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Wulfenite

This page kindly sponsored by Christian Auer
Franz Xaver von Wulfen
Formula:
Pb(MoO4)
Colour:
Orange-yellow, yellow, honey-yellow, reddish-orange, rarely colourless, grey, brown, olive-green and even black.
Lustre:
Adamantine, Sub-Adamantine, Resinous
Hardness:
2½ - 3
Specific Gravity:
6.5 - 7.5
Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Member of:
Name:
Renamed in 1845 by Wilhelm Karl von Haidinger in honor of Franz Xavier von Wulfen [November 5, 1728, Belgrade, Serbia - March 16, 1805, Klagenfurt, Austria], botanist, mineralogist, alpinist and a member of the Order of the Society of Jesus (Jesuit). Wulfen authored a monograph on the lead ores of Bleiberg, Austria. This mineral was originally named "plumbum spatosum flavo-rubrum, ex Annaberg, Austria" in 1772 by Ignaz von Born. In 1781, Joseph Franz Edler von Jacquin called the mineral "Kärntherischer bleispath". Other names were later proposed.
Stolzite-Wulfenite Series.

A secondary mineral typically found as thin tabular crystals with a bright orange-red, yellow-orange, yellow or yellowish grey colour in the oxidised zones of hydrothermal lead deposits.

In unique situations, it may precipitate from volcanic fumarole gas, in temperatures from 400 to 550°C (Africano et al., 2002).

Visit gemdat.org for gemological information about Wulfenite.


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Classification of WulfeniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
7.GA.05

7 : SULFATES (selenates, tellurates, chromates, molybdates, wolframates)
G : Molybdates, Wolframates and Niobates
A : Without additional anions or H2O
Dana 7th ed.:
48.1.3.1
48.1.3.1

48 : ANHYDROUS MOLYBDATES AND TUNGSTATES
1 : AXO4
27.3.3

27 : Sulphites, Chromates, Molybdates and Tungstates
3 : Molybdates

Physical Properties of WulfeniteHide

Adamantine, Sub-Adamantine, Resinous
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent, Opaque
Colour:
Orange-yellow, yellow, honey-yellow, reddish-orange, rarely colourless, grey, brown, olive-green and even black.
Streak:
White
Hardness:
2½ - 3 on Mohs scale
Hardness Data:
Measured
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Distinct/Good
Distinct on {011}; indistinct on {001}, {013}.
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
Density:
6.5 - 7.5 g/cm3 (Measured)    6.88 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of WulfeniteHide

Type:
Uniaxial (-)
RI values:
nω = 2.405 nε = 2.283
2V:
Measured: 8°
Birefringence:
0.122
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.122
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Very High
Optical Extinction:
Parallel
Pleochroism:
Weak
Comments:
Orange and yellow
Comments:
May be anomalously biaxial.

Chemical Properties of WulfeniteHide

Formula:
Pb(MoO4)
IMA Formula:
PbMoO4
Common Impurities:
W,Ca,V,As,Cr,W,Ti

Crystallography of WulfeniteHide

Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Class (H-M):
4/m - Dipyramidal
Space Group:
I41/a
Setting:
I41/a
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.433 Å, c = 12.110 Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 2.229
Unit Cell V:
357.46 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4
Morphology:
Crystals commonly thin tabular {001}, square, exhibiting {001}, with flat or rounded vicinal faces, {010}; may be elongated [001], or pyramidal {011}, with the pyramid truncating or replacing {001}; more rarely pseudo-octahedral; and very rarely either cubic or short prismatic pyramidal. Commonly exhibits additional forms, some exhibiting pyramidal hemihedrism; granular, massive.
Twinning:
Twinning on {001} as contact twins; common but rarely seen due to the typical {001} morphology.
Comment:
Class may be 4/m or -4; space Group may be I41/a or I-4. Cell parameters for space group I-4: a = 5.441, c = 12.068 A.

Crystallographic forms of WulfeniteHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Wulfenite no.10 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Wulfenite no.39 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Wulfenite no.44 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Wulfenite no.54 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Wulfenite no.68 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Wulfenite no.81 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Wulfenite - Contact twin on {00-1}
Wulfenite - {110}, {001}, {00-1}, overgrown with small pyramidal crystals
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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Edge Lines | Miller Indicies | Axes

Transparency
Opaque | Translucent | Transparent

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X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.
Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
4.96 (10)
3.24 (100)
3.03 (20)
2.72 (25)
2.02 (30)
1.921 (10)
1.787 (18)
1.653 (25)

Type Occurrence of WulfeniteHide

Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Mining Academy, Freiberg, Germany.

