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Wollastonite

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William Hyde Wollaston
Formula:
CaSiO3
This formula only indicates the stoichiometry of the mineral. In order to reflect the structural units the mineral is composed of, the formula may also be written as Ca(Si3O9)0.33 or as Ca3(Si3O9).
Colour:
White, gray-white, light green, pinkish, brown, red, yellow
Lustre:
Vitreous, Pearly
Hardness:
4½ - 5
Specific Gravity:
2.86 - 3.09
Crystal System:
Triclinic
Name:
Named in 1818 by J. Léman in honor of William Hyde Wollaston [August 6, 1766 East Dereham, Norfolk, England, United Kingdom - December 22, 1828 London, England, United Kingdom], English chemist and mineralogist who discovered palladium (1804) and rhodium (1809) and invented the reflecting goniometer (1809) and the camera lucida (1812).
Several triclinic and monoclinic polytypes are known.

The structure of wollastonite contains dreier single chains with the repeating unit (Si3O9)6-.


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Classification of WollastoniteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
First Published:
1962
9.DG.05

9 : SILICATES (Germanates)
D : Inosilicates
G : Inosilicates with 3-periodic single and multiple chains
65.2.1.1c

65 : INOSILICATES Single-Width,Unbranched Chains,(W=1)
2 : Single-Width Unbranched Chains, W=1 with chains P=3
14.5.1

14 : Silicates not Containing Aluminum
5 : Silicates of Ca

Physical Properties of WollastoniteHide

Vitreous, Pearly
Transparency:
Transparent, Translucent
Comment:
Pearly on cleavage
Colour:
White, gray-white, light green, pinkish, brown, red, yellow
Streak:
White
Hardness:
4½ - 5 on Mohs scale
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
Perfect on {001}
Good on {001} and {102}
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
2.86 - 3.09 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.9 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of WollastoniteHide

Type:
Biaxial (-)
RI values:
nα = 1.616 - 1.640 nβ = 1.628 - 1.650 nγ = 1.631 - 1.653
2V:
Measured: 36° to 60°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.015
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Dispersion:
weak r>v

Chemical Properties of WollastoniteHide

Formula:
CaSiO3

This formula only indicates the stoichiometry of the mineral. In order to reflect the structural units the mineral is composed of, the formula may also be written as Ca(Si3O9)0.33 or as Ca3(Si3O9).

Crystallography of WollastoniteHide

Crystal System:
Triclinic
Class (H-M):
1 - Pinacoidal
Space Group:
P1
Cell Parameters:
a = 7.925 Å, b = 7.32 Å, c = 7.065 Å
α = 90.055°, β = 95.217°, γ = 103.42°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 1.083 : 1 : 0.965
Unit Cell V:
396.90 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Tabular, short or long prismatic. Commonly fibrous, compact, massive.
Twinning:
Common, twin axis [010], composition plane {100}.
Comment:
Cell refers to 1A polytype; several triclinic and monoclinic polytypes are known.

Crystallographic forms of WollastoniteHide

Crystal Atlas:
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Wollastonite no.10 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
Wollastonite no.27 - Goldschmidt (1913-1926)
3d models and HTML5 code kindly provided by www.smorf.nl.

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X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

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Radiation - Copper Kα
Data Set:
Data courtesy of RRUFF project at University of Arizona, used with permission.

Synonyms of WollastoniteHide

Other Language Names for WollastoniteHide

Varieties of WollastoniteHide

EdelfarseAn impure wollastonite
FerrowollastoniteAn iron-rich variety of wollastonite with iron partially replacing the calcium.
ManganoparawollastoniteA Mn-bearing wollastonite.

