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Kihlmanite-(Ce)

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About Kihlmanite-(Ce)Hide

Alfred Oswald Kairamo (Kihlman)
Formula:
Ce2TiO2(SiO4)(HCO3)2(H2O)
Colour:
Brown, reddish-brown
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
3
Specific Gravity:
3.66
Crystal System:
Triclinic
Name:
In honour of Alfred Oswald Kihlman (October 4, 1858 Pietarsaari - July 29, 1938 Hattula), a Finnish geographer and botanist who participated in the Wilhelm Ramsay expeditions to the Khibiny Mountains in 1891–1892. The name also reflects its occurrence at the Kihlman (Chil'man) Mountain.
Closely related to tundrite-(Ce), both in terms of chemistry and structure; has a unique combination of elements nevertheless. First mineral containing cerium and bicarbonate; third REE bicarbonate mineral after mineevite-(Y) and thomasclarkite-(Y). Compare 'UM1980-15-SiO:REETi'.

The structure is based on complex Ce2TiO2(SiO4)(HCO3)2 layers || (001). They comprise chains of edge-sharing TiO6 octahedra connected by isolated SiO4 anions, thus forming sheets. Ce is located on the sheet sides, and is surrounded by bicarbonate groups. One Ca atom is interlayer (site occupancy 25%), the other is between the chains (site occupancy 20%).




Classification of Kihlmanite-(Ce)Hide

Approved
Approval Year:
2012
First Published:
2014

Physical Properties of Kihlmanite-(Ce)Hide

Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent
Comment:
Silky when in aggregates
Colour:
Brown, reddish-brown
Comment:
Yellowish-brown in transmitted light
Streak:
Pale yellowish-brown
Hardness:
Comment:
∼3
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
Perfect
on {010}
Parting:
Perpendicular to c.
Fracture:
Step-Like
Density:
3.66(2) g/cm3 (Measured)    3.694 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of Kihlmanite-(Ce)Hide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.708(5) nβ = 1.760(1) nγ = 1.820(1)
2V:
Calculated: 89°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.112
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High
Dispersion:
not observed
Pleochroism:
Non-pleochroic
Comments:
not observed.

Chemical Properties of Kihlmanite-(Ce)Hide

Formula:
Ce2TiO2(SiO4)(HCO3)2(H2O)
Common Impurities:
La,Nd,Nb,Na,Pr,Sm,(Al,Gd)

Crystallography of Kihlmanite-(Ce)Hide

Crystal System:
Triclinic
Class (H-M):
1 - Pinacoidal
Space Group:
P1
Setting:
P1
Cell Parameters:
a = 4.994(2) Å, b = 7.54(2) Å, c = 15.48(4) Å
α = 103.5(4)°, β = 90.7(2)°, γ = 109.2(2)°
Ratio:
a:b:c = 0.662 : 1 : 2.053
Unit Cell V:
532.74 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Morphology:
Spherulites and sheaf-like aggregates of prismatic crystals, flattened on {010}.
Comment:
From single-crystal X-ray diffraction data: a = 5.009(5), b = 7.533(5), c = 15.407(5) Å, α = 103.061(5), β = 91.006(5), γ = 109.285(5)°, V = 531.8(7) Å3, Z =2.

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
15.11(100)
7.508(20)
6.912(12)
4.993(14)
3.563(15)
3.198(11)
3.065(12)
2.896(15)
Comments:
From Type Description.

Type Occurrence of Kihlmanite-(Ce)Hide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