SUPPORT US. Covid-19 has significantly affected our fundraising. Please help!
Log InRegister
Home PageAbout MindatThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusWho We AreContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatCorporate SponsorshipSponsor a PageSponsored PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on Mindat
Learning CenterWhat is a mineral?The most common minerals on earthInformation for EducatorsMindat ArticlesThe ElementsBooks & Magazines
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryAdvanced Locality SearchRandom MineralRandom LocalitySearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch ArticlesSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
Mining CompaniesStatisticsUsersMineral MuseumsMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryDevice SettingsThe Mineral Quiz
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesSearch by ColorNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day GalleryMineral Photography


This page kindly sponsored by Orange County Mineral Society
Hide all sections | Show all sections

About WarwickiteHide

Dark brown, grey to black; coppery tinge on cleavage at times; reddish brown in transmitted light
Sub-Vitreous, Pearly, Sub-Metallic, Dull
5½ - 6
Specific Gravity:
3.34 - 3.36
Crystal System:
Named after its discovery locality, Warwick, Orange County, New York, USA
Initially found as small, rough, prismatic crystals in white Franklin marble.

Classification of WarwickiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

A : Monoborates
B : BO3, with additional anions; 1(D) + OH, etc.

2 : A2BO2[XO3]

9 : Borates
6 : Borates of Ti, Sn and Ta

Physical Properties of WarwickiteHide

Sub-Vitreous, Pearly, Sub-Metallic, Dull
Dark brown, grey to black; coppery tinge on cleavage at times; reddish brown in transmitted light
Bluish black
5½ - 6 on Mohs scale
Hardness Data:
On {100}.
3.34 - 3.36 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Optical Data of WarwickiteHide

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.806 nβ = 1.809 nγ = 1.830
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.024
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
relatively strong
X = Yellow brown
Y = Reddish brown
Z = Cinnamon brown

Chemical Properties of WarwickiteHide


Crystallography of WarwickiteHide

Crystal System:
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.19 Å, b = 9.35 Å, c = 3.08 Å
a:b:c = 0.983 : 1 : 0.329
Unit Cell V:
264.65 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Slender prismatic crystals, terminations rounded.

Crystal StructureHide

Unit Cell | Unit Cell Packed
2x2x2 | 3x3x3 | 4x4x4
Big Balls | Small Balls | Just Balls | Spacefill
Polyhedra Off | Si Polyhedra | All Polyhedra
Remove metal-metal sticks
Display Options
Black Background | White Background
Perspective On | Perspective Off
2D | Stereo | Red-Blue | Red-Cyan
CIF File    Best | x | y | z | a | b | c
Stop | Start
Console Off | On | Grey | Yellow
IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0000417WarwickiteMoore P B, Araki T (1974) Pinakiolite, Mg2MnO2[BO3]; warwickite, Mg(Mg0.5Ti0.5)O[BO3]; wightmanite, Mg5(O)(OH)5[BO3].nH2O: Crystal chemistry of complex 3 Angstrom wallpaper structures American Mineralogist 59 985-10041974Warwick, Orange County, New York, USA0293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

Type Occurrence of WarwickiteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Small dark grey to blackish prismatic crystals in white crystalline marble
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Occurs in a metamorphosed, crystalline, Precambrian marble (the Franklin Marble).
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of WarwickiteHide

Other Language Names for WarwickiteHide

Relationship of Warwickite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
8 photos of Warwickite associated with SanidineK(AlSi3O8)
4 photos of Warwickite associated with Armalcolite-Pseudobrookite Series
4 photos of Warwickite associated with EnstatiteMg2Si2O6
3 photos of Warwickite associated with FluorophlogopiteKMg3(Si3Al)O10F2
2 photos of Warwickite associated with PseudobrookiteFe2TiO5
2 photos of Warwickite associated with HematiteFe2O3
2 photos of Warwickite associated with SpinelMgAl2O4
2 photos of Warwickite associated with TridymiteSiO2
2 photos of Warwickite associated with PhlogopiteKMg3(AlSi3O10)(OH)2
1 photo of Warwickite associated with DolomiteCaMg(CO3)2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

6.AB.ChubaroviteKZn2(BO3)Cl2Trig. 3 2 : R3 2
6.AB.05HambergiteBe2(BO3)(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
6.AB.10BerboriteBe2(BO3)(OH,F) · H2OTrig.
6.AB.15JeremejeviteAl6(BO3)5(F,OH)3Hex. 6/m : P63/m
6.AB.40BlatteriteSb5+3(Mn3+,Fe3+)9(Mn2+,Mg)35(BO3)16O32Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
6.AB.40ChestermaniteMg2(Fe3+,Mn3+,Al,Sb3+)(BO3)O2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m)
6.AB.45Aluminomagnesiohulsite(Mg,Fe2+)2(Al,Mg,Sn)(BO3)O2Mon. 2/m
6.AB.50HydroxylboriteMg3(BO3)(OH)3Hex. 6/m : P63/m
6.AB.55ShabyniteMg5(BO3)(OH)5(Cl,OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
6.AB.55WightmaniteMg5(BO3)O(OH)5 · 2H2OMon.
6.AB.65SakhaiteCa12Mg4(BO3)7(CO3)4(OH)2ClIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
6.AB.70HarkeriteCa12Mg4Al(BO3)3(SiO4)4(CO3)5 · H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
6.AB.75Pertsevite-(F)Mg2(BO3)(F,OH)Orth. mm2 : Pna21
6.AB.75Pertsevite-(OH)Mg2(BO3)(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
6.AB.80JacquesdietrichiteCu2(H2BO3)(OH)3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmna
6.AB.85PainiteCaZrAl9(BO3)O15Hex. 6/m : P63/m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide,Al)O(BO3)Orth.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

