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Warwickite

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Formula:
(Mg,Ti,Fe,Cr,Al)2O(BO3)
Colour:
Dark brown, grey to black; coppery tinge on cleavage at times; reddish brown in transmitted light
Lustre:
Sub-Vitreous, Pearly, Sub-Metallic, Dull
Hardness:
5½ - 6
Specific Gravity:
3.34 - 3.36
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
Named after its discovery locality, Warwick, Orange County, New York, USA
Initially found as small, rough, prismatic crystals in white Franklin marble.


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Classification of WarwickiteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
6.AB.20

6 : BORATES
A : Monoborates
B : BO3, with additional anions; 1(D) + OH, etc.
24.2.2.1

24 : ANHYDROUS BORATES
2 : A2BO2[XO3]
9.6.1

9 : Borates
6 : Borates of Ti, Sn and Ta

Physical Properties of WarwickiteHide

Sub-Vitreous, Pearly, Sub-Metallic, Dull
Colour:
Dark brown, grey to black; coppery tinge on cleavage at times; reddish brown in transmitted light
Streak:
Bluish black
Hardness:
5½ - 6 on Mohs scale
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
On {100}.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
3.34 - 3.36 g/cm3 (Measured)    

Optical Data of WarwickiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.806 nβ = 1.809 nγ = 1.830
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.024
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Dispersion:
relatively strong
Pleochroism:
Visible
Comments:
X = Yellow brown
Y = Reddish brown
Z = Cinnamon brown

Chemical Properties of WarwickiteHide

Formula:
(Mg,Ti,Fe,Cr,Al)2O(BO3)

Crystallography of WarwickiteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Cell Parameters:
a = 9.19 Å, b = 9.35 Å, c = 3.08 Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.983 : 1 : 0.329
Unit Cell V:
264.65 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Slender prismatic crystals, terminations rounded.

Type Occurrence of WarwickiteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Small dark grey to blackish prismatic crystals in white crystalline marble
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Occurs in a metamorphosed, crystalline, Precambrian marble (the Franklin Marble).
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of WarwickiteHide

Other Language Names for WarwickiteHide

Relationship of Warwickite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
YuanfuliiteMg(Fe3+,Al)O(BO3)Orth.

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Sanidine8 photos of Warwickite associated with Sanidine on mindat.org.
Armalcolite-Pseudobrookite Series4 photos of Warwickite associated with Armalcolite-Pseudobrookite Series on mindat.org.
Enstatite4 photos of Warwickite associated with Enstatite on mindat.org.
Fluorophlogopite3 photos of Warwickite associated with Fluorophlogopite on mindat.org.
Pseudobrookite2 photos of Warwickite associated with Pseudobrookite on mindat.org.
Hematite2 photos of Warwickite associated with Hematite on mindat.org.
Spinel2 photos of Warwickite associated with Spinel on mindat.org.
Tridymite2 photos of Warwickite associated with Tridymite on mindat.org.
Phlogopite2 photos of Warwickite associated with Phlogopite on mindat.org.
Dolomite1 photo of Warwickite associated with Dolomite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

6.AB.05HambergiteBe2(BO3)(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbca
6.AB.10BerboriteBe2(BO3)(OH,F) · H2OTrig.
6.AB.15JeremejeviteAl6(BO3)5(F,OH)3Hex. 6/m : P63/m
6.AB.20YuanfuliiteMg(Fe3+,Al)O(BO3)Orth.
6.AB.25KarliteMg7(BO3)3(OH,Cl)5Orth.
6.AB.30Azoproite(Mg,Fe2+)2(Fe3+,Ti,Mg)(BO3)O2Orth.
6.AB.30BonaccorditeNi2Fe3+(BO3)O2Orth.
6.AB.30FredrikssoniteMg2(Mn3+,Fe3+)(BO3)O2Orth.
6.AB.30LudwigiteMg2Fe3+(BO3)O2Orth.
6.AB.30VonseniteFe2+2Fe3+(BO3)O2Orth.
6.AB.35Pinakiolite(Mg,Mn2+)2Mn3+(BO3)O2Mon.
6.AB.40BlatteriteSb5+(Mn3+,Fe3+)9(Mn2+,Mg)35(BO3)16O32Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnnm
6.AB.40ChestermaniteMg2(Fe3+,Mn3+,Al,Sb3+)(BO3)O2Orth.
6.AB.40Orthopinakiolite(Mg,Mn2+)2Mn3+(BO3)O2Orth.
6.AB.40Takéuchiite(Mg,Mn2+)2(Mn3+,Fe3+)(BO3)O2Orth.
6.AB.45Hulsite(Fe2+,Mg)2(Fe3+,Sn)(BO3)O2Mon.
6.AB.45Magnesiohulsite(Mg,Fe2+)2(Fe3+,Sn,Mg)(BO3)O2Mon.
6.AB.45Aluminomagnesiohulsite(Mg,Fe2+)2(Al,Mg,Sn)(BO3)O2Mon. 2/m
6.AB.50FluoboriteMg3(BO3)(F,OH)3Hex.
6.AB.50HydroxylboriteMg3(BO3)(OH)3Hex. 6/m : P63/m
6.AB.55ShabyniteMg5(BO3)(OH)5(Cl,OH)2 · 4H2OMon.
6.AB.55WightmaniteMg5(BO3)O(OH)5 · 2H2OMon.
6.AB.60GaudefroyiteCa4Mn3+2-3(BO3)3(CO3)(O,OH)3Hex.
6.AB.65SakhaiteCa12Mg4(BO3)7(CO3)4(OH)2ClIso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fd3m
6.AB.70HarkeriteCa12Mg4Al(BO3)3(SiO4)4(CO3)5 · H2OTrig. 3m (3 2/m) : R3m
6.AB.75Pertsevite-(F)Mg2(BO3)(F,OH)Orth. mm2 : Pna21
6.AB.75Pertsevite-(OH)Mg2(BO3)(OH)Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
6.AB.80JacquesdietrichiteCu2(H2BO3)(OH)3Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmna
6.AB.85PainiteCaZrAl9(BO3)O15Hex.

