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Vernadite

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About VernaditeHide

Vladimir Vernadsky
Formula:
(Mn4+,Fe3+,Ca,Na)(O,OH)2 · nH2O
Colour:
Black
Lustre:
Resinous, Dull
Hardness:
2
Crystal System:
Hexagonal
Name:
Named after Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadskii (Владимира Ивановича Вернадского) (1863-1945), professor of geochemistry, Moscow University (Russia). Founder of the Ukrainian academy of sciences.
According to Giovanoli (1980), vernadite is random-stacked birnessite.

May be confused with feroxyhyte.


Classification of VernaditeHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959), Questionable
4.FE.40

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
F : Hydroxides (without V or U)
E : Hydroxides with OH, without H2O; sheets of edge-sharing octahedra
4.4.9.1

4 : SIMPLE OXIDES
4 : AX2
7.19.4

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
19 : Oxides of Mn and Fe

Physical Properties of VernaditeHide

Resinous, Dull
Colour:
Black
Streak:
Chocolate-brown, black
Hardness:
Cleavage:
None Observed

Chemical Properties of VernaditeHide

Formula:
(Mn4+,Fe3+,Ca,Na)(O,OH)2 · nH2O
IMA Formula:
(Mn,Fe,Ca,Na)(O,OH)2 · nH2O

Crystallography of VernaditeHide

Crystal System:
Hexagonal

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
2.45 (b)
1.42 (b)

Type Occurrence of VernaditeHide

Other Language Names for VernaditeHide

German:Vernadit
Simplified Chinese:水羟锰矿
偏锰酸矿
Spanish:Vernadita

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Buserite1 photo of Vernadite associated with Buserite on mindat.org.
Birnessite1 photo of Vernadite associated with Birnessite on mindat.org.
Serrabrancaite1 photo of Vernadite associated with Serrabrancaite on mindat.org.
Phosphosiderite1 photo of Vernadite associated with Phosphosiderite on mindat.org.
Rockbridgeite1 photo of Vernadite associated with Rockbridgeite on mindat.org.
Todorokite1 photo of Vernadite associated with Todorokite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.FE.05Amakinite(Fe2+,Mg)(OH)2Trig.
4.FE.05BruciteMg(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
4.FE.05PortlanditeCa(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
4.FE.05PyrochroiteMn(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m)
4.FE.05TheophrastiteNi(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
4.FE.10BayeriteAl(OH)3Mon. 2/m : P21/m
4.FE.10DoyleiteAl(OH)3Tric.
4.FE.10GibbsiteAl(OH)3Mon. 2/m
4.FE.10NordstranditeAl(OH)3Tric. 1 : P1
4.FE.15BöhmiteAlO(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
4.FE.15Lepidocrociteγ-Fe3+O(OH)Orth. mm2 : Cmc21
4.FE.20GrimaldiiteCrO(OH)Trig.
4.FE.20HeterogeniteCo3+O(OH)Hex.
4.FE.25FeitknechtiteMn3+O(OH)Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1
4.FE.25Lithiophorite(Al,Li)MnO2(OH)2Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
4.FE.30QuenselitePbMnO2(OH)Mon. 2/m : P2/b
4.FE.35FerrihydriteFe3+10O14(OH)2Trig.
4.FE.40FeroxyhyteFe3+O(OH)Hex.
4.FE.45QuetzalcoatliteZn6Cu3(TeO6)2(OH)6 · AgxPbyClx+2yTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3m1

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.19.1BixbyiteMn3+2O3Iso. m3 (2/m 3) : Ia3
7.19.2JangguniteMn5-x(Mn,Fe)1+xO8(OH)6Orth.
7.19.3JacobsiteMn2+Fe3+2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.19.5GalaxiteMn2+Al2O4Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
7.19.6Filipstadite(Sb0.5Fe0.5)Mn2O4Iso.
7.19.7ManganochromiteMn2+Cr2O4
7.19.8ZenzénitePb3Fe4Mn3O15Hex.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for VernaditeHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Zapiski Vserossiyskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva (1937): 66(4): 703-712.
Betekhtin, A.G. (1944) Genetic types of maganese deposits. Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR: 1944(45): 1-46.
Fleischer, M. (1946) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 31: 85-86.
Fleischer, M., Burns, R.G., Cabri, L.J., Chao, G.Y., Hogarth, D.D., Pabst, A. (1979) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 64: 1329-1334.
Giovanoli, R. (1980) Vernadite is random-stacked birnessite. Mineralium Deposita: 15: 251-253.
Manceau, A., Gorshkov, A.I., Drits,V.A. (1992) Structural chemistry of Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni in manganese hydrous oxides: Part II. Information from EXAFS spectroscopy and electron and X-ray diffraction. Amererican Mineralogist: 77: 1144–1157.
Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR, geologic. seria: 6: 5-19.

