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William Whewell
Ca(C2O4) · H2O
White, yellow, brown, colourless; colourless in transmitted light.
Vitreous, Pearly
2½ - 3
Specific Gravity:
2.21 - 2.23
Crystal System:
Named after William Whewell (1794-1866), English naturalist and scientist, Professor of Moral Philosophy and inventor of the system of crystallographic indexing.

The type locality is uncertain, however, the most likely type locality is Cavnic, Romania (Papp, G. (2004) History of minerals, rocks and fossil resins discovered in the Carpathian Region. Hungarian Natural History Museum publ., Studia Naturalia 15, 215p.)
A rare low-temperature primary hydrothermal mineral in carbonate-sulphide veins; also occurs in geodes, or septarian nodules; associated with coal measures and surrounding rocks with organic material; in some uranium deposits. As microscopic crystals in living plant cells and as calculi or as a sediment in the human urinary tract. Also described as a product of fungal activity (e.g., Burford et al., 2003; compare 'Unnamed (Pb Oxalate Dihydrate)'), e.g. in Nali Limecrusts, some calcretes, leaf litter and soils in forests; also formed by lichen on various rocks (basalts, serpentinites, Cu-bearing rocks, gabbroes, dolerites, andesites); many organisms produce the mineral (e.g., Acarospora, Aspicilia, Lecanora, Lecidea, Parmelia).

NOTE: Cleaning any specimen containing Ca-bearing soluble species with oxalic acid will lead to crystallisation of whewellite or weddellite.

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Classification of WhewelliteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)

A : Salts of organic acids
B : Oxalates

1 : Oxalates

31 : Oxalates, Citrates, Mellitates and Acetates
1 : Oxalates

Physical Properties of WhewelliteHide

Vitreous, Pearly
Transparent, Translucent
Lustre pearly on {010} and on some cleavages.
White, yellow, brown, colourless; colourless in transmitted light.
2½ - 3 on Mohs scale
Very Good
On {101} very good; on {010}, imperfect; on {001}, {110}, indistinct.
2.21 - 2.23 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.22 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of WhewelliteHide

Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.489 - 1.491 nβ = 1.553 - 1.554 nγ = 1.649 - 1.650
Measured: 80° to 84°, Calculated: 84°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.160
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:

Chemical Properties of WhewelliteHide

Ca(C2O4) · H2O
IMA Formula:
CaC2O4 · H2O
CAS Registry number:

CAS Registry numbers are published by the American Chemical Society

Crystallography of WhewelliteHide

Crystal System:
Class (H-M):
2/m - Prismatic
Space Group:
Cell Parameters:
a = 6.290 Å, b = 14.583 Å, c = 10.116 Å
β = 109.46°
a:b:c = 0.431 : 1 : 0.694
Unit Cell V:
874.90 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals equant to short prismatic [001], typically distorted with faces commonly irregularly developed, exhibiting forms {001}, {011}, {010}, {110}, {120}, {132}, {101}, plus several additional. Cleavable massive.

Very common on {101} as twin and contact plane, with or without reentrant angles, yielding heart-shaped or prismatic, and of pseudo-orthorhombic appearance.
Other (standard) setting in space group: P21/n, with 6.29, 14.58, 9.97 Å, 107°.

Crystallographic forms of WhewelliteHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Whewellite no.7 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by

Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Image Loading

Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Synonyms of WhewelliteHide

Other Language Names for WhewelliteHide

Common AssociatesHide

WeddelliteCa(C2O4) · (2.5-x)H2O
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Calcite22 photos of Whewellite associated with Calcite on
Siderite17 photos of Whewellite associated with Siderite on
Chalcedony13 photos of Whewellite associated with Chalcedony on
Smythite7 photos of Whewellite associated with Smythite on
Ferroan Dolomite3 photos of Whewellite associated with Ferroan Dolomite on
Moolooite3 photos of Whewellite associated with Moolooite on
Copper3 photos of Whewellite associated with Copper on
Eosphorite2 photos of Whewellite associated with Eosphorite on
Dolomite2 photos of Whewellite associated with Dolomite on
Dickite2 photos of Whewellite associated with Dickite on