Synonyms of WulfeniteHide

Other Language Names for WulfeniteHide

Varieties of WulfeniteHide

Calcian WulfeniteA calcium-bearing variety of Wulfenite with Ca substituting for Pb up to at least Ca:Pb = 1:1.7. Gravity decreases with Ca content increase, as well as unit-cell dimensions and axial ratio.
ChillagiteTungsten-rich variety of wulfenite (compare also Stolzite-Wulfenite Series). It was proposed as a new mineral, but is considered a structural variant of wulfenite (unlike wulfenite, it crystallises in space group I4 due to W-Mo ordering; Jury et al., 2001...
Chromian WulfeniteA chromian variety of Wulfenite
Tungstenoan WulfeniteA tungsten-bearing wulfenite.
Vanadian WulfeniteA variety of Wulfenite containing V in substitution for Mo.

Relationship of Wulfenite to other SpeciesHide

Member of:
Other Members of this group:
PowelliteCa(MoO4)Tet. 4/m : I41/a
RaspitePb(WO4)Mon. 2/m : P21/b
ScheeliteCa(WO4)Tet. 4/m : I41/a
StolzitePb(WO4)Tet. 4/m : I41/a
Forms a series with:

Common AssociatesHide

AnglesitePbSO4
CerussitePbCO3
DescloizitePbZn(VO4)(OH)
FluoriteCaF2
HemimorphiteZn4Si2O7(OH)2 · H2O
Limonite(Fe,O,OH,H2O)
MimetitePb5(AsO4)3Cl
PlattneritePbO2
PyromorphitePb5(PO4)3Cl
SmithsoniteZnCO3
VanadinitePb5(VO4)3Cl
Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Mimetite1,480 photos of Wulfenite associated with Mimetite on mindat.org.
Calcite648 photos of Wulfenite associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Quartz382 photos of Wulfenite associated with Quartz on mindat.org.
Baryte252 photos of Wulfenite associated with Baryte on mindat.org.
Pyromorphite247 photos of Wulfenite associated with Pyromorphite on mindat.org.
Hemimorphite238 photos of Wulfenite associated with Hemimorphite on mindat.org.
Malachite167 photos of Wulfenite associated with Malachite on mindat.org.
Cerussite157 photos of Wulfenite associated with Cerussite on mindat.org.
Fluorite138 photos of Wulfenite associated with Fluorite on mindat.org.
Descloizite100 photos of Wulfenite associated with Descloizite on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

7.GA.05Fergusonite-(Ce)(Ce,La,Nd)NbO4
7.GA.05Fergusonite-(Nd)(Nd,Ce)(Nb,Ti)O4
7.GA.05Fergusonite-(Y)YNbO4Tet. 4/m : I41/a
7.GA.05PowelliteCa(MoO4)Tet. 4/m : I41/a
7.GA.05ScheeliteCa(WO4)Tet. 4/m : I41/a
7.GA.05StolzitePb(WO4)Tet. 4/m : I41/a
7.GA.10Formanite-(Y)YTaO4Tet. 4/m : I41/a
7.GA.10Iwashiroite-(Y)Y(Ta,Nb)O4Mon. 2/m : P2/b
7.GA.15Paraniite-(Y)Ca2Y(AsO4)(WO4)2Tet. 4/m : I41/a

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

48.1.3.2StolzitePb(WO4)Tet. 4/m : I41/a

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

27.3.1LindgreniteCu3(MoO4)2(OH)2Mon. 2/m : P21/m
27.3.2PowelliteCa(MoO4)Tet. 4/m : I41/a
27.3.4KoechliniteBi2MoO6Orth. mm2 : Pna21
27.3.5SedoviteU(MoO4)2Orth.
27.3.6MouriteUMo5O12(OH)10Mon.
27.3.7Iriginite(UO2)Mo2O7 · 3H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcm
27.3.8Umohoite(UO2)MoO4 · 2H2OTric.
27.3.9MoluraniteH4U4+(UO2)3(MoO4)7 · 18H2O
27.3.10CousiniteMgU2Mo2O11 · 6H2O
27.3.11Calcurmolite(Ca,Na)2(UO2)3Mo2(O,OH)11 · nH2O
27.3.12TengchongiteCaO · 6UO3 · 2MoO3 · 12H2OOrth.
27.3.13KamiokiteFe2Mo3O8Hex.
27.3.14FerrimolybditeFe2(MoO4)3 · nH2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pmmn

Fluorescence of WulfeniteHide

Fluorescence noted from a small number of localities. Medium intensity Yellow in LW

Other InformationHide

Electrical:
Some individual crystals may be piezoelectric.
Thermal Behaviour:
Melting point 1065°C.
Notes:
Decomposed by evaporation in HCl with the separation of lead chloride and molybdic oxide. Soluble in concentrated H2SO4 and alkalies. Decomposed by HNO3 with the separation of molybdic oxide.