Internet Links for VernaditeHide

Localities for VernaditeHide

ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Arctic Ocean
 
Murdmaa, I.O., Bogdanova, O.Y., Gorshkov, A.I., Novikov, G.V. and Shevchenko, V.P. (2000): Lithology and Mineral Resources 35(6), 594-597.
Atlantic Ocean
 
Varentsov, I. M., Drits, V. A., & GORSCHKOV, A. (2009, April). Mineralogy, geochemistry and genesis of manganese-iron crusts on the Bezymiannaya Seamount 640, Cape Verde Plate, Atlantic. In Sediment-Hosted Mineral Deposits: Proceedings of a Symposium Held in Beijing, People's Republic of China, 30 July-4 August 1988 (pp. 89-107). Blackwell Publishing Ltd..
  • Mid-Atlantic Ridge complex
Bogdanov, Y.A., Vikent’ev, I.V., Lein, A.Y., Bogdanova, O.Y., Sagalevich, A.M., and Sivtsov, A.V. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(2), 119-134.
Bogdanov, Y.A., Vikent’ev, I.V., Lein, A.Y., Bogdanova, O.Y., Sagalevich, A.M., and Sivtsov, A.V. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(2), 119-134.
    • Snake Pit hydrothermal field
Bogdanov, Y.A., Vikent’ev, I.V., Lein, A.Y., Bogdanova, O.Y., Sagalevich, A.M., and Sivtsov, A.V. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(2), 119-134.
Bogdanov, Y.A., Vikent’ev, I.V., Lein, A.Y., Bogdanova, O.Y., Sagalevich, A.M., and Sivtsov, A.V. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(2), 119-134.
Australia
 
  • New South Wales
    • Northumberland Co.
      • Woy Woy
        • Woy Woy Peninsula
ENGLAND, B. M. & TURNER, K. E. (1988): An Occurrence of Kolbeckite (Eggonite) ScPO4.2H2O from the Central Coast, New South Wales, Australia. Austral. Mineral. 3(4), 151-156.
  • Northern Territory
    • East Arnhem Region
      • Groote Eylandt
Econ Geol (1996) 91:386-401
Austria
 
  • Burgenland
    • Oberwart
      • Stadtschlaining
Autorenkollektiv (Red. M. A. Götzinger und P. Huber) (2009): Die Mineralien des Burgenlandes - Geologie, Mineralogie und mineralische Rohstoffe. – Wissenschaftliche Arbeiten aus dem Burgenland, Band 126, Amt der Burgenländischen Landesregierung, Abteilung 7 - Landesmuseum, Eisenstadt, 256 S.
Bulgaria
 
  • Balkan Mts (Stara Planina)
Onac, B. P., & Forti, P. (2011). State of the art and challenges in cave minerals studies. Studia UBB Geologia, 56(1), 33-42.
China
 
