        • Uspenskaya Mt
Pavel M. Kartashov data
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 651.; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    • Yekaterinburg
      • Verkhniya Pyshma District
Dmitry A. Khanin, PhD
South Africa
 
  • Mpumalanga
    • Nkangala District
      • Delmas
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
Gulyaeva et al, Mineralogical Magazine 50:728-730 (1986)
  • North West
    • Bojanala Platinum District
      • Rustenburg (Rustenburg District)
        • Olifantspoort Farm
Reeks, G. (2007) Olifantspoort Mine, Olifantspoort, Northern Province. South African Micromount Society newsletter: 33(3); Wight, Q. (2002). Through the'Scope: The Year in Micromounting: 2001 Was a Year of Change. Rocks & Minerals, 77(3), 181-189.
UK
 
  • England
    • Cornwall
      • Lezant
Famous British Mineral Localities: Greystone Quarry, Lezant, Cornwall. N Elton, D Green, J Hooper & S Weiss. UK Journal of Mines & Minerals No 24, 2004, pp 9-28
  • Scotland
    • Dumfries and Galloway
Davies, T. (1877) VI. — Notes on vauquelinite from Scotland, and cantonite from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 1, n° 4, 112-114.; Bannister, F.A. (1933) The identity of mottramite and psittacinite with cupriferous descloizite. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 23, n° 141, 376-386.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) New occurrences of vanadium minerals (mottramite, descloizite, and vanadinite) in the Caldbeck area of Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 31, n° 235, 289-295.
    • South Lanarkshire
Davies, T. (1877) VI.— Notes on vauquelinite from Scotland, and cantonite from Cornwall. Mineralogical Magazine vol. 1, n° 4, 112-114.; Bannister, F.A. (1933) The identity of mottramite and psittacinite with cupriferous descloizite. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 23, n° 141, 376-386.; Kingsbury, A.W.G. and Hartley, J. (1956) New occurrences of vanadium minerals (mottramite, descloizite, and vanadinite) in the Caldbeck area of Cumberland. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 31, n° 235, 289-295 (referring to Davies (1877) and Bannister (1933)).
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise County
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd. ed.: 325, 343, 412.
Raman identification by Dr. Yang, University of Arizona, September 2019. In the Bruce J. Murphy collection.
    • Maricopa Co.
      • Belmont Mountains
        • Wickenburg area
S.A. Williams and J. W. Anthony, Am. Min. v. 55 p. 1088 (1970)
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 412; Silliman (1881); Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 67.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 412; Silliman, B. (1881), Mineralogical Notes, Amer. Jour. Sci.: 22: 198-205; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 67.
      • Osborn Mining District
        • Hummingbird Spring
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 413; Williams, S.A. (1968), Wickenburgite, a new mineral from Arizona, Am.Min.: 53: 1433-1438; Williams, S.A. & J.W. Anthony (1970), Hemihedrite, a new mineral from Arizona, Am.Min.: 55: 1088-1102; Williams, S.A., et al (1970), A study of Phoenichchroite-Its structure and properties, Am.Min.: 55: 784-792.
        • Tonopah
          • Belmont Mountain
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 413; Allen, G.B. & W. Hunt (1988), The Tonopah-Belmont Mine, Maricopa Co., AZ, Min.Rec.: 19(3): 139-144.
      • Vulture Mining District
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 412; Silliman, B. (1881), Mineralogical notes, Amer.Jour.Sci.: 22: 198-205; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 67.
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 413; Williams, S.A. (1968), Wickenburgite, a new mineral from AZ, Am.Min.: 53: 1433-1438; Williams, S.A. & J.W. Anthony (1970), Hemihedrite, a new mineral from AZ, Am.Min.: 55: 1088-1102; Williams, S.A., et al (1970), A study of phoenicochroite-Its structure and properties, Am.Min.:: 55: 784-792.
        • Vulture
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 193, 327, 410, 412; Galbraith, F.W. & D.J. Brennan (1959), Minerals of AZ: 67.
    • Pinal Co.
      • Mammoth Mining District
        • Tiger
          • St. Anthony deposit
PXRD analyzed by Tony Kampf.
      • Tortilla Mountains
        • Ripsey Mining District
          • Ripsey Hill area
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona (1995), 3rd.ed.: 158, 247, 413, 426; Williams, S.A. & J.W. Anthony (1970), Hemihedrite, a new mineral from AZ, Am.Min.: 55: 1088-1102
  • California
    • San Bernardino Co.
      • Silver Lake Mining District
        • Soda Mountains
          • Baker
Kampf, A. R., Mills, S. J., & Housley, R. M. (2010). The crystal structure of munakataite, Pb2Cu2 (Se4+ O3)(SO4)(OH) 4, from Otto Mountain, San Bernardino County, California, USA. Mineralogical Magazine, 74(6), 991-998.
Collected by and in the collection of Brent Thorne.
Joe Marty specimens; EDS and XRD confirmed.
in the collection of Eckhard D. Stuart, SEM by R. Housley
Housley R., pers.comm., May 2017
          • Zzyzx (Fort Soda; Soda; Soda Springs; Zzyzx Mineral Spring Resort)
www.mineralsocal.org
  • Montana
    • Beaverhead Co.
      • Argenta Mining District
        • Argenta
          • Stapleton Gulch
http://www.mineralnews.com/MinNews/MN18-2.html
  • Nevada
    • Clark Co.
      • Spring Mountains
        • Goodsprings Mining District
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Elko Co.
      • Spruce Mountain Mining District
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols; NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
    • Humboldt Co.
      • Iron Point Mining District
        • Valmy
Dr. William Wise presentation to the Northwest Micro MIneral Study Group, 1 May, 2004
    • Nye Co.
      • Toquima Range
        • Belmont Mining District
          • Belmont
NBMG Spec. Pub. 31 Minerals of Nevada
  • New York
    • Westchester Co.
      • Ossining (Sing Sing)
Whitlock, H P (1903) List of New York Mineral localities. New York State Museum.
  • Pennsylvania
    • Lancaster Co.
      • Pequea Township
        • Conestoga
Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 916,1069; Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 652; Rocks & Minerals: 20: 319.
  • Virginia
    • Louisa Co.
      • Gold-Pyrite Belt
Lance E. Kearns and Michael D. Dunn (2008) Mineral News, 24, #8, 1-6.
 
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