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

24.2.2.2YuanfuliiteMg(Fe3+,Al)O(BO3)Orth.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

9.6.2Azoproite(Mg,Fe2+)2(Fe3+,Ti,Mg)(BO3)O2Orth.
9.6.3NordenskiöldineCaSn4+[BO3]2Trig. 3 : R3
9.6.4Hulsite(Fe2+,Mg)2(Fe3+,Sn)(BO3)O2Mon.
9.6.5Magnesiohulsite(Mg,Fe2+)2(Fe3+,Sn,Mg)(BO3)O2Mon.
9.6.6Béhierite(Ta5+,Nb5+)(BO4)Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/amd

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Decomposed in sulfuric acid.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for WarwickiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Shepard (1838), American Journal of Science: 34: 313-315.
Shepard (1839), American Journal of Science: 36: 85.
Hunt (1846) American Journal of Science: 2: 30 (as Enceladite).
Hunt (1851) American Journal of Science: 11: 352.
Des Cloizeaux, A. (1874) Manuel de minéralogie. 2 volumes and Atlas, Paris. volume 2, 1 Fasc., 208pp. (1874); 2 Fasc., pp 209-544 (1874/93): 16.
Smith (1874) American Journal of Science: 8: 432.
Lacroix (1886) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 7: 74.
Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 881.
Bradley (1909) American Journal of Science: 27: 179.
Larsen, E.S. (1921) The Microscopic Determination of the Nonopaque Minerals, First edition, USGS Bulletin 679: 156.
The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull., Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 96.
Takeuchi, Watanabe and Ito (1950) Acta Crystallographica: 3: 98.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 326-327.
American Mineralogist (1974): 59: 985-1004.
Mineralogical Magazine (1997): 61: 693-698.
Grew, E.S., and Anovitz, L.M. (1996) BORON: Mineralogy, Petrology and Geochemistry, second edition, as revised (2002).

Internet Links for WarwickiteHide

Localities for WarwickiteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Australia
 
  • Tasmania
    • West Coast municipality
      • Zeehan district
        • Mt Heemskirk mineral field
Kwak, T.A.P., and Nicholson, M. (1988): Mineralogical Magazine 52, 713-716.
Canada
 
  • Ontario
    • Hastings Co.
      • Herschel Township
Sabina, A.P. (1986) Rocks and Minerals for the Collector, Bancroft-Parry Sound area and Southern Ontario. Geological Survey of Canada, Miscellaneous Report 39, 1986, 182p. Sabina, A.P. (1982) Some rare minerals of the Bancroft [Ontario] area. Mineralogical Record Vol.13, No.(4) July - August, p.226.
Germany
 
  • Thuringia
    • Harz
      • Nordhausen
        • Ilfeld
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
Japan
 
  • Honshu Island
    • Tohoku Region
      • Iwate Prefecture
        • Miyako City
          • Kamineichi
Watanabe et al (1963) Kotoite, Mg3(BO3)2, from the Neichi mine, Iwate prefecture, Japan. Proceedings of the Japan Academy, series B, 39, 164-169.; Dr. Kameki Kinoshita collection (curated at Geological Survey of Japan)
North Korea
 
  • North Hwanghae Province
    • Suan-gun
Bernard, J.H. & Hyrsl, J. (2004) Minerals and their Localities. p 653 (Granit, Prague)
Norway
 
  • Troms
Nordrum, F. S. (2007): Nyfunn av mineraler i Norge 2006-2007. STEIN 34 (2), 14-26
Russia
 
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
      • Aldan Shield
        • Aldan
Schreyer, W., Pertsev, N.N., Medenbach, O., Burchard, M., and Dettmar, D. (1998) Pseudosinhalite: discovery of the hydrous MgAl-borate as a new mineral in the Tayozhnoye, Siberia, skarn deposit. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 133: 382-388.; Jambor, J.L., Pertsev, N.N., and Roberts, A.C. (1999) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 84: 1195-1198.
  • Urals Region
    • Southern Urals
      • Chelyabinsk Oblast'
Cesnokov, B., Kotrly, M. and Nisanbajev, T. (1998): Brennende Abraumhalden und Aufschlüsse im Tscheljabinsker Kohlenbecken - eine reiche Mineralienküche. Mineralien-Welt, 9 (3), 54-63 (in German).
Spain
 
  • Murcia
    • Cartagena
      • La Aljorra
Dr. Cesar Menor Salván
USA
 
  • New Jersey
    • Sussex Co.
      • Hardyston Township
        • Rudeville
Volkert, et al. (2005)
  • New York
    • Orange Co.
      • Town of Warwick
The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull., Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 63.
George Robinson & Steven Chamberlain (2007) Gazetteer of major New York State mineral localities. Rocks & Minerals, 82, #6, 472-483.
The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull., Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 71.
Shepard, 1838; AM:59(1974):985; The Minerals of New York City & Its Environs, New York Mineralogical Club Bull. Vol. 3, No. 1, Manchester, J.G. (1931): 96.
    • St. Lawrence Co.
      • Balmat-Edwards Zinc District
        • Edwards
Lupulescu, M.V., Rowe, R., Bailey, D., Hawkins, M. (2013) Chernikovite, Fe-free warwickite, and dissakisite-(Ce) from New York state, USA. The 40th Rochester Mineralogical Symposium, Contributed Papers in Specimen Mineralogy, 20-21.
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