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About AfwilliteHide

Alpheus Fuller Williams
Ca3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
Colourless, white
3 - 4
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Named in 1925 by John Parry and Frederick Eugene Wright in honor of Alpheus Fuller Williams [June 21, 1874 Oakland Alameda County California, USA - January 6, 1953 Cape Town, Western Cape, South Africa] of the De Beers Consolidated Mines of South Africa.
This page provides mineralogical data about Afwillite.

Classification of AfwilliteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First published:

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
A : Nesosilicates
G : Nesosilicates with additional anions; cations in > [6] +- [6] coordination

52 : NESOSILICATES Insular SiO4 Groups and O,OH,F,H2O
4 : Insular SiO4 Groups and O, OH, F, and H2O with cations in [6] and/or >[6] coordination

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
5 : Silicates of Ca

Physical Properties of AfwilliteHide

Colourless, white
3 - 4 on Mohs scale
Perfect on {101}, good on {100}
2.630 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.643(5) g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of AfwilliteHide

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.617 nβ = 1.620 nγ = 1.634
Measured: 50° to 56°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.017
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
r < v

Chemical Properties of AfwilliteHide

Ca3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2O
IMA Formula:
Ca3[SiO4][SiO2(OH)2] · 2H2O
Common Impurities:

Crystallography of AfwilliteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
m - Domatic
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 16.278(1) Å, b = 5.6321(4) Å, c = 13.236(1) Å
β = 134.9°
a:b:c = 2.89 : 1 : 2.35
Unit Cell V:
859.55 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals are prismatic, tabular, radial fibrous spherulites, massive

Crystal StructureHide

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IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0009147AfwilliteMegaw H D (1952) The structure of afwillite, Ca3(SiO3OH)2*2H2O Acta Crystallographica 5 477-4911952Scawt Hill, Northern Ireland0293
0009551AfwilliteMalik K M A, Jeffery J W (1976) A re-investigation of the structure of afwillite Acta Crystallographica B32 475-48019760293
0012415AfwilliteRastsvetaeva R K, Chukanov N V, Zadov A E (2009) Refined structure of afwillite from the northern Baikal region Crystallography Reports 54 418-4222009Yoko Dovyrensky massif, northern Baikal region, Russia0293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

Geological EnvironmentHide

Geological Setting:
Contact metamorphism of limestones.

Type Occurrence of AfwilliteHide

Parry, J., Wright, F.E. (1925) Afwillite, a new hydrous calcium silicate, from Dutoitspan mine, Kimberley, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine: 20: 277-285.

Other Language Names for AfwilliteHide


Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
7 photos of Afwillite associated with EttringiteCa6Al2(SO4)3(OH)12 · 26H2O
6 photos of Afwillite associated with AndraditeCa3Fe3+2(SiO4)3
3 photos of Afwillite associated with PortlanditeCa(OH)2
2 photos of Afwillite associated with HydrocalumiteCa4Al2(OH)12(Cl,CO3,OH)2 · 4H2O
1 photo of Afwillite associated with ThaumasiteCa3(SO4)[Si(OH)6](CO3) · 12H2O
1 photo of Afwillite associated with Brownmillerite-Srebrodolskite Series