  • Anhui Province
    • Chizhou Prefecture
      • Guichi District
Jiuling Zhang (1982): Geology and Prospecting 18(2), 26-40
  • Fujian Province
    • Longyan Prefecture
      • Liancheng Co.
        • Liancheng Mn deposit
Huacai Chen (1989): Geology and Prospecting 25(10), 6-11; Shouquan Zhu (1990): Geology and Prospecting 26(12), 57
Lisheng Luo (1988): Geology and Prospecting 24(2), 13-16
  • Guangdong Province
    • Foshan Prefecture
      • Gaoming District
Liangkai Gu (1986): Geology and Prospecting 22(1), 15-18
    • Meizhou Prefecture
      • Mei Co.
Liangkai Gu (1986): Geology and Prospecting 22(1), 15-18
    • Qingyuan Prefecture
      • Lianzhou Co. (Lian Co.)
Liangkai Gu (1986): Geology and Prospecting 22(1), 15-18
  • Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
    • Chongzuo Prefecture
      • Daxin Co.
Jiuling Zhang (1982): Geology and Prospecting 18(2), 26-40
      • Tiandeng Co.
Jiuling Zhang (1982): Geology and Prospecting 18(2), 26-40
    • Guigang Prefecture
      • Guiping Co.
Hunan Metallurgical Geology Research Team 236 (1977): Geology and Prospecting 13(8), 20-25, 28; Jiuling Zhang (1982): Geology and Prospecting 18(2), 26-40
  • Guizhou Province
    • Zunyi Prefecture
      • Zunyi Co.
Jiuling Zhang (1982): Geology and Prospecting 18(2), 26-40
  • Hainan Province (Hainan Island)
    • Baoting Co.
Jiuling Zhang (1982): Geology and Prospecting 18(2), 26-40
  • Hubei Province
    • Huanggang Prefecture
      • Luotian Co.
        • Hejiawan
Jingqu Yao (1992): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 11(3), 257-266
Jingqu Yao (1992): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 11(3), 257-266
    • Wuhan Prefecture
      • Huangpi District
Jingqu Yao (1992): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 11(3), 257-266
  • Hunan Province
    • Shaoyang Prefecture
      • Beita District
Jiuling Zhang (1982): Geology and Prospecting 18(2), 26-40
      • Shaodong Co.
Ziqiang Wei (1976): Geology and Prospecting 12(8), 25-29
    • Xiangtan Prefecture
      • Yuhu District
Ziqiang Wei (1976): Geology and Prospecting 12(8), 25-29
    • Yiyang Prefecture
      • Heshan District
Ziqiang Wei (1976): Geology and Prospecting 12(8), 25-29
  • Liaoning Province (Manchuria; Dongbei Region)
    • Chaoyang Prefecture
      • Chaoyang Co.
Fan, D., Ye, J., and Li, J. (1999): Ore Geology Reviews 15(1), 31-53.
  • Yunnan Province
    • Qujing Prefecture
      • Xuanwei Co.
Jiuling Zhang (1982): Geology and Prospecting 18(2), 26-40
    • Wenshan Autonomous Prefecture
      • Yanshan Co.
Wenxin Yu (1980): Geology and Prospecting 16(3), 20-25; Jiuling Zhang (1982): Geology and Prospecting 18(2), 26-40
Germany
 
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Vulkaneifel
      • Daun
        • Üdersdorf
Hentschel, G., Die Minerale der Üdersdorfer Lava, Lapis, Weise Verlag, München, 11/1989
Greece
 
  • Aegean Islands Department (Aiyaíon)
    • Kykládes Prefecture
      • Cyclade Islands (Cyclades; Kikladhes; Nomos Kikladhon)
        • Milos Island (Melos)
KILIAS, S. P. (2012). MICROBIAL MAT–RELATED STRUCTURES IN THE QUATERNARY CAPE VANI MANGANESE-OXIDE (-BARITE) DEPOSIT, NW MILOS ISLAND, GREECE. Microbial Mats in Siliciclastic Depositional Systems Through Time, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology) Special Publication, 101, 97-100.
  • Attikí Prefecture (Attica; Attika)
    • Lavrion District (Laurion; Laurium; Lavreotiki Municipality)
      • Lavrion District Mines
        • Agios Konstantinos [St Constantine] (Kamariza)
LAPIS 24 (7/8) 1999; Wendel, W. and Markl, G. (1999) Lavrion: Mineralogische Klassiker und Raritäten für Sammler. LAPIS 24 (7/8):34-52
        • Lavrion (Laurion; Laurium)
Hochleitner, R. (1979): Lapis Aktuell: Vernadit von Laurion. Lapis, 4(10), 6; Hochleitner, R. (1980): Lapis Aktuell: Vernadit = Kryptomelan. Lapis, 5(2), 5.
Japan
 
  • Tokyo Metropolis
    • Izu Archipelago
      • Nishi Shichito Ridge
Jose Carlos Mañuz Sanz collection
Marshall Islands
Hein, J. R., Schwab, W. C., & Davis, A. (1988). Cobalt-and platinum-rich ferromanganese crusts and associated substrate rocks from the Marshall Islands. Marine Geology, 78(3-4), 255-283.
Rex, R. W. (1967). Authigenic silicates formed from basaltic glass by more than 60 million years contact with sea water, Sylvania Guyot, Marshall Islands. In Clays and Clay Minerals: Proceedings of the Fifteenth Conference, Clay Minerals Society (pp. 195-203).
Pacific Ocean
 