Relationship of Wollastonite to other SpeciesHide

Other Members of this group:
Barrydawsonite-(Y)Na1.5Y0.5CaSi3O9HMon. 2/m : P21/b
BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)Tric. 1 : P1
CascanditeCa(Sc,Fe3+)(HSi3O9)Tric.
FerrobustamiteCaFe2+(Si2O6)Tric.
MarshallsussmaniteNaCaMnSi3O8(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
MurakamiiteCa2LiSi3O8(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
SeranditeNaMn2+2Si3O8(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
TanohataiteLiMn2(HSi3O9)Tric. 1 : P1
VistepiteSnMn4B2Si4O16(OH)2Tric. 1

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Calcite79 photos of Wollastonite associated with Calcite on mindat.org.
Diopside58 photos of Wollastonite associated with Diopside on mindat.org.
Grossular35 photos of Wollastonite associated with Grossular on mindat.org.
Vesuvianite25 photos of Wollastonite associated with Vesuvianite on mindat.org.
Andradite11 photos of Wollastonite associated with Andradite on mindat.org.
Aragonite9 photos of Wollastonite associated with Aragonite on mindat.org.
Scheelite9 photos of Wollastonite associated with Scheelite on mindat.org.
Minehillite9 photos of Wollastonite associated with Minehillite on mindat.org.
Amphibole Supergroup8 photos of Wollastonite associated with Amphibole Supergroup on mindat.org.
Epidote8 photos of Wollastonite associated with Epidote on mindat.org.

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

9.DG.05BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)Tric. 1 : P1
9.DG.05FerrobustamiteCaFe2+(Si2O6)Tric.
9.DG.05PectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
9.DG.05SeranditeNaMn2+2Si3O8(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
9.DG.05Wollastonite-1ACaSiO3Tric.
9.DG.07CascanditeCa(Sc,Fe3+)(HSi3O9)Tric.
9.DG.08Plombièrite[Ca4Si6O16(OH)2 · 2H2O]·(Ca·5H2O)Orth.
9.DG.10Clinotobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O]·(Ca·3H2O)Mon.
9.DG.10RiversideiteCa5(HSi3O9)2 · 2H2OOrth.
9.DG.10Tobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O]·(Ca·3H2O)Orth.
9.DG.15FoshagiteCa4(Si3O9)(OH)2Tric.
9.DG.20JenniteCa9(Si3O9)2(OH)8 · 8H2OTric.
9.DG.25ParaumbiteK3Zr2H(Si3O9)2 · nH2OOrth.
9.DG.25UmbiteK2(Zr,Ti)Si3O9 · H2OOrth.
9.DG.30SørenseniteNa4SnBe2Si6O16(OH)4Mon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DG.35XonotliteCa6(Si6O17)(OH)2Mon. 2/m
9.DG.40HillebranditeCa2(SiO3)(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
9.DG.45ZoriteNa8(Ti,Nb)5(Si6O17)2(OH,O)5 · 14H2OOrth.
9.DG.45ChivruaiiteCa4(Ti,Nb)5(Si6O17)2(OH,O)5 · 13-14H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmmm
9.DG.50Haineaultite(Na,Ca)5Ca(Ti,Nb)5(Si6O17)2(OH,F)8 · 5H2OOrth. 2 2 2 : C2 2 2
9.DG.55EpididymiteNa2Be2Si6O15 · H2OOrth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pnma
9.DG.60EudidymiteNa2Be2Si6O15 · H2OMon. 2/m : B2/b
9.DG.65ElpiditeNa2ZrSi6O15 · 3H2OOrth.
9.DG.70Fenaksite(K,Na)4(Fe,Mn)2(Si4O10)2(OH,F)Tric.
9.DG.70LitidioniteCuNaKSi4O10Tric.
9.DG.70ManaksiteKNaMnSi4O10Tric.
9.DG.75TinaksiteK2Na(Ca,Mn2+)2Ti[O|Si7O18(OH)]Tric.
9.DG.75TokkoiteK2Ca4[Si7O18(OH)](OH,F)Tric.
9.DG.75SenkevichiteCsKNaCa2Ti[O|Si7O18(OH)]Tric. 1 : P1
9.DG.80CanasiteK3Na3Ca5Si12O30(OH)4
9.DG.80FluorcanasiteK3Na3Ca5Si12O30F4 · H2OMon. m : Bm
9.DG.85MiseriteK1.5-x(Ca,Y,REE)5(Si6O15)(Si2O7)(OH,F)2 · yH2OTric.
9.DG.90FrankameniteK3Na3Ca5(Si12O30)(F,OH)4 · H2OTric.
9.DG.92Charoite(K,Sr)15-16(Ca,Na)32[Si6O11(O,OH)6]2[Si12O18(O,OH)12]2[Si17O25(O,OH)18]2(OH,F)4 · ~3H2OMon. 2/m : P21/m
9.DG.95YuksporiteK4(Ca,Na)14(Sr,Ba)2(◻,Mn,Fe)(Ti,Nb)4(O,OH)4(Si6O17)2(Si2O7)3(H2O,OH)3Orth.
9.DG.97Eveslogite(Na,K,Ca,Sr,Ba)48 [(Ti,Nb,Mn,Fe2+)12Si48O144(OH)12](F,OH,Cl)14Mon. 2/m : P2/m