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.AG.EdgrewiteCa9(SiO4)4F2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AG.05AbswurmbachiteCuMn3+6(SiO4)O8Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
9.AG.05BrauniteMn2+Mn3+6(SiO4)O8Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
9.AG.05NeltneriteCaMn3+6(SiO4)O8Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
9.AG.05Braunite-IICaMn3+14(SiO4)O20Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd
9.AG.10LångbaniteMn2+4Mn3+9Sb5+O16(SiO4)2Trig. 3m : P3m1
9.AG.15TitaniteCaTi(SiO4)OMon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AG.15Natrotitanite(Na0.5Y0.5)Ti(SiO4)OMon. 2/m : B2/b
9.AG.15ŻabińskiiteCa[Al0.5(Ta,Nb)0.5)](SiO4)OTric. 1
9.AG.20Cerite-(Ce)(Ce,Ca)9(Mg,Fe)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3Trig. 3m : R3c
9.AG.20Ferricerite-(La)(La,Ce,Ca)9Fe3+(SiO4)3(SiO3OH)4(OH)3Trig. 3m : R3c
9.AG.20Aluminocerite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Ca)9(Al,Fe3+)(SiO4)3(HSiO4)4(OH)3Trig. 3m : R3c
9.AG.25Mieite-(Y)Y4Ti(SiO4)2O[F,(OH)]6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
9.AG.30SitinakiteKNa2Ti4(SiO4)2O5(OH) · 4H2OTet.
9.AG.35KittatinnyiteCa2Mn2Mn(SiO4)2(OH)4 · 9H2OHex.
9.AG.45Törnebohmite-(Ce)(Ce,La)2Al(SiO4)2(OH)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
9.AG.50Kuliokite-(Y)Y4Al(SiO4)2(OH)2F5Tric. 1 : P1
9.AG.55ChantaliteCaAl2(SiO4)(OH)4Tet. 4/m : I41/a
9.AG.60MozartiteCaMn3+(SiO4)(OH)Orth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 21
9.AG.70JasmunditeCa11(SiO4)4O2STet. 4 2m : I4m2
9.AG.80BultfonteiniteCa2(HSiO4)F · H2OTric.
9.AG.85ZoltaiiteBaV4+2V3+12(SiO4)2O19Trig. 3 : P3

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide · H2OTric. 4 2m : I4m2

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

14.5.1WollastoniteCaSiO3Tric. 1 : P1
14.5.3Wollastonite-2MCaSiO3Mon. 2/m : P21/b
14.5.4RankiniteCa3Si2O7Mon. 2/m : P21/b
14.5.6LarniteCa2SiO4Mon. 2/m
14.5.12XonotliteCa6(Si6O17)(OH)2Mon. 2/m
14.5.14HillebranditeCa2(SiO3)(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
14.5.15JaffeiteCa6(Si2O7)(OH)6Trig. 3 : P3
14.5.16SuoluniteCa2(H2Si2O7) · H2OOrth.
14.5.18OkeniteCa10Si18O46 · 18H2OTric. 1 : P1
14.5.19RiversideiteCa5(HSi3O9)2 · 2H2OOrth.
14.5.20TrabzoniteCa4(Si3O9)(OH)2Orth. mm2 : Ama2
14.5.21GyroliteNaCa16Si23AlO60(OH)8 · 14H2OTric. 1 : P1
14.5.22FoshallasiteCa3[Si2O7] · 3H2O(?)
14.5.23TobermoriteCa4Si6O17(H2O)2 · (Ca · 3H2O)Orth.
14.5.24Clinotobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O] · (Ca · 3H2O)Mon.
14.5.25NekoiteCa3Si6O15 · 7H2OTric. 1 : P1
14.5.26Plombièrite[Ca4Si6O16(OH)2 · 2H2O] · (Ca · 5H2O)Orth.
14.5.27JenniteCa9(Si3O9)2(OH)8 · 8H2OTric.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for AfwilliteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Parry, J., Wright, F.E. (1925) Afwillite, a new hydrous calcium silicate, from Dutoitspan mine, Kimberley, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine: 20: 277-285.
Foshag, W.F. (1925) New minerals: new species. American Mineralogist: 10: 447-448.
Tilley, C.E. (1930) An association of afwillite with spurrite. Geological Magazine: 67(4): 168-169.
Megaw, H.D. (1949) Hydroxyl groups in afwillite. Acta Crystallographica: 2(6): 419-420.
Megaw, H.D. (1952) The structure of afwillite, Ca3(SiO3OH)2·2H2O. Acta Crystallographica: 5: 477-491.
Moody, K.M. (1952) The thermal decomposition of afwillite. Mineralogical Magazine and Journal of the Mineralogical Society: 29(216): 838-840.
Switzer, G., Bailey, E.H. (1953) Afwillite from Crestmore, California. American Mineralogist: 38(7-8): 629-633.
Shaw, R. (1953) The thermal expansion of afwillite. Acta Crystallographica: 6(5): 428-429.
Taylor, H.F.W. (1955) The dehydration of afwillite. Acta Crystallographica: 8(7): 440-440.
Grünhagen, H., Mergoil-Daniel, J. (1963) Découverte d'hydrocalumite et afwillite associées à l'ettringite dans les porcélanites de Boisséjour près Ceyrat (Puy-de-Dôme). Bulletin de Minéralogie: 86(2): 149-157.
Taylor, J.E. (1968) The heat of formation of xonotlite, tobermorite, hillebrandite and afwillite. In Conference on the Silicate Industry. Akad Kiado, Budapest, Hungary: 179-184.
Malik, K.M.A., Jeffery, J.W. (1976) A reinvestigation of the structure of afwillite. Acta Crystallographica: B32: 475-480.
Kusachi, I., Henmi, C., Henmi, K. (1989) Afwillite and jennite from Fuka, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. Mineralogical Journal: 14(7): 279-292.
Rastsvetaeva, R.K., Chukanov, N.V., Zadov, A.E. (2009) Refined structure of afwillite from the northern Baikal region. Crystallography Reports: 54: 418-422.

Internet Links for AfwilliteHide

Localities for AfwilliteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Styria
    • Südoststeiermark District
      • Klöch
Walter Trattner collection
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Puy-de-Dôme
      • Clermont-Ferrand
        • Beaumont
Grünhagen H and Mergoil J (1963) Découverte d'hydrocalumite et afwillite associées à l'ettringite dans les porcélanites de Boisséjour près Ceyrat (Puy de Dôme). Bulletin de la Société Française de Minéralogie et de Cristallographie 86: 149-157.
  • Bavaria
    • Lower Franconia
      • Haßberge District
        • Maroldsweisach
Pöllmann, H. (1991): Die Afwillit-Portlandit Paragenese im Basalt des Zeilbergs bei Maroldsweisach/Unterfranken. Aufschluss, 42, 257-266
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Ahrweiler District
      • Brohltal
        • Brenk
Handbook of Mineralogy
    • Mayen-Koblenz District
      • Mendig
        • Bell
Blass, G., Graf, HW., Kolitsch, U., Sebold, D., Über neue Mineralfunde aus der Vulkaneifel, MW 6/2005
      • Vordereifel
        • Ettringen
Hentschel, G. (1987): Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise (München), 2. Auflage
        • Kottenheim
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise (München), 1983
    • Vulkaneifel District
      • Daun
        • Üdersdorf
Schüller, W., Betz, V., Die Mineralien vom Emmelberg, Lapis 12/1986
      • Gerolstein
        • Hohenfels-Essingen
Blass, G., Emmerich, F., Graf, HW., Schäfer, Ch., Tschörtner, J., (2006): Minerale der Eifelvulkane, Version 1.0, CD, published by authors
  • Connacht
    • Sligo County
      • Killala Bay
Nawaz, R. (1974) Killalaite, a New Mineral from Co. Sligo, Ireland. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 39, n° 305, 544-548.; Embrey, P.G. (1978) Fourth supplementary list of British minerals. Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 42, n° 322, 169-177 (referring to Nawaz)
  • Southern District (HaDarom District)
    • Tamar Regional Council
Galuskin, E.V., Gfeller, F., Armbruster, T., Sharygin, V.V., Galuskina, I.O., Krivovichev, S.V., Vapnik, Y., Murashko, M., Dzierżanowski, P., Wirth, R. (2015): Mayenite supergroup, part III: Fluormayenite, Ca12Al14O32[□4F2], and fluorkyuygenite, Ca12Al14O32[(H2O)4F2], two new minerals from pyrometamorphic rocks of the Hatrurim Complex, South Levant. European Journal of Mineralogy, 27, 123-136
Britvin, S.N., Galuskina, I.O., Vlasenko, N.S., Vereshchagin, O.S., Bocharov, V.N., Krzhizhanovskaya, M.G., Shilovskikh, V.V., Galuskin, E.V., Vapnik, Y., Obolonskaya, E.V. (2021) Keplerite, Ca9(Ca0.5□0.5)Mg(PO4)7, a new meteoritic and terrestrial phosphate isomorphous with merrillite, Ca9NaMg(PO4)7. American Mineralogist: ??: ??.
Sharygin, Victor V.; Yakovlev, Grigory A.; Wirth, Richard; Seryotkin, Yurii V.; Sokol, Ellina V.; Nigmatulina, Elena N.; Karmanov, Nikolai S.; Pautov, Leonid A. (2019) Nataliakulikite, Ca4Ti2(Fe3+,Fe2+)(Si,Fe3+,Al)O11, a New Perovskite-Supergroup Mineral from Hatrurim Basin, Negev Desert, Israel. Minerals 9, no. 11: 700.
  • Tel Aviv District
GROSS, S., MAZOR, E., SASS, E., & ZAK., I. (1967). The mottled zone complex of Ayalon (Israel). Israel Bull. Earth Sciences, 16, 84-96.
  • Lazio
    • Metropolitan City of Rome Capital
Caponera, I., Fiori, S., Pucci, R., & Signoretti, E. (2007). I minerali dei Colli Albani. Un aggiornamento sugli ultimi dieci anni di ricerche. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 31 (2), 74-91.
      • Rome
        • Valleranello
Fiori, S., Pucci, R., and Papacci, M. (2002) Nuovi ritrovamenti nelle cave di Vallerano (Roma). Il Cercapietre, 1-2, articolo 6;; Carlini, R., and Signoretti, E. (2018) Il Lazio classico: le cave di leucitite della provincia di Roma (Vallerano, Laghetto e Osa). Fossils & Minerals, 4, 24-53.
    • Viterbo Province
      • Montalto di Castro
        • Pietra Massa Locality
Passaglia, E. & Turconi, B. (1982): Silicati ed altri minerali di Montalto di Castro - VT. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/1982, 97-110.
  • Umbria
    • Perugia Province
      • Spoleto
Stoppa F., Scordari F., Mesto E., Sharygin V.V. and Bortolozzi G. - Calcium-aluminium-silicate-hydrate "cement" phases and rare Ca-zeolite association at Colle Fabbri, Central Italy (2010). Centr.Eur.J.Geosci. 2 (2), pag. 175-187 .
  • Veneto
    • Vicenza Province
      • Cornedo Vicentino
        • Spagnago
Lapis, 15 (12), 27-32+50.; Boscardin M.,Daleffe A.,Rocchetti I., Zordan A. (2011) " Minerali del Vicentino - Aggiornamenti, località e nuove determinazioni " Museo di Archeologia e Scienze Naturali “G. Zannato” – Montecchio Maggiore (Vicenza), pp.183
  • Hiroshima Prefecture
    • Shoubara City
      • Kushiro
Yamada, S. (2004) Nihonsan-koubutsu Gojuon-hairetsu Sanchi-ichiranhyou (111 pp.)
  • Okayama Prefecture
    • Ibara City
      • Higashi-Mihara
KUSACHI, I., HENM, C., & HENMI, K. (1989). Afwillite and jennite from Fuka, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. Mineralogical Journal, 14, 279-292.
    • Takahashi City
      • Bicchu-cho (Bitchu-cho)
        • Fuka
KUSACHI, I., HENM, C., & HENMI, K. (1989). Afwillite and jennite from Fuka, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. Mineralogical Journal, 14, 279-292. ; Mineralogical Journal Vol. 14 (1989) , No. 7 pp 279-292; Henmi, C., & Kusachi, I. (1992). Clinotobermorite, Ca5Si6 (O, OH) 18· 5H2O, a new mineral from Fuka, Okayama Prefecture, Japan. Mineralogical Magazine, 56(3), 353-358.
  • Amman Governorate
Pitty, A. F., & Alexander, W. R. (2010). A natural analogue study of cement buffered, hyperalkaline groundwaters and their interaction with a repository host rock IV: an examination of the Khushaym Matruk (central Jordan) and Maqarin (northern Jordan) sites. NDA-RWMD Technical Report, NDA, Moors Row, UK.
    • Hashem region
      • Lisdan-Siwaga Fault
        • Siwaga
Vapnik, Y., Galuskin, E. V., Galuskina, I. O., Kusz, J., Stasiak, M., Krzykawski, T., & Dulski, M. (2019). Qatranaite, CaZn2(OH)6∙2H2O: a new mineral from altered pyrometamorphic rocks of the Hatrurim Complex, Daba-Siwaqa, Jordan. European Journal of Mineralogy, 31(3), 575–584. doi:10.1127/ejm/2019/0031-2833