9.6.3NordenskiöldineCaSn4+[BO3]2Trig. 3 : R3
9.6.6Béhierite(Ta5+,Nb5+)(BO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd

Other InformationHide

Decomposed in sulfuric acid.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for WarwickiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Shepard (1838), American Journal of Science: 34: 313-315.
Shepard (1839), American Journal of Science: 36: 85.
Hunt (1846) American Journal of Science: 2: 30 (as Enceladite).
Hunt (1851) American Journal of Science: 11: 352.
Des Cloizeaux, A. (1874) Manuel de minéralogie. 2 volumes and Atlas, Paris. volume 2, 1 Fasc., 208pp. (1874); 2 Fasc., pp 209-544 (1874/93): 16.
Smith (1874) American Journal of Science: 8: 432.
Lacroix (1886) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 7: 74.
Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 881.
Bradley (1909) American Journal of Science: 27: 179.
Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 156.
The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull., Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 96.
Takeuchi, Watanabe and Ito (1950) Acta Crystallographica: 3: 98.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 326-327.
American Mineralogist (1974): 59: 985-1004.
Mineralogical Magazine (1997): 61: 693-698.
Grew, E.S., and Anovitz, L.M. (1996) BORON: Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, second edition, as revised (2002).

Internet Links for WarwickiteHide

Localities for WarwickiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Tasmania
    • West Coast municipality
      • Zeehan district
        • Mt Heemskirk mineral field
Kwak, T.A.P., and Nicholson, M. (1988): Mineralogical Magazine 52, 713-716.
  • Ontario
Grice, Joel D. (1989) Bancroft: the Mineral Capital of Canada. In: Famous mineral localities of Canada. Published by Fitzhenry & Whiteside Limited & the National Museum of Natural Sciences, 190 pages, 92-99; 162-165.
    • Hastings County
      • Herschel Township
Sabina, A.P. (1986) Rocks and Minerals for the Collector, Bancroft-Parry Sound area and Southern Ontario. Geological Survey of Canada, Miscellaneous Report 39, 1986, 182p. Sabina, A.P. (1982) Some rare minerals of the Bancroft [Ontario] area. Mineralogical Record Vol.13, No.(4) July - August, p.226.
  • Thuringia
    • Nordhausen District
      • Harztor
        • Ilfeld
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
  • Iwate Prefecture
    • Miyako City
      • Kamineichi
Watanabe et al (1963) Kotoite, Mg3(BO3)2, from the Neichi mine, Iwate prefecture, Japan. Proceedings of the Japan Academy, series B, 39, 164-169.; Dr. Kameki Kinoshita collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
North Korea
  • North Hwanghae Province
    • Suan County
Bernard, J.H. & Hyrsl, J. (2004) Minerals and their Localities. p 653 (Granit, Prague)
  • Nordland
    • Sortland
      • Godfjorden
Nordrum, F. S. (2007): Nyfunn av mineraler i Norge 2006-2007. Stein 34 (2): 14-26
  • Troms og Finnmark
Nordrum, F. S. (2007): Nyfunn av mineraler i Norge 2006-2007. STEIN 34 (2), 14-26
  • Chelyabinsk Oblast
Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
  • Sakha Republic (Yakutia)
    • Aldan
Schreyer, W., Pertsev, N.N., Medenbach, O., Burchard, M., and Dettmar, D. (1998) Pseudosinhalite: discovery of the hydrous MgAl-borate as a new mineral in the Tayozhnoye, Siberia, skarn deposit. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 133: 382-388.; Jambor, J.L., Pertsev, N.N., and Roberts, A.C. (1999) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 84: 1195-1198.
  • Murcia
    • Cartagena
      • La Aljorra
Dr. Cesar Menor Salván
    • Jumilla
      • La Celia lamproite outcrops
Christophe Boutry Collection
  • Tanga Region
Bowden, P., von Knorring, O. and Bartholemew, R.W. (1969). Sinhalite and serendibite from Tanzania. Mineralogical Magazine, 37, 145-147.
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex County
      • Hardyston Township
        • Rudeville
Volkert, et al. (2005)
  • New York
    • Orange Co.
      • Town of Warwick
The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull., Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 63.
George Robinson & Steven Chamberlain (2007) Gazetteer of major New York State mineral localities. Rocks & Minerals, 82, #6, 472-483.
The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull., Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 71.
Shepard, 1838; AM:59(1974):985; The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull. Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 96.
    • St. Lawrence Co.
      • Balmat-Edwards Zinc Mining District
        • Edwards
Lupulescu, M.V., Rowe, R., Bailey, D., Hawkins, M. (2013) Chernikovite, Fe-free warwickite, and dissakisite-(Ce) from New York state, USA. The 40th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, Contributed Papers in Specimen Mineralogy, 20-21.
Mineral and/or Locality  
Mindat Discussions Facebook Logo Instagram Logo Discord Logo is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization. Public Relations by Blytheweigh.
Copyright © and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2021, except where stated. Most political location boundaries are © OpenStreetMap contributors. relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us - Report a bug/vulnerability Current server date and time: January 26, 2021 23:40:19 Page generated: January 26, 2021 06:44:14
Go to top of page