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

10.AB.05HumboldtineFe2+(C2O4) · 2H2OMon. 2/m
10.AB.05LindbergiteMn2+(C2O4) · 2H2OMon. 2/m
10.AB.10GlushinskiteMg(C2O4) · 2H2OMon.
10.AB.15MoolooiteCu(C2O4) · 0.4H2OOrth.
10.AB.20StepanoviteNaMgFe3+(C2O4)3 · 8-9H2OTrig. 3m : P3c1
10.AB.25MinguzziteK3Fe3+(C2O4)3 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b
10.AB.30WheatleyiteNa2Cu(C2O4)2 · 2H2OTric.
10.AB.35ZhemchuzhnikoviteNaMgAl(C2O4)3 · 8H2OTrig. 3m : P3c1
10.AB.40WeddelliteCa(C2O4) · (2.5-x)H2OTet. 4/m : I4/m
10.AB.50CaoxiteCa(C2O4) · 3H2OTric.
10.AB.55Oxammite(NH4)2(C2O4) · H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 2
10.AB.65Coskrenite-(Ce)(Ce,Nd,La)2(C2O4)(SO4)2 · 12H2OTric.
10.AB.70Levinsonite-(Y)(Y,Nd,La)Al(C2O4)(SO4)2 · 12H2OMon. 2/m
10.AB.75Zugshunstite-(Ce)(Ce,Nd,La)Al(C2O4)(SO4)2 · 12H2OMon.
10.AB.80NovgorodovaiteCa2(C2O4)Cl2 · 2H2OMon. 2/m

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

31.1.1Oxammite(NH4)2(C2O4) · H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : P21 21 2
31.1.2MoolooiteCu(C2O4) · 0.4H2OOrth.
31.1.3WheatleyiteNa2Cu(C2O4)2 · 2H2OTric.
31.1.4GlushinskiteMg(C2O4) · 2H2OMon.
31.1.6WeddelliteCa(C2O4) · (2.5-x)H2OTet. 4/m : I4/m
31.1.7HumboldtineFe2+(C2O4) · 2H2OMon. 2/m
31.1.8StepanoviteNaMgFe3+(C2O4)3 · 8-9H2OTrig. 3m : P3c1
31.1.9ZhemchuzhnikoviteNaMgAl(C2O4)3 · 8H2OTrig. 3m : P3c1
31.1.10MinguzziteK3Fe3+(C2O4)3 · 3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/b

Other InformationHide

Soluble in acids. Insoluble in water.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for WhewelliteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Brooke, H. T. (1840) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 16: 449-450 (as Oxalate of Lime).
Shepard C.U. (1844) Treatise on Mineralogy. second edition: 111 (as Oxacalcite).
Brooke, H.J. and Miller, W.H. (1852) Introduction to Mineralogy by Wm. Phillips, London, 1823. New edition by Brooke and Miller. 8vo, London: 623.
Liebig (1853) Annalen der Chemie, Leipzig (Justus Liebig’s): 86: 113 (as Thierschite).
Dana, J.D. (1854) System of Mineralogy, 4th. Edition, New York.
Frenzel (1889) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 11: 83 (as Kohlenspath).
Becke (1907) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: 26: 391.
Slavík (1908) Rozpr. böhm. Ak. Prag: 17, no. 38.
Ježek (1908) Ac. Sc. Bohéme, Bull.: 13: 1.
Ježek (1909) Ac. Sc. Bohéme, Bull.: 14: 1.
Ungemach (1909) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 32: 20.
Ježek (1911) Ac. Sc. Bohéme, Bull.: 16: 1.
Kolbeck, Goldschmidt, and Schröder (1918) Beitr. Kr. Min.: 1: 199.
Wherry (1922) Journal of the Washington Academy of Science: 12: 196.
Goldschmidt, V. (1923) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 9: 70.
Frey (1924) Schweizerische mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Frauenfeld: 4: 16.
Vassoyevicz and Razumovsky (1928) Mem. soc. russe min.: 57: 275.
Kašpar (1932) Vĕstnik. Král. Čes. Spol. Nauk, Cl. 2, no. 34.
Kašpar (1939) Knihov. Stat. Geol. Úst. Česk. Repub.: 20: 1.
Pobeguin, et al (1943) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 216: 500, 808.
Kalyuzhnyi (1948) Comptes rendus de l’académie des sciences de l’U.R.S.S.: 59: 1631.
Pecora, W.T. and J.H. Kerr (1954) Whewellite from a septarian limestone concretion in marine shale near Havre, Montana. American Mineralogist, 39, 208–214.
Leavens, P.B. (1968) New data on whewellite. American Mineralogist: 53: 455-463.
Tazzoli, V. & Domeneghetti, M.C. (1980): The crystal structures of whewellite and weddellite: re-examination and comparison. American Mineralogist 65, 327-334.
Deganello, S. and O.E. Piro (1981) The crystal structure of calcium oxalate monohydrate (whewellite). Neues Jahrb. Mineral., Monatsh., 81–88.
Zapiski Vserossiyskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva (1984): 113: 84.
Burford, E.P., Kierans, M., Gadd, G.M. (2003): Geomycology: fungi in mineral substrata. Mycologist: 17(3): 98-107; DOI: 10.1017/S0269915X03003112

