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Volkonskoite

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Pyotr Mikhailovich Volkonsky
Formula:
Ca0.3(Cr,Mg,Fe)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
Colour:
Blue-green, dark green, grass-green
Lustre:
Waxy, Dull
Hardness:
1 - 2
Specific Gravity:
2.11 - 2.36
Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Member of:
Name:
Named in 1831 by August Alexander Kämmerer in honor of Prince Petr Mikhailovich Volkonskoy (1776 - 1852), Minister of the Russian Court, Russia.
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Classification of VolkonskoiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
9.EC.40

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
E : Phyllosilicates
C : Phyllosilicates with mica sheets, composed of tetrahedral and octahedral nets
71.3.1a.4

71 : PHYLLOSILICATES Sheets of Six-Membered Rings
3 : Sheets of 6-membered rings with 2:1 clays
16.15.6

16 : Silicates Containing Aluminum and other Metals
15 : Aluminosilicates of V and Cr

Physical Properties of VolkonskoiteHide

Waxy, Dull
Transparency:
Translucent
Colour:
Blue-green, dark green, grass-green
Hardness:
1 - 2 on Mohs scale
Density:
2.11 - 2.36 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Optical Data of VolkonskoiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.551 - 1.560 nβ = 1.564 nγ = 1.569
2V:
Calculated: 62° to 84°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.018
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Low
Dispersion:
r > v strong

Chemical Properties of VolkonskoiteHide

Formula:
Ca0.3(Cr,Mg,Fe)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
IMA Formula:
Ca0.3(Cr,Mg)2(Si,Al)4O10(OH)2 · 4H2O
Common Impurities:
Ti,Mn,Na,K,C,P

Crystallography of VolkonskoiteHide

Crystal System:
Monoclinic
Morphology:
Fine scaly to fibrous, massive.

Type Occurrence of VolkonskoiteHide

Synonyms of VolkonskoiteHide

Other Language Names for VolkonskoiteHide

Relationship of Volkonskoite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
AliettiteCa0.2Mg6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 4H2OMon.
Beidellite(Na,Ca0.5)0.3Al2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon.
FerrosaponiteCa0.3(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
HectoriteNa0.3(Mg,Li)3(Si4O10)(F,OH)2Mon.
Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon.
PimeliteNi3Si4O10(OH)2·4H2OHex.
Saliotite(Li,Na)Al3(AlSi3O10)(OH)5Mon.
SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon.
SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
Stevensite(Ca,Na)xMg3-x(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon.
SwineforditeLi(Al,Li,Mg)4((Si,Al)4O10)2(OH,F)4 · nH2OMon.
Yakhontovite(Ca,Na)0.5(Cu,Fe,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 3H2OMon.
ZincsiliteZn3(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.