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

65.2.1.1bWollastonite-2MCaSiO3Mon.
65.2.1.1aWollastonite-1ACaSiO3Tric.
65.2.1.2BustamiteCaMn2+(Si2O6)Tric. 1 : P1
65.2.1.3FerrobustamiteCaFe2+(Si2O6)Tric.
65.2.1.4aPectoliteNaCa2Si3O8(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
65.2.1.5SeranditeNaMn2+2Si3O8(OH)Tric. 1 : P1
65.2.1.6CascanditeCa(Sc,Fe3+)(HSi3O9)Tric.
65.2.1.7DenisoviteCa2(K,Na)Si3O8(F,OH)2Mon.

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

14.5.2Wollastonite-7TCaSiO3
14.5.3Wollastonite-2MCaSiO3Mon.
14.5.4RankiniteCa3Si2O7Mon. 2/m : P21/b
14.5.5KilchoaniteCa6(SiO4)(Si3O10)Orth.
14.5.6LarniteCa2SiO4Mon.
14.5.7BredigiteCa7Mg(SiO4)4Orth.
14.5.8HatruriteCa3(SiO4)OTrig.
14.5.9RosenhahniteHCa3[Si3O9(OH)]Tric.
14.5.10DellaiteCa6Si3O11(OH)2Tric.
14.5.11AfwilliteCa3(HSiO4)2 · 2H2OMon. m : Bb
14.5.12XonotliteCa6(Si6O17)(OH)2Mon. 2/m
14.5.13FoshagiteCa4(Si3O9)(OH)2Tric.
14.5.14HillebranditeCa2(SiO3)(OH)2Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Cmcm
14.5.15JaffeiteCa6(Si2O7)(OH)6Trig. 3 : P3
14.5.16SuoluniteCa2(H2Si2O7) · H2OOrth.
14.5.17KillalaiteCa6.4(H0.6Si2O7)2(OH)2Mon.
14.5.18OkeniteCa10Si18O46 · 18H2OTric. 1 : P1
14.5.19RiversideiteCa5(HSi3O9)2 · 2H2OOrth.
14.5.20TrabzoniteCa4(Si3O9)(OH)2Orth. mm2 : Ama2
14.5.21GyroliteNaCa16Si23AlO60(OH)8 · 14H2OTric.
14.5.22FoshallasiteCa3[Si2O7] · 3H2O(?)
14.5.23Tobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O]·(Ca·3H2O)Orth.
14.5.24Clinotobermorite[Ca4Si6O17 · 2H2O]·(Ca·3H2O)Mon.
14.5.25NekoiteCa3Si6O15·7H2OTric. 1 : P1
14.5.26Plombièrite[Ca4Si6O16(OH)2 · 2H2O]·(Ca·5H2O)Orth.
14.5.27JenniteCa9(Si3O9)2(OH)8 · 8H2OTric.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Wollastonite in petrologyHide

References for WollastoniteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Klaproth, M.H. (1802) Chemische Untersuchung des Tafelspaths, Beiträge zur chemischen Kenntniss der Mineralkörper, Dritter Band, Rottmann Berlin, 289-291.
Léman, J. (1818)Nouveau Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle.
Bowen, N.L., Schairer, J.F., and Posnjak, E. (1933) The system CaO-FeO-SiO2. American Journal of Science, 5th. series: 26: 258.
Peacock, M.A. (1935) On wollastonite and parawollastonite. American Journal of Science, 5th. series: 30: 495-529.
Schairer, J.F. and Bowen, N.L. (1942) The binary system CaSiO3-diopside, and the relations between CaSiO3 and akermanite. American Journal of Science, 240: 10: 725-742.
Osborn, E.F. (1942) The system CaSiO3-diopside-anorthite. American Journal of Science, 240: 11: 751-788.
Tilley, C.E. (1948) On iron-wollastonites in contact-skarns: an example from Skye. American Mineralogist, 33, 736-738.
Greenwood, H.J. (1967) Am. Mineral. 52, 1669-1680. [on stability; http://www.minsocam.org/ammin/AM52/AM52_1669.pdf]
Trommsdorf, V. (1968) Mineralreaktione mit Wollastonit und Vesuvian in einem Kalksilikatfels der alpinen Disthenzone (Claro, Tessin), Schweizerische Mineralogische und Petrographische Mitteilungen: 48: 655-666 (in German).
Wenk, H.R. (1969) Polymorphism of wollastonite. Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology: 22: 238-247.
Rustein, M.S. (1971) Re-examination of the wollastonite-hedenbergite (CaSiO3-CaFeSi2O6) equilibria. American Mineralogist: 56: 2040-2052.
Shimazaki, H. and Yamanaka, T. (1973) Iron-wollastonite from skarns and its stability relation in the CaSiO3-CaFeSi2O6 join. Geochemical Journal: 7: 67-79.
Ohashi, Y. and Finger, L.W. (1978) The role of octahedral cations in pyroxenoid crystal chemistry. I. Bustamite, wollastonite, and the pectolite-schizolite-serandite series. American Mineralogist: 63: 274-288.
American Mineralogist (1979): 64: 658.
Valley, J.W. and Essene, E.J. (1979) Vesuvianite, akermanite, monticellite and wollastonite equilibria and high X H2O/CO2 at Cascade slide, Mt Marcy Quad, Adirondack Mts. EOS: 60: 423.
Zeitschrift für Kristallographie: 168: 93-98.
Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR: 107: 463-466.
Henmi, C., Kawahara, A., Henmi, K., Kusachi, I., and Takeuchi, Y. (1983) The 3T, 4T and 5T polytypes of the wollastonite from Kushiro, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. American Mineralogist: 68: 156-163.
Ohashi, Y. (1984) Polysynthetically-twinned structures of enstatite and wollastonite. Physics and Chemistry of Minerals: 10: 217-229.
Richet, P. and Bottinga, Y. (1984b) Anorthite, andesine, wollastonite, diopside, cordierite, and pyrope thermodynamics of melting, glass transitions, and properties of the amorphous phases. Earth and Planetary Science Letters: 67: 415-432.
Zapiski Vserossiyskogo Mineralogicheskogo Obshchestva (1984): 113: 721-722.
Seto, Y., Ohi, S., Shimobayashi, N., Kitamura, M., Miyake, A., Hiroi, Y., and Grantham, G.H. (2006) Clinopyroxene exsolution in wollastonite from Namaqualand granulite, South Africa. American Mineralogist: 91: 446-450.
Thompson, R.M., Yang, H., Downs, R.T. (2016) Ideal Wollastonite and the Structural Relationship between the Pyroxenoids and Pyroxenes. American Mineralogist: 101 (in press); http://forum.amiminerals.it/viewtopic.php?f=5&t=12881 (2016)

Internet Links for WollastoniteHide

Localities for WollastoniteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

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