Internet Links for WhewelliteHide

Localities for WhewelliteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • New South Wales
    • Durham Co.
      • Muswellbrook
Keith F Compton collection
  • South Australia
    • Flinders Ranges
      • North Flinders Ranges
        • Wooltana homestead area
Snow, M. R., Pring, A., & Allen, N. (2014). Minerals of the Wooltana Cave, Flinders Ranges, South Australia. Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia, 138(2), 214-230.
  • Tasmania
    • Circular Head municipality
      • Cape Grim district
  • Victoria
    • City of Greater Shepparton
      • Murchison
Louis H. Fuchs, Kenneth J. Jensen & Edward Olsen (1970). Mineralogy and Composition of the Murchison Meteorite. Meteoritics 5, #4, p. 198. (Dec 1970).
  • Western Australia
    • Upper Gascoyne Shire
Moolooite, a Naturally Occurring Hydrated Copper Oxalate; R.M. Clarke and I.R. Williams; Mineralogical Magazine, June 1986, Vol 50, pp 295-298
Clarke, R.M., Williams, I.R. (1986) Moolooite, a naturally occurring hydrated copper oxalate from Western Australia, Mineralogical Magazine (June 1986) Vol.50, pp295-298.
  • Salzburg
    • Hohe Tauern
      • Habach valley
NIEDERMAYR, G., F. BERNHARD, H.-P. BOJAR, F. BRANDSTÄTTER, H. FINK, J. GRÖBNER, V. M. F. HAMMER, G. KNOBLOCH, U. KOLITSCH, B. LEIKAUF, W. POSTL, M. SABOR, & F. WALTER (2006): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LV. – Carinthia II, 196./116.: 121-157.
  • Vorarlberg
    • Bregenz
      • Pfänder massif
Kolitsch, U. (2017): 2012) Baryt und Whewellit in den „Eichenberger Kugeln“ am Eichenberg, Pfändermassiv, Bregenz, Vorarlberg. Pp. 228-229 in Walter, F. et al. (2017): Neue Mineralfunde aus Österreich LXVI. Carinthia II, 207./127., 217-284.
  • Minas Gerais
    • Itinga
      • Monte Belo
Luiz Alberto Dias Menezes
Czech Republic
  • Bohemia (Böhmen; Boehmen)
    • Central Bohemia Region
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1101; Duda, Rejl, Slivka: "Mineralien", 1991; Zacek, V., Oplustil, S., Mayova, A. & Meyer, F. R. (1995): Die Mineralien von Kladno in Mittelböhmen, Tschechische Republik. Mineralien-Welt 6 (1), 13-30 (in German).
        • Pchery
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1101.
Šarf J.: Nové nálezy v kladenských pelosideritech. Časopis pro mineralogii a geologii, 1979, 24, 3, 324-325.
      • Příbram
        • Dubenec
Litochleb et al. (2005) Bull. Nár. muz. (Praha)
    • Ústí Region
      • Bílina (Bilin)
Bouška, V., Dvořák, Z.: Nerosty severočeské hěndouhelné pánve. Praha: Severočeské doly, a.s., 160 s.
      • Chomutov (Komotau)
Svejkovský, J., Koutecký, D.: Nerosty v pelokarbonátových konkrecích na hnědouhelném lomu Libouš u Chomutova. Minerál, 2008, roč. 16, č. 1, s. 41 - 44.
      • Duchcov (Dux)
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1101.
      • Most
RnDr.Zdeněk Dvořák
  • Lapland Region
    • Savukoski
      • Tulppio
Vartiainen, H. 1980 The petrography, mineralogy and petrochemistry of the Sokli carbonative massif, northern Finland. Geological Survey of Finland, Bulletin, 313
  • Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes
    • Drôme
Martin, R. (1989): "La whewellite de Condorcet (Drôme, France, 1° partie)." Le Cristallier Suisse, 8(7), 301-333.; Anthony, John. W., Bideaux, R., Bladh, K., Nichols, M., Eds., (2001-2005) Handbook of Mineralogy, Mineralogical Society of America. ; Hofmann, B. A., & Bernasconi, S. M. (1998). Review of occurrences and carbon isotope geochemistry of oxalate minerals: implications for the origin and fate of oxalate in diagenetic and hydrothermal fluids. Chemical Geology, 149(1), 127-146.
    • Loire
      • Saint-Just-en-Chevalet
"Les Mineraux, leurs gisements, leurs associations" P. Bariand, F. Cesbron, J. Geffroy, Mineraux et Fossiles 1978
P.-C. Guiollard (2002), L'uranium du Morvan et du Forez, Ed. P.-C. Guiollard, Fichous(64), 95 pp.
J.-J. Périchaud: "Où trouver les minéraux d'Auvergne", Vol. 1, Editions l'Instant Durable (Clermont-Ferrand), 1985, p. 92
  • Grand Est
    • Bas-Rhin
      • Villé Valley
        • Urbeis
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1101.
  • Lower Saxony
    • Peine
Aufschluss 1986(8+9), 282
  • North Rhine-Westphalia
    • Münsterland
      • Steinfurt
        • Ibbenbüren
Weiss: "Mineralfundstellen, Deutschland West", Weise (Munich), 1990
  • Rhineland-Palatinate
    • Eifel
      • Niederzissen
        • Hannebach
Hentschel, G., Die Mineralien der Eifelvulkane, Weise Verlag, München (2. Auflage), 1987
  • Saxony
    • Dresden
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1101; O'Donoghue, 1976 - "Encyclopedia of Minerals & Gemstones", 286.
    • Erzgebirge
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1101; Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
      • Schlema-Hartenstein District
Roger Lang collection
No reference listed
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1101; O'Donoghue, 1976 - "Encyclopedia of Minerals & Gemstones", 286.
      • Oelsnitz
Leon Hupperichs Collection
  • Thuringia
    • Gera
      • Ronneburg U deposit
T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
Wittern: "Mineralfundorte in Deutschland", 2001
T. Witzke & F. Rüger: Lapis 1998(7/8), 26-64
  • Kujalleq
    • Narsaq
Soerensen, H. (2001): The Ilimaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland: status of mineralogical research with new results, Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin 190, GEUS; Petersen, O.V. (2001): List of all minerals identified in the Ilímaussaq alkaline complex, South Greenland. Geology of Greenland Survey Bulletin. 190, 25-33
  • Fejér Co.
    • Bicske-Zsámbéki Basin
      • Bicske-Csordakút
  • Heves Co.
    • Mátra Mts
      • Recsk
Weiszburg,1983; Annual report of the Hungarian Geological Survey 1991 p420
Szakáll & Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary, 1995
  • Komárom-Esztergom Co.
    • Gerecse Mts
Szakáll & Jánosi: Minerals of Hungary, 1995
    • Pilisi Basin
      • Dorog
  • Northern District (HaZafon District)
    • Northern Jordan Valley
Cowgill, U.M. (1989): A naturally occurring alpha magnesium oxalate dihydrate from the northern Jordan Valley (Israel). Mineralogical Magazine: 53: 505-507
  • Emilia-Romagna
    • Modena Province
Dondi, M. & Puggioli, G. (1990): Minerali organici, 1 parte. Rivista Mineralogica Italiana, 4/1990, 189-206.
  • Piedmont
    • Verbano-Cusio-Ossola Province
      • Ossola Valley
        • Antigorio Valley
          • Devero Valley
            • Baceno
              • Devero Alp
A.Guastoni, P.Gentile, F.Nestola, F.Soldani, F.Zorzi (2015): Humboldtina e Whewellite: due nuovi ossalati per il Monte Cervandone, valle Devero (VB). Riv. Mineral. Ital., 04-2015, 252-256.
Kolitsch, U., Lackner, E., Ciriotti, M.E. (2008): Lindbergite: primo ritrovamento italiano a Molinello. Addendum-corrigendum. Micro (UK Report), 2/2008, 77-78
  • Coahuila
    • Mun. de Cuatrociénegas
      • Cuatro Ciénegas (Cuatrociénegas de Carranza; Venustiano Carranza)
        • Limestone caves
Forti, P. et al. (2006): ACTA CARSOLOGICA 35/1, 79–98.
  • Upper Silesia (Śląskie)
    • Tarnowskie Góry District
      • Ożarowice commune
        • Pyrzowice area
Smieja-Król, B. (2013): The formation of ZnS and barite pseudomorphs after Ca oxalate crystals in organic rich soil. Mineralogia Special Papers: 39: 71
  • Maramureș Co.
Palache, C., Berman, H., & Frondel, C. (1951), The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II: 1101.
Mineralogical Record 28:132-139
  • Eastern-Siberian Region
    • Sakha Republic (Saha Republic; Yakutia)
      • Polar Yakutia
        • Bulun District
          • Lena River Basin
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
Pekov, I. (1998) Minerals First discovered on the territory of the former Soviet Union 369p. Ocean Pictures, Moscow
    • Transbaikalia (Zabaykalye)
      • Chitinskaya Oblast'
        • Krasnokamensk
P.M. Kartashov data
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Primorskiy Kray
      • Kavalerovo Mining District
        • Dal'negorsk (Dalnegorsk; Tetyukhe; Tjetjuche; Tetjuche)
Min Rec vol 32, pp 7-30 (2001)
  • Krasnodarskiy Kray
    • Apsheronsk area
      • Khadyzhensk
Pavel M. Kartashov data
  • Prešov Region
    • Bardejov Co.
Bačo,P.,Pacindová,M., 1993: Whewellit a dawsonit - epigenetická mineralizácia v puklinách pieskovca pri Cígeľke. Min.Slovaca,Bratislava, 4,277-281p
  • Trenčín Region
    • Prievidza Co.
      • Handlová
Števko M., Bačík P., Cagáň P., 2011: Výskyt whewellitu v pelosideritoch uhoľného ložiska Handlová (Slovenská republika). Bull. mineral.-petrolog. Odd. Nár. Muz. (Praha), 19, 1, 27-31.
  • England
    • North Yorkshire
      • North Pennines
        • Craven District
          • Ingleton
No reference listed
  • Crimea Oblast'
World of Stones v.9
  • Arizona
    • Cochise Co.
Rolf Luetcke
  • Florida
    • Polk Co.
      • Central Florida Phosphate District (Bone Valley)
        • Homeland
Marc V. Hurst (2012) Central Florida Phosphate District. Southeastern Geological Society Field Trip Guidebook No. 57
  • Michigan
    • Keweenaw Co.
      • Ahmeek
Mineralogy of Michigan (2004) Heinrich & Robinson
  • Montana
    • Hill Co.
Am Min 39:208-214
  • Ohio
    • Franklin Co.
      • Columbus
Carlson, Ernest H. (1991), Minerals of Ohio. Ohio Department of Natural Resources.
Minerals of Ohio Bull. 69 ODNR
    • Huron Co.
      • Huron River
American Mineralogist, 51: 228.
  • Oregon
    • Sherman Co.
Campbell, T. and Roberts, W., 1986, Whewellite from South Dakota and a Review of Other North American Locanities, Mineralogical Record, v 17:131-133.
  • South Dakota
    • Meade Co.
      • Dalzell
Lapis Vol 21, no. 1 (1996)
Handbook of Mineralogy - Anthony, Bideaux, Bladh, Nichols
  • Texas
    • Hudspeth Co.
      • Van Horn Mts
R&M 66:3 pp 196-224
  • Utah
AmMin 45:1257
      • Big Indian District (Big Indian Wash - Lisbon Valley Area)
UGMS Bull 117 Minerals and Mineral Localities of Utah
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