Common AssociatesHide

Chlorite GroupA group of mostly monoclinic (also triclinic or orthorhombic) micaceous phyllosilicate minerals with a structure ...
TridymiteSiO2
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Melanophlogite4 photos of Volkonskoite associated with Melanophlogite on mindat.org.
Cinnabar2 photos of Volkonskoite associated with Cinnabar on mindat.org.
Ruby1 photo of Volkonskoite associated with Ruby on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.EC.05MinnesotaiteFe2+3Si4O10(OH)2Tric. 1 : P1
9.EC.05TalcMg3Si4O10(OH)2Tric. 1 : P1
9.EC.05WillemseiteNi3Si4O10(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.10FerripyrophylliteFe3+Si2O5(OH)Mon.
9.EC.10PyrophylliteAl2Si4O10(OH)2Tric. 1
9.EC.15BoromuscoviteKAl2(BSi3O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.15CeladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Fe3+(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.15Chernykhite(Ba,Na)(V3+,Al,Mg)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.15Montdorite(K,Na)2(Fe2+,Mn2+,Mg)5(Si4O10)2(OH,F)4
9.EC.15MuscoviteKAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.15NanpingiteCsAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2Mon.
9.EC.15ParagoniteNaAl2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.15RoscoeliteK(V3+,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.15Tobelite(NH4,K)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.15AluminoceladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)Al(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.15ChromphylliteK(Cr,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.15FerroaluminoceladoniteK(Fe2+,Mg)(Al,Fe3+)(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.15FerroceladoniteK(Fe2+,Mg)(Fe3+,Al)(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.15ChromceladoniteK(Mg,Fe2+)(Cr,Al)(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.15TainioliteKLiMg2(Si4O10)F2Mon.
9.EC.15Ganterite(Ba,Na,K)(Al,Mg)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.20AnniteKFe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20EphesiteLiNaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Tric.
9.EC.20HendricksiteK(Zn,Mg,Mn2+)3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20Masutomilite(K,Rb)(Li,Mn3+,Al)3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2Mon.
9.EC.20NorrishiteKLiMn3+2(Si4O10)O2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20PolylithioniteKLi2Al(Si4O10)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.20PreiswerkiteNaMg2Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.20SiderophylliteKFe2+2Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.20TetraferriphlogopiteKMg3(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH,F)2
9.EC.20FluorotetraferriphlogopiteKMg3(Fe3+Si3O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20Wonesite(Na,K)(Mg,Fe,Al)6((Al,Si)4O10)2(OH,F)4Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20EastoniteKMg2Al(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.20TetraferrianniteKFe2+3((Fe3+,Al)Si3O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.20TrilithioniteK(Li1.5Al1.5)(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.20FluoranniteKFe2+3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2Mon.
9.EC.20ShirokshiniteKNaMg2(Si4O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20ShirozuliteK(Mn2+,Mg)3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20SokolovaiteCsLi2Al(Si4O10)F2Mon.
9.EC.20AspidoliteNaMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20FluorophlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(F,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20UM2004-49-SiO:AlCsFHKLi(Cs,K)(Al,Li)2.6((Si,Al)4O10)(F,OH)2
9.EC.20Suhailite(NH4)Fe2+3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20YangzhumingiteKMg2.5(Si4O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.20OrloviteKLi2Ti(Si4O10)OFMon. 2 : B2
9.EC.20OxyphlogopiteK(Mg,Ti,Fe)3[(Si,Al)4O10](O,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.25Brammallite(Na,H3O)(Al,Mg,Fe)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.30MargariteCaAl2(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.35Anandite(Ba,K)(Fe2+,Mg)3((Si,Al,Fe)4O10)(S,OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.35BityiteLiCaAl2(AlBeSi2O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.EC.35ClintoniteCa(Mg,Al)3(Al3SiO10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.35Kinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Mg,Mn2+,Al)3(Al2Si2O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.35Ferrokinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Fe2+,Mg)3(Al2Si2O10)(OH,F)2Mon.
9.EC.35Oxykinoshitalite(Ba,K)(Mg,Ti,Fe3+,Fe2+)3((Si,Al)4O10)(O,OH,F)2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.35FluorokinoshitaliteBaMg3(Al2Si2O10)F2Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.40Beidellite(Na,Ca0.5)0.3Al2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.40Kurumsakite(Zn,Ni,Cu)8Al8V5+2Si5O35 · 27H2O (?)
9.EC.40Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.40NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.40Yakhontovite(Ca,Na)0.5(Cu,Fe,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 3H2OMon.
9.EC.45HectoriteNa0.3(Mg,Li)3(Si4O10)(F,OH)2Mon.
9.EC.45SaponiteCa0.25(Mg,Fe)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.45SauconiteNa0.3Zn3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.45SpadaiteMgSiO2(OH)2 · H2O (?)
9.EC.45Stevensite(Ca,Na)xMg3-x(Si4O10)(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.45SwineforditeLi(Al,Li,Mg)4((Si,Al)4O10)2(OH,F)4 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.45ZincsiliteZn3(Si4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.45FerrosaponiteCa0.3(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)3((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · 4H2O
9.EC.50VermiculiteMg0.7(Mg,Fe,Al)6(Si,Al)8O20(OH)4 · 8H2OMon. 2/m
9.EC.55Baileychlore(Zn,Fe2+,Al,Mg)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH)8Tric.
9.EC.55Chamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Al,Fe3+)6(Si,Al)4O10(OH,O)8Mon.
9.EC.55ClinochloreMg5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Mon. 2/m : B2/m
9.EC.55Cookeite(Al2Li)Al2(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Mon. 2/m
9.EC.55FranklinfurnaceiteCa2Fe3+Mn2+3Mn3+(Zn2Si2O10)(OH)8Mon. 2 : B2
9.EC.55Gonyerite(Mn2+,Mg)5Fe3+(Fe3+Si3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.55Nimite(Ni,Mg,Al)6((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)8Mon.
9.EC.55Orthochamosite(Fe2+,Mg,Fe3+)5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH,O)8
9.EC.55PennantiteMn2+5Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Tric.
9.EC.55SudoiteMg2Al3(Si3Al)O10)(OH)8Mon.
9.EC.55DonbassiteAl4.33(AlSi3O10)(OH)8Mon. 2 : B2
9.EC.55GlagoleviteNa(Mg,Al)6(AlSi3O10)(OH,O)8Tric. 1 : P1
9.EC.55BorocookeiteLi1+3xAl4-x(BSi3O10)(OH)8
9.EC.60AliettiteCa0.2Mg6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 4H2OMon.
9.EC.60Corrensite(Mg,Fe)9((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)10 · nH2OOrth.
9.EC.60DozyiteMg7Al2(Al2Si4O15)(OH)12Mon.
9.EC.60HydrobiotiteK(Mg,Fe2+)6((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.60Karpinskite(Ni,Mg)2Si2O5(OH)2 (?)
9.EC.60KulkeiteMg8Al(AlSi7O20)(OH)10Mon.
9.EC.60LunijianlaiteLi0.7Al6.2(AlSi7O20)(OH,O)10Mon.
9.EC.60Rectorite(Na,Ca)Al4((Si,Al)8O20)(OH)4 · 2H2OMon.
9.EC.60Saliotite(Li,Na)Al3(AlSi3O10)(OH)5Mon.
9.EC.60TosuditeNa0.5(Al,Mg)6((Si,Al)8O18)(OH)12 · 5H2OMon. 2 : B2
9.EC.60BrinrobertsiteNa0.3Al4(Si4O10)2(OH)4 · 3.5 H2OMon.
9.EC.65Macaulayite(Fe,Al)24Si4O43(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.70BurckhardtitePb2(Fe3+Te6+)[AlSi3O8]O6Trig. 3m (3 2/m) : P3 1m
9.EC.75Ferrisurite(Pb,Ca)2.4Fe3+2(Si4O10)(CO3)1.7(OH)3 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.75Surite(Pb,Ca)3(Al,Fe2+,Mg)2((Si,Al)4O10)(CO3)2(OH)2Mon.
9.EC.75Niksergievite(Ba,Ca)2Al3(AlSi3O10)(CO3)(OH)6 · nH2OMon.
9.EC.80KegelitePb8Al4(Si8O20)(SO4)2(CO3)4(OH)8Mon.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