Fleurance, S., Cuney, M., Malartre, F., & Reyx, J. (2013). Origin of the extreme polymetallic enrichment (Cd, Cr, Mo, Ni, U, V, Zn) of the Late Cretaceous–Early Tertiary Belqa Group, central Jordan. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 369, 201-219.
  • Irbid Governorate
    • Maqarin area
Khoury, H. N., Salameh, E., & Abdul-Jaber, Q. (1985). Characteristics of an unusual highly alkaline water from the Maqarin area, northern Jordan. Journal of Hydrology, 81(1), 79-91.
Middle East
Gross, S. (1977): The Mineralogy of the Hatrurim Formation, Israel. Geological Survey of Israel, Bulletin no. 70, 80 pp.
New Zealand
  • Northland Region
    • Kaipara District
      • Tokatoka
Railton, G.T., Watters, W.A. (1990) Minerals of New Zealand. New Zealand Geological Survey Bulletin 104, 89 pages.
  • West Bank
    • Quds Governorate
Galuskin, E.V., Gfeller, F., Armbruster, T., Sharygin, V.V., Galuskina, I.O., Krivovichev, S.V., Vapnik, Y., Murashko, M., Dzierżanowski, P., Wirth, R. (2015): Mayenite supergroup, part III: Fluormayenite, Ca12Al14O32[□4F2], and fluorkyuygenite, Ca12Al14O32[(H2O)4F2], two new minerals from pyrometamorphic rocks of the Hatrurim Complex, South Levant. European Journal of Mineralogy, 27, 123-136.
Sokol, E.V., Gaskova, O.L., Kokh, S.N., Kozmenko, O.A., Seryotkin, Y.V., Vapnik, Y., Murashko, M.N. (2011): Chromatite and its Cr3+- and Cr6+-bearing precursor minerals from the Nabi Musa Mottled Zone complex, Judean Desert. American Mineralogist 96, 659-674.; Rafał Juroszek, Biljana Krüger, Yevgeny Vapnik, Irina Galuskina, Evgeny Galuskin (2018) Blue afwillite from Ma’ale Adummim, Judean Desert, Israel. in abstracts of the 22nd IMA Meeting Melbourne p 357; Juroszek, R.; Krüger, B.; Galuskina, I.; Krüger, H.; Tribus, M.; Kürsten, C. (2020) Raman Spectroscopy and Single-Crystal High-Temperature Investigations of Bentorite, Ca6Cr2(SO4)3(OH)12·26H2O. Minerals 10, 38.
  • Brașov
    • Racoş
Szakáll, S., Kristály, F., 2010. Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Sfântu Gheorghe-Miercurea Ciuc-Târgu Mureş. 2010.
  • Caraş-Severin
Marincea, S., Dumitraş. D-G., Ghinet, C, Fransolet, A.-M., Hatert, F. & Rondeaux, M. (2011): Gehlenite from three occurrences of high-temperature skarns, Romania: new mineralogical data. Canadian Mineralogist. 49, 1001-1014
  • Harghita
    • Odorheiu Secuiesc (Székelyudvarhely; Oderhellen)
      • Racoş (Racoşu de Jos)
Szakáll, S. & Kristály, F., Eds. (2010): Mineralogy of Székelyland, Eastern Transylvania, Romania. Csík County Nature and Conservation Society, Miercurea-Ciuc, Romania, 321 pp.
  • Hunedoara
    • Hunedoara
Marincea, Ş., Dumitraş, D. G., Călin, N., Anason, A. M., Fransolet, A. M., & Hatert, F. (2013). Spurrite, tilleyite and associated minerals in the exoskarn zone from Cornet Hill (Metaliferi Massif, Apuseni Mountains, Romania). The Canadian Mineralogist, 51(3), 359-375.
  • Kabardino-Balkaria
    • Baksan Valley
Bailau, R., Gałuskin, E. V., Gazeev, V. M., & Gałuskina, I. O. Raman investigation of potential new mineral-Fe 3-analogue of wadalite from calcareous-silicate xenoliths of the Upper Chegem caldera, Northern Caucasus, Russia.
        • Lakargi Mountain