Reported to alter to Descloizite, Ilsemannite and Vanadinite.
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for WulfeniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
von Born, I. (1772) Lythophylacium Bornianum; Index fossiliumquae colligit, etc., Prague. part 1: 90. [as Plumbum spatosum flavo-rubrum].
Jacquin (1781) Misc. Austriaca, Vienna: 2 (as Kärntherischer Bleispath).
de Lisle, R. (1783) Cristallographie, ou description des formes propres à tous les corps du regne minéral. 4 volumes, Paris: 3: 387. [as Plomb jaune].
von Wulfen, F.X. (1785): Abhandlung vom kärnthnerischen Bleyspate. J. P. Krauß, Vienna, 150 pp. [as Kärntherischer Bleispat].
Kirwan, R. (1796) Elements of Mineralogy. second edition: 2: 212. [as Yellow Leadspar, Molybdenated Lead Ore].
Klaproth, M.H. (1797) Untersuchung des Gelb-Bleierzes, Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper, Zweiter Band, Rottmann Berlin, 265-275.
Haüy, R.J. (1801) Traité de minéralogie. First edition: in 4 volumes with atlas in fol. Paris: 3: 353. [as Plomb molybdaté].
Beudant, F.S. (1832) Traité élémentaire de Minéralogie, second edition, 2 volumes: 2: 664. [as Mélinose].
Haidinger, W. (1845) Zweite Klasse: Geogenide. II. Ordnung. Baryte. VII. Bleibaryt. Wulfenit. Handbuch der bestimmenden Mineralogie, Braumüller und Seidel, Wien: 499-506. [as Wulfenit].
Smith, J.L. (1855) American Journal of Science: 20: 245.
Wöhler, F. (1857) Annalen der Chemie und Pharmacie: 102: 383.
Schrauf (1871) Königliche Akademie der Wissenschaften, Vienna, Sitzber.: 63: 176.
Rammelsberg, C.F. (1875) Handbuch der Mineralchemie. second edition: 283. [Domeyko analysis].
von Wulfen, F.X. (1875) Abhandlung vom Kärntherischer Bleispath, Vienna.
von Koksharov, N. (1878) Materialien zur Mineralogie Russlands. 11 volumes with atlas: vol. 8: 394.
Groth (1882) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie: 7: 592.
Koch, S. (1882) Ueber den Wulfenit. Zeitschrift für Krystallographie und Mineralogie: 6: 389-409.
Regnard (1882) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 5: 2.
Zepharovich (1883) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie: 8: 583.
Dana, E.S. (1892) System of Mineralogy, 6th. Edition, New York: 989.
de Gramont (1893) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 16: 127.
Traube (1896) Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Beilagen: 10: 457.
Ites (1903) Preisschr. Göttingen [corrected by Ehringhaus (1920) Jb. Min., Beil.-Bd.: 43: 566.
Johnsen (1908) Centralblatt für Mineralogie, Geologie und Paleontologie: 712.
Baumhauer (1910) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie: 47: 7.
Ullman (1912) Journal of the Royal Society of New South Wales: 46: 186.
Mingaye (1916) Records of the Geological Survey of New South Wales: 9: 171.
Jaeger, Germs (1921) Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie: 119: 158.
Goldschmidt, V. (1922) Atlas der Krystallformen. 9 volumes, atlas, and text: vol. 8: 12.
Zambonini (1923) Zeitschrift für Kristallographie, Mineralogie und Petrographie: 58: 226.
Barthoux (1924) Bulletin de la Société française de Minéralogie: 47: 36.
Hlawatsch (1925) Annalen des naturhistorischen Staats-Museums: 38: 15.
Bach (1926) Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Beilagen: 54: 380.
Comucci (1926) Atti della Reale accademia nazionale dei Lincei, Rome, Att.: 3: 335.
Shannon (1926) U.S. National Museum Bulletin 131: 474.
Vegard (1926) Philosophical Magazine and Journal of Science: 1: 1151.
Doelter, C. (1927) Handbuch der Mineral-chemie (in 4 volumes divided into parts): 4 [2]: 785.
Honess, A.P. (1927) The Nature, Origin and Interpretation of the Etch Figures on Crystals. 171pp., New York: 92.
Vegard, Refsum (1927) Norske Videnskaps-Akademi, Oslo. Skrifter, Mat.-Nat. Kl., no. 2.:
Hintze, C. (1929) Handbuch der Mineralogie. Berlin and Leipzig. 6 volumes: 1 [3B]: 4059.
Padurova (1929) Mem. soc. russe min.: 58: 109.
Jung (1931) Jahrbuch für Minalogie, Beilagen: 64A: 197.
Royer (1936) Comptes rendus de l’Académie des sciences de Paris: 202: 1346.
Barić (1939) Min. Abstracts: 7: 360.
Sillén, Nylander (1943) Arkiv för Kemi, Mineralogi och Geologi, Stockholm: 17A, no. 4.
Russell, A. (1946) An account of the Struy Lead Mines, Inverness-Shire, and of wulfenite, harmotome, and other minerals which occur there. Mineralogical Magazine: 27: 151.
Koning (1948) Proc. Kon. Nederl. Ak. Wet.: 51: 390.
Schroll (1949) Mineralogische und petrographische Mitteilungen, Vienna: [3], 1: 325.
Haberlandt, Schroll (1950) Experientia: 6: 89.
Palache, C., Berman, H., Frondel, C. (1951) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana, Yale University 1837-1892, Volume II. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 7th edition, revised and enlarged, 1124 pp.: 1081-1086.
National Bureau of Standards Circular 539 (1957) 7, 23.
Williams, S.A. (1966) The significance of habit and morphology of wulfenite. American Mineralogist: 51: 1212.
Leciejewicz, J. (1965) A neutron crystallographic investigation of lead molybdenum oxide, PbMoO4. Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 121: 158-164.
Niedermayr, G. (1989) Der Wulfenit- ein Kärntner Mineral? Carinthia II: 179./99.: 29-45. [http://www.landesmuseum.at/pdf_frei_remote/CAR_179_99_0029-0045.pdf].
Papp, G. (1993) Ignaz von BORN und der Kärntner Bleispat. Carinthia II: 183./103: 95-108. [http://www.landesmuseum.at/pdf_frei_remote/CAR_183_103_0095-0108.pdf].
Huber, P. (1994) Annaberg oder Bleiberg? Zur Typlokalität des Wulfenits. Lapis: 19(2): 21-24; 50. [in German].
Gaines, R.V., Skinner, H.C.W., Foord, E.E., Mason, B., Rosenzweig, A. (1997) Dana's New Mineralogy: The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana: 999.
Lugli, C., Medici, L., Saccardo, D. (1999) Natural wulfenite: structural refinement by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie, Monatshefte: 1999: 281-288.
Hibbs, D.E., Jury, C.M., Leverett, P., Plimer, I.R., Williams, P.A. (2000) An explanation for the origin of hemihedrism in wulfenite: the single-crystal structures of I41/a and I4 wulfenites. Mineralogical Magazine, 64, 1057–1062.
Anthony, J.W., Bideaux, R.A., Bladh, K.W., Nichols, M.C. (2003) Handbook of Mineralogy, Volume V. Borates, Carbonates, Sulfates. Mineral Data Publishing, Tucson, AZ, 813pp.: 764.
Secco, L., Nestola, F., Dal Negro, A. (2008) The wulfenite–stolzite series: centric or acentric structures? Mineralogical Magazine: 72: 987-990.
Cora, I., Czugler, M., Dódony, I., Recnik, A. (2011) On the symmetry of wulfenite (Pb[MoO4]) from Mezica (Slovenia). Acta Crystallographica: C67: i33-i35.
Talla, D., Wildner, M., Beran, A., Škoda, R., Losos, Z. (2013) On the presence of hydrous defects in differently coloured wulfenites (PbMoO4): an infrared and optical spectroscopic study. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 40: 757-769.
Africano, F., Van Rompaey, G., Bernard, A., Le Guern, F. (2002): Deposition of trace elements from high temperature gases of Satsuma-Iwojima volcano. Earth Planets Space: 54: 275-286.

Internet Links for WulfeniteHide

Localities for WulfeniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListShow