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Wurtzite

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Charles Adolphe Wurtz
Formula:
ZnS
System:
Hexagonal
Colour:
Dark reddish-brown to ...
Lustre:
Resinous
Hardness:
3½ - 4
Member of:
Name:
Named in 1861 by Charles Friedel in honor of Charles Adolphe Wurtz [November 26, 1817 Wolfisheim, near Strasbourg, France - May 10, 1884 Paris, France], French chemist who promoted ideas of atomic structure and organic chemistry. Wurtz was a laboratory assistant for Jean Baptiste Dumas at the École de Médecine and succeeded Dumas and later appointed professor of organic and mineral chemistry and eventually promoted to dean of the college. Wurtz was appointed chair of organic chemistry at the Sorbonne. Wurtz was one of the most influential chemists in the world and he received many honors in his lifetime and his name is one of 72 scientists, mathematicians, and engineers whose name is on the Eifel Tower. Biography by Rocke (2001).
Dimorph of:
Wurtzite Group.

Usually found as black to dark reddish-brown massive resinous to sub-metallic material, also as botryoidal banded crusts, and more rarely as hemimorphic pyramidal, or tabular, crystals.
Several polytypes are known; the hexagonal 2H polytype is the most common. Haussühl and Müller (1963) also mention the 4H, 6H, 8H, 10H, and 15R ones.


Classification of Wurtzite

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
2.CB.45

2 : SULFIDES and SULFOSALTS (sulfides, selenides, tellurides; arsenides, antimonides, bismuthides; sulfarsenites, sulfantimonites, sulfbismuthites, etc.)
C : Metal Sulfides, M: S = 1: 1 (and similar)
B : With Zn, Fe, Cu, Ag, etc.
Dana 7th ed.:
2.8.7.1
2.8.7.1

2 : SULFIDES
8 : AmXp, with m:p = 1:1
3.4.5

3 : Sulphides, Selenides, Tellurides, Arsenides and Bismuthides (except the arsenides, antimonides and bismuthides of Cu, Ag and Au, which are included in Section 1)
4 : Sulphides etc. of Group II metals other than Hg (Mg, Ca, Zn, Cd)

Physical Properties of Wurtzite

Resinous
Diaphaneity (Transparency):
Translucent
Comment:
Brilliant submetallic on crystal faces.
Colour:
Dark reddish-brown to black, orange-brown
Streak:
Brown
Hardness (Mohs):
3½ - 4
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Very Good
Very good and easy on {1120), more difficult on {0001}.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
4 - 4.1 g/cm3 (Measured)    4.09 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Wurtzite

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 2.356 nε = 2.378
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.022
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness) and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Internal Reflections:
Yellow to dark brown

Chemical Properties of Wurtzite

IMA Formula:
ZnS
Elements listed in formula:
Analytical Data:
May contain up to 8% Fe and 4% Cd.
Common Impurities:
Fe,Cd

Crystallography of Wurtzite

Polytype:
Formula:
Crystal System:
Class (H-M)
Space Group:
Space Group Setting:
Cell Parameters:
Ratio:
Unit Cell Volume (calc):
Z:
Wurtzite-10HWurtzite-12RWurtzite-15RWurtzite-18RWurtzite-21RWurtzite-2HWurtzite-4HWurtzite-5HWurtzite-6HWurtzite-8H
ZnS    (Zn,Fe)SZnS   
Hexagonal  Trigonal   Hexagonal Hexagonal    
6mm - Dihexagonal Pyramidal 3m - Ditrigonal Pyramidal  6mm - Dihexagonal Pyramidal6mm - Dihexagonal Pyramidal   
P63mc R3m  P63mcP63mc   
          
a = 3.824 Å, b = 3.824 Å, c = 31.20 Å
α = 90°, β = 90°, γ = 120°


α = 90°, β = 90°, γ = 120°


a = 3.82 Å, c = 6.26 Å
a = 3.8227 Å, b = 3.8227 Å, c = 12.52 Å
α = 90°, β = 90°, γ = 120°



a:b:c = 1 : 1 : 8.159    a:c = 1 : 1.639a:b:c = 1 : 1 : 3.275   
V 395.113 ų    V 79.11 ųV 158.444 ų   
10 15  24   

Crystallographic forms of Wurtzite

Crystal Atlas:
Image Loading
Click on an icon to view
Wurtzite - {101}, {00-1}
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

Toggle
Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

View
Along a-axis | Along b-axis | Along c-axis | Start rotation | Stop rotation

Epitaxial Relationships of Wurtzite

Epitaxial Minerals:
X-Ray Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
3.31 (100)
3.13 (90)
2.93 (80)
2.27 (30)
1.91 (70)
1.76 (50)
1.63 (50)
1.30 (10)
Comments:
Data given are for synthetic -1H material.

Occurrences of Wurtzite

Type Occurrence of Wurtzite

Relationship of Wurtzite to other Species

Series:
Forms a series with Buseckite (see here)
Member of:
Other Members of Group:
2.CB.AgmantiniteAg2MnSnS4
2.CB.05aColoradoiteHgTe
2.CB.05aHawleyiteCdS
2.CB.05aMetacinnabarHgS
2.CB.05cPolhemusite(Zn,Hg)S
2.CB.05bSakuraiite(Cu,Zn,Fe)3(In,Sn)S4
2.CB.05aSphaleriteZnS
2.CB.05aStilleiteZnSe
2.CB.05aTiemanniteHgSe
2.CB.05UM1998-15-S:CuFeZnCu2Fe3Zn5S10
2.CB.05aRudashevskyite(Fe,Zn)S
2.CB.10aChalcopyriteCu1+Fe3+S2
2.CB.10aEskeborniteCuFeSe2
2.CB.10aGalliteCuGaS2
2.CB.10bHaycockiteCu4Fe5S8
2.CB.10aLenaiteAgFeS2
2.CB.10bMooihoekiteCu9Fe9S16
2.CB.10bPutoraniteCu1.1Fe1.2S2
2.CB.10aRoquesiteCuInS2
2.CB.10bTalnakhiteCu9Fe8S16
2.CB.10aLaforêtiteAgInS2
2.CB.15aČernýiteCu2CdSnS4
2.CB.15aFerrokësteriteCu2(Fe,Zn)SnS4
2.CB.15aHocartiteAg2FeSnS4
2.CB.15aIdaiteCu3FeS4
2.CB.15aKësteriteCu2ZnSnS4
2.CB.15aKuramiteCu3SnS4
2.CB.15bMohiteCu2SnS3
2.CB.15aPirquitasiteAg2ZnSnS4
2.CB.15aStanniteCu2FeSnS4
2.CB.15cStannoiditeCu8(Fe,Zn)3Sn2S12
2.CB.15aVelikiteCu2HgSnS4
2.CB.15cUM2006-11-S:CuFeGeZnCu8(Fe,Zn)3Ge2S12 (?)
2.CB.20ChatkaliteCu6FeSn2S8
2.CB.20MawsoniteCu6Fe2SnS8
2.CB.30ColusiteCu12VAs3S16
2.CB.30GermaniteCu13Fe2Ge2S16
2.CB.30GermanocolusiteCu13VGe3S16
2.CB.30NekrasoviteCu13VSn3S16
2.CB.30StibiocolusiteCu13V(Sb,Sn,As)3S16
2.CB.30OvamboiteCu10Fe3WGe3S16
2.CB.30MaikainiteCu10Fe3MoGe3S16
2.CB.35aHemusiteCu41+Cu22+SnMoS8
2.CB.35aKiddcreekiteCu6WSnS8
2.CB.35aPolkovicite(Fe,Pb)3(Ge,Fe)1-xS4
2.CB.35aRenierite(Cu1+,Zn)11Fe4(Ge4+,As5+)2S16
2.CB.35aVincienniteCu10Fe4SnAsS16
2.CB.35aMorozeviczitePb3Ge1-xS4
2.CB.35bCatamarcaiteCu6GeWS8
2.CB.40LautiteCuAsS
2.CB.45CadmoseliteCdSe
2.CB.45GreenockiteCdS
2.CB.45RambergiteMnS
2.CB.45Buseckite(Fe,Zn,Mn)S
2.CB.55aCubaniteCuFe2S3
2.CB.55bIsocubaniteCuFe2S3
2.CB.60PicotpauliteTlFe2S3
2.CB.60RaguiniteTlFeS2
2.CB.65ArgentopyriteAgFe2S3
2.CB.65SternbergiteAgFe2S3
2.CB.70SulvaniteCu3VS4
2.CB.75VulcaniteCuTe
2.CB.80EmpressiteAgTe
2.CB.85MuthmanniteAuAgTe2

Other Names for Wurtzite

Name in Other Languages:
Catalan:Wurtzita
Dutch:Wurtziet
German:Wurtzit
Italian:Wurtzite
Japanese:ウルツ鉱
Polish:Wurcyt
Simplified Chinese:纤维锌矿
纤锌矿
Spanish:Wurtzita
Traditional Chinese:纖維鋅礦
纖鋅礦
Ukrainian:Вюртцит

Other Information

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Wurtzite

Reference List:
Friedel, C. (1861) Sur le dimorphisme du sulfure de zinc. Comptes Rendus de L’Académie des Sciences Paris: 52: 983-985.

Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 834pp.: 227-228.

Fleischer, M. (1948) New mineral names. American Mineralogist: 33: 653-654.

Frondel, C., Palache, C. (1950) Three new polymorphs of zinc sulfide. American Mineralogist: 35: 29-42.

Smith, F.G. (1955) Structure of zinc-sulfide minerals. American Mineralogist: 40: 658-675.

Mloszewski, M.J., Saha, A.K., Nuffield, E.W. (1957) Manganoan ferroan wurtzite from Llallagua, Bolivia (II). The Canadian Mineralogist: 6: 136-139.

Haussühl, S., Müller, G. (1963) Neue ZnS-Polytypen (9R, 12R und 21R) in mesozoischen Sedimenten NW-Deutschlands. Beiträge zur Mineralogie und Petrographie: 9: 28-39. [9R, 12R & 21R polytypes]

Scott, S.D., Barnes, H.L. (1967) Abstract of paper presented at the twelfth annual meeting: Nonstoichiometric phase changes in sphalerite and wurtzite. The Canadian Mineralogist: 9: 306-306.

Brafman, O., Mitra, S.S. (1968) Raman effect in wurtzite- and zinc-blende-type ZnS single crystals. Physical Review: 171: 931-934.

Arguello, C.A., Rousseau, D.L., Porto, S.P.S. (1969) First-order Raman effect in wurtzite-type crystals. Physical Review: 181: 1351-1363.

Bailey, S.W. (1977) Report of the I.M.A-I.U.Cr. Joint Committee on Nomenclature. American Mineralogist: 62: 411-415.

Fleet, M.E. (1977a) Structural transformations in natural ZnS. American Mineralogist: 62: 540-546.

Fleet, M.E. (1977b) The birefringence-structural state relation in natural zinc sulfides and its application to the schalenblende from Pribram. Canadian Mineralogist: 15: 303-308.

Augustithis, S.S., Vgenopoulos, A. (1982) On the hawleyite-sphalerite-wurtzite-galena paragenesis from Ragada, Komotini, (Rhodope) North Greece. Special Publication of the Society for Geology Applied to Mineral Deposits: 2: 413-417.

Hollenbaugh, D.W., Carlson, E.H. (1983) The occurrence of wurtzite polytypes in eastern Ohio. Canadian Mineralogist: 21: 697-703.

Seal, R.R., Cooper, B.J., Craig, J.R. (1985) Anisotropic sphalerite of the Elmwood-Gordonsville deposits, Tennessee. The Canadian Mineralogist: 23: 83-88.

Fleet, M.E. (1987) Layer-disordered wurtzite (ZnS-2H): diffuse X-ray scattering recorded by c-axis precession photography. Journal of Applied Crystallography: 20: 191-194.

Kisi, E.H., Elcombe, M.M. (1989) υ parameters for the wurtzite structure of ZnS and ZnO using powder neutron diffraction. Acta Crystallographica: C45: 1867-1870.

Xu, Y.N., Ching, W.Y. (1993) Electronic, optical, and structural properties of some wurtzite crystals. Physical review, B, Condensed Matter: 48: 4335-4351.

Gaines, R.V., Catherine, H., Skinner, W., Foord, E.E., Mason, B., Rosenzweig, A. (1997) Dana's New Mineralogy: The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana: 72.

Chao, G.Y., Gault, R.A. (1998) The occurrence of two rare polytypes of wurtzite, 4H and 8H, at Mont Saint-Hilaire, Quebec. Canadian Mineralogist: 36: 775-778.

Rocke, A.J. (2001) Nationizing Science. Adolphe Wurtz and the Battle for Chemistry. MIT Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, pp. 443.

Graeser, S. (2011) Die Wurtzite vom Lengenbach - Polymorphie und Polytypie. Schweizer Strahler: 45: 16-24. [-2H and -4H polytypes]

Internet Links for Wurtzite

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Specimens:
The following Wurtzite specimens are currently listed for sale on minfind.com.

Localities for Wurtzite

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