Galuskina, I.O., Krüger, B., Galuskin, E.V. ,Armbruster, T., Gazeev, V.M., Włodyka, R., Dulski, M. & Dzierżanowski, P. (2015): Fluorchegemite, Ca7(SiO4)3F2, a new mineral from the edgrewitebearing endoskarn zone of an altered xenolith in ignimbrites from Upper Chegem Caldera, Northern Caucasus, Kabardina-balkaria, Russia; Occurrence, crystal structure, and new data on the mineral assemblages. Canadian Mineralogist. 53, 325-344.
Galuskin, E.V., Galuskina, I.O., Gazeev, V.M., Dzierżanowski, P., Prusik, K., Pertsev, N.N., Zadov, A.E., Bailau, R., Gurbanov, A.G. (2011): Megawite, CaSnO3: a new perovskite-group mineral from skarns of the Upper Chegem caldera, Kabardino-Balkaria, Northern Caucasus, Russia. Mineralogical Magazine, 75, 2563-2572.
  • Krasnoyarsk Krai
    • Evenkiysky District
      • Nizhnyaya Tunguska River Basin (Lower Tunguska River)
No reference listed
  • Zabaykalsky Krai
    • Buriatia Republic (Buryatia)
      • Severo-Baykalsky District
        • Dovyren Highlands
American Mineralogist, Volume 94, pages 323–333, 2009
South Africa (TL)
  • Northern Cape
    • Frances Baard
      • Sol Plaatje
        • Kimberley
          • KEM JV Mine (Kimberley Ekapa Mining Joint Venture mine; Kimberley Underground mine)
Parry, J., Wright, F.E. (1925) Afwillite, a new hydrous calcium silicate, from Dutoitspan mine, Kimberley, South Africa. Mineralogical Magazine: 20: 277-285; Clark (1993) Hey's Mineral Index, 3rd Edition.
    • Kalahari manganese field
      • Hotazel
Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa pg 180
      • Kuruman
        • N'Chwaning Mines
Von Bezing, K.L., Dixon, R.D., Pohl, D., Cavallo, G. (1991) The Kalahari (Afrique du Sud) manganese field: an update. The Mineralogical Record: 22(3): 279-302.
Cairncross, B., Dixon, R. (1995) Minerals of South Africa. Geological Society of South Africa, PO Box 44283, Linden 2104, South Africa pg 180
  • Northern Ireland
    • Co. Antrim
      • Glenoe
Nawaz, R. (1977). A second occurrence of killalaite. Mineralogical Magazine, 41, 546-548.
      • Larne
Tilley, C.E. (1930) An association of afwillite and spurrite. Geological Magazine: 67: 168-169.; Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 590.; Strübel, Zimmer (1991) Lexikon der Minerale. 2nd Ed., 1991.; Tilley, C.E. (1942) Tricalcium disilicate (rankinite), a new mineral from Scawt Hill, Co. Antrim. Mineralogical Magazine: 26(176): 190-197.
  • California
    • Riverside Co.
      • Crestmore
        • Crestmore quarries
          • Sky Blue Hill
Switzer, G. and Bailey, E.H. (1953) Afwillite from Crestmore, California. American Mineralogist: 38: 629-633.; Murdoch, Joseph (1954) Scawtite and bultfonteinite from Crestmore, California. (abstract): Geological Society of America Bulletin: 65: 1347-1348.; Murdoch, Joseph (1955) Scawtite from Crestmore, California. American Mineralogist: 40: 505-509.
  • Missouri
    • Washington Co.
Sherwood, M. D., & Williams, G. A. (1998). Missouri mineral locality index. Rocks & Minerals, 73(2), 98-117.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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