  • Clarion-Clipperton zone
    • Clipperton Island (Ile de Clipperton; Ile de la Passion)
      • USA-4
Wegorzewski A.V., Kuhn T. (2014): The influence of suboxic diagenesis on the formation of manganese nodules in the Clarion Clipperton nodule belt of the Pacific Ocean. Marine Geology, 357, 123-138.
  • East Pacific Rise
    • Juan de Fuca Ridge complex
Novikov, G.V., Vikent’ev, I.V., and Bogdanova, O.Y. (2006): Geology of Ore Deposits 48(4), 304-325.
  • Marcus-Wake ridge
Fengyou Chu, Daqian Hu, and Jie Yao (2006): Global Geology 26(3), 245-253
Romania
 
  • Suceava Co.
    • Suceava district
      • Iacobeni (Jakobeny; Jacobeny; Jakabfalva)
http://minerals-of-the-carpathians.eu
Russia
 
  • Kemerovskaya Oblast'
Seltmann, R., Soloviev, S., Shatov, V., Pirajno, F., Naumov, E., & Cherkasov, S. (2010). Metallogeny of Siberia: tectonic, geologic and metallogenic settings of selected significant deposits*. Australian Journal of Earth Sciences, 57(6), 655-706
  • Magadanskaya Oblast'
    • Kolyma River Basin
      • Ducat District
        • Omsukchan
Filimonova, L.G., and Trubkin, N.V. (2008): Geology of Ore Deposits 50(2), 135-144.
  • Murmanskaya Oblast'
www.koeln.netsurf.de/~w.steffens/lovo.htm
  • Primorskiy Kray
J. W. Anthony et al.: Handbook of Mineralogy, Vol. III (1997)
  • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
    • Yeniseisk Autonomous Oblast'
      • Kuznetsk Alatau Range
Kuleshov, V.N., and Bych, A.F. (2002): Lithology and Mineral Resources 37(4), 330-343.
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Bashkortostan Republic (Bashkiria Republic)
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Varentsov, I.M. (1996): Manganese ores of supergene zone: Geochemistry of formation. Springer (Berlin, Heidelberg, New York), 342 pp.
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
        • Kusinskii raion
          • Magnitka
Lapis 17(2), 38 (1992)
      • Orenburgskaya Oblast'
        • Orsk
          • Khalilovskii District
            • Khabarninskii massif
Sharkov, A.A. (2009): Lithology and Mineral Resources 44(1), 19-35.
Rwanda
 
  • Western Province
    • Ngororero District
      • Gatumba
Jochem Hentsch
Slovakia
 
  • Banská Bystrica Region
    • Brezno Co.
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
  • Bratislava Region
    • Malacky Co.
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
        • Červený domček
Koděra, M., Andrusovová-Vlčeková, G., Belešová, O., Briatková, D., Dávidová, Š., Fejdiová, V., Hurai, V., Chovan, M., Nelišerová, E., Ženiš, P. (1986-1990) Topografická mineralógia Slovenska. I-III. Veda, Bratislava, 1592 p. (in Slovak)
  • Trenčín Region
    • Púchov Co.
Koděra, M. et al., 1986 a 1990 : Topografická mineralógia Slovenska, diel 1- 3, Veda – Vydavateľstvo SAV, Bratislava, 1990, 1 – 1590k
Spain
 
  • Andalusia
    • Huelva
      • Almonaster la Real
Jorge (2000)
  • Catalonia
    • Tarragona
      • Priorat
        • Bellmunt del Priorat
Joan Abella i Creus (2008): Minerals I Mines De La Conca De Bellmunt Del Priorat.
Ukraine
 
  • Crimea
    • Crimea peninsula
Chukhrov F.V., Gorshkov A.I., Berezovskaya V.V., Sivtsov A.V. (1987) New data on mineralogy of Kerch ores, - Izvestiya AN SSSR, ser. geol., 4, p. 60-77 (in Rus.); Geologiya SSSR (The geology of USSR) (1969) - Nedra (Moscou), 1969, vol. VIII, 575 p.; myself investigation
        • Aktash Lake area
Alexander Tischenko Collection
    • Simferopol area
      • Mramornoe Village area
Alexander I. Tischenko (1996)/ Minerals of the Crimea. - World of stones, 1996, #9, p. 9-18.
USA
 
  • California
    • Trinity Co.
      • Coastal Range
        • Three Forks
Huebner, J. Stephen; Flohr, Marta J. (1990) Microbanded manganese formations; protoliths in the Franciscan Complex, California; USGS Professional Paper 1502.
  • Colorado
    • Saguache Co.
Rocks & Minerals (July-August, 2002)
  • Nevada
    • Nye Co.
      • Goldfield District
NBMG Spec Pub 31 Minerals of Nevada
Mineral and/or Locality  
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