71.3.1a.1Beidellite(Na,Ca0.5)0.3Al2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon.
71.3.1a.2Montmorillonite(Na,Ca)0.33(Al,Mg)2(Si4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon. 2/m : B2/m
71.3.1a.3NontroniteNa0.3Fe2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2 · nH2OMon.
71.3.1a.5SwineforditeLi(Al,Li,Mg)4((Si,Al)4O10)2(OH,F)4 · nH2OMon.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

16.15.1RoscoeliteK(V3+,Al)2(AlSi3O10)(OH)2Mon. 2/m : B2/b
16.15.2Mukhinite{Ca2}{Al2V3+}(Si2O7)(SiO4)O(OH)Mon.
16.15.3Chernykhite(Ba,Na)(V3+,Al,Mg)2((Si,Al)4O10)(OH)2Mon.
16.15.4RilanditeCr4Al2SiO11 · 5H2O or near
16.15.5ShuiskiteCa2MgCr2(Si2O7)(SiO4)(OH)2 · 2H2OMon.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for VolkonskoiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Foord, E.F., Starkey, H.C., Taggart, J.E., Shawe, D.R. (1987) Reassessment of the volkonskoite-chromian smectite nomenclature problem. Clays and Clay Minerals: 35: 139-149.
Jambor, J.L., Bladh, K.W., Ercit, T.S., Grice, J.D., Grew, E.S. (1988) New mineral names. American Mineralogist:73: 927-935.
Jambor, J.L., Grew, E.S., Roberts, A.C. (1997) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 82: 820-823.

Internet Links for VolkonskoiteHide

Localities for VolkonskoiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Bolivia
 
  • Cochabamba Department
    • Ayopaya Province
      • Independencia
        • Palca river alluvials
PXRD by John Attard, 27-07-2012. Abundant Cr confirmed by arc spectroscopy.
Brazil
 
  • Bahia
F. Zaccarini, G. Garuti and R.F. Martin (2006): Exotic accessory minerals in layered chromitites of the Campo Formoso complex (Brazil). Geologica Acta 4, 461-469. [http://www.geologica-acta.com/pdf/vol0404a04.pdf]
China
 
  • Henan Province
    • Nanyang Prefecture
      • Wancheng District
Jianhong Zhang, Zhaohui Li, and Xuefang Wang (1989): Acta Petrologica et Mineralogica 8(1)
Germany
 
  • Saxony
    • Dresden
      • Wurgwitz
http://www.senckenberg.de/files/content/forschung/publikationen/geologicasaxonica/52-53/05_dietze.pdf
Israel
 
  • Negev
Gross, S. (1977): The Mineralogy of the Hatrurim Formation, Israel. Geological Survey of Israel, Bulletin no. 70, 80 pp.
Italy
 
  • Tuscany
    • Livorno Province
      • Livorno
Sartori F. (1967) - La wolchonskoite di Castiglioncello (Livorno). Periodico di Mineralogia – Roma pp. 103-124.
      • Rosignano Marittimo
Antonio Borrelli collection
    • Pisa Province
      • Pomarance
Orlandi P., (2005). "Geositi minerari e mineralogici della provincia di Pisa" in La geologia della provincia di Pisa. Cartografia, geositi e banche dati, pp. 55-280, Provincia di Pisa, 2005
Jordan
 
  • Amman
Pitty, A. F., & Alexander, W. R. (2010). A natural analogue study of cement buffered, hyperalkaline groundwaters and their interaction with a repository host rock IV: an examination of the Khushaym Matruk (central Jordan) and Maqarin (northern Jordan) sites. NDA-RWMD Technical Report, NDA, Moors Row, UK.
Dill, H. G., Kus, J., Abed, A. M., Sachsenhofer, R. F., & Abul Khair, H. (2009). Diagenetic and epigenetic alteration of Cretaceous to Paleogene organic-rich sedimentary successions in northwestern Jordan, typical of the western margin of the Arabian Plate. GeoArabia, 14(2), 101-140.
  • Irbid
    • Maqarin area
Khoury, H. N., Salameh, E., & Abdul-Jaber, Q. (1985). Characteristics of an unusual highly alkaline water from the Maqarin area, northern Jordan. Journal of Hydrology, 81(1), 79-91.
Fourcade et al. (2007)
Norway
 
  • Aust-Agder
    • Froland
Nilssen, B. & Raade, G. (1973): Contribution to the mineralogy of Norway, No 54. On Chromian Montmorillonite (Volkonskoite) in Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 54: 329-331
  • Vestfold
    • Larvik
      • Langesundsfjorden
Nilssen, B. & Raade, G. (1973): Contribution to the mineralogy of Norway, No 54. On Chromian Montmorillonite (Volkonskoite) in Norway. Norsk Geologisk Tidsskrift 54: 329-331
Palestine
 
  • West Bank
    • Hatrurim formation
Gunnar Färber specimens
Ella V. Sokol, Olga L. Gaskova, Svetlana N. Kokh, Olga A. Kozmenko, Yuri V. Seryotkin, Yevgeny Vapnik, and Michail N. Murashko (2011): Chromatite and its Cr3+- and Cr6+-bearing precursor minerals from the Nabi Musa Mottled Zone complex, Judean Desert. American Mineralogist, 96, 659-674.
Russia
 
  • Northern Region
    • Arkhangel'skaja Oblast'
      • Plisetsk area
        • Severoonezhsk
Gorshkov A.I., Demina V.I., Mokhov A.V., Zhukov V.V., Korotkin V.N., Ziborova T.A. (1991) New γ-hydroxide of chromium in bauxite ores of Severoonezhskoe deposit, - Doklady AN SSSR, v. 320, №6, p.1455-1458 (in Rus.)
  • Urals Region
    • Middle Urals
      • Permskaya Oblast'
        • Okhansk
          • Kama River
            • Efimyata Village
MINERALOGICAL MAGAZINE, JUNE 1984, VOL. 48, PP. 297-298; Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
USA
 
  • Arizona
    • Cochise Co.
      • Mule Mts
        • Warren District
[MinRec 24:421]
Anthony, J.W., et al (1995), Mineralogy of Arizona, 3rd.ed.: 415; Graeme, R. (1993), Bisbee revisited, Min.Rec.: 24: 421-436.
  • California
Eckel, Edwin Butt, R.G. Yates & A.E. Granger (1941), Quicksilver deposits in San Luis Obispo County and southwestern Monterey County, California: USGS Bulletin 922-R: 538; Pemberton, H. Earl (1983), Minerals of California; Van Nostrand Reinholt Press: 441.
  • Utah
    • Grand Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
    • San Juan Co.
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
  • Wyoming
Jay Ellis Ransom,1974,Gems and Minerals of America
      • Deer Creek District
Jay Ellis Ransom,1974,Gems and Minerals of America
Mineral and/or Locality  
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