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Black, bluish black, brownish black
Dull, Earthy
1 - 6½
Specific Gravity:
2.8 - 4.4
Wad, wadd, and/or wadt were used as early miner's terms and used for various black mineral substances. The redundant name "black wad" has been frequently attributed to Richard Kirwan in his Elements of Mineralogy (1784) but Kirwan mentioned, but did not cite, neither Josiah Wedgwood's (1783) analysis of "black wadd" nor contemporary experiments with wad by Joseph Banks, nor any earlier sources. (Wad had the unusual oxidizing power of causing an equal mixture of it and linseed oil to combust after an hour or two.) Kirwan did describe the material: "One of the most remarkable ores of manganese is that called black wad; it is of a dark brown colour, partly in powder and partly indurated, and brittle." Earthy wad-like manganese minerals, of course, were used in glassmaking in ancient Rome and wads were used as pigments in prehistoric times. (Manganese metal was first isolated in impure form in 1774.) According to Thomas Robinson (1709), wad was also used relating to graphite by miners in the Westmoreland and Cumberland (Cumbria) regions of England. Robinson (1709) further indicated that the name "wadt" was used in Germany suggesting the black character of a substance. Jonathan Otley (1819) stated that a deed dated November 28, 1614, in Borrowdale, England referred to graphite as wad: "... the several names of wad, black cawke, black lead, plumbago and graphite, by which this mineral has been successively designated..."
A generic name for (often poorly crystalline) soft manganese oxides/hydroxides, often containing significant amounts of hydroxides/oxides of other metals and adsorbed metals (Ni, Co, Cu, Fe, and other transition metals, alkali elements, etc.)
See also the general term Manganese Oxides.

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Pronounciation of WadHide

PlayRecorded byCountry
Jolyon & Katya RalphUnited Kingdom

Physical Properties of WadHide

Dull, Earthy
Black, bluish black, brownish black
Black, bluish black, brownish black, reddish brown, liver-brown
1 - 6½ on Mohs scale
2.8 - 4.4 g/cm3 (Measured)    

First Recorded Occurrence of WadHide

Synonyms of WadHide

Other Language Names for WadHide

Varieties of WadHide

Cobaltian WadA variety of wad containing cobalt.
See also asbolane.
Cuprian WadA copper-bearing variety of wad with an ill-defined composition.
Ferrian WadAn iron-bearing wad.
Lithian WadA lithium-bearing wad.
ManganoxydaluminitAn aluminian variety of wad.
WackenroditeA hydrated oxide of Mn and Pb, now generally accepted as a plumbian variety of Wad. [Clark, 1993, - "Hey's Mineral Index"]

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Malachite32 photos of Wad associated with Malachite on
Azurite7 photos of Wad associated with Azurite on
Cuprite7 photos of Wad associated with Cuprite on
Calcite5 photos of Wad associated with Calcite on
Limonite3 photos of Wad associated with Limonite on
Wulfenite3 photos of Wad associated with Wulfenite on
Chrysocolla3 photos of Wad associated with Chrysocolla on
Goethite3 photos of Wad associated with Goethite on
Hematite2 photos of Wad associated with Hematite on
Duftite2 photos of Wad associated with Duftite on

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for WadHide

Reference List:
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Robinson, Thomas (1709) An Essay Towards a Natural History of Westmoreland and Cumberland, Freeman, pp 95.
Wedgwood, Josiah (1783) Some Experiments upon the Ochra Friabilis Nigro Fusca of Da Costa... and called by the Miners of Derbyshire, Black Wadd, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, p. 284-287.
Otley, Jonathan (1819) Account of the Black-Lead Mine in Borrowdale Cumberland, Memoirs of the Literary & Philosophical Society Manchester, v. 3 series 2, p. 168-175.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 566-567.

Internet Links for WadHide

Localities for WadHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

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Mineral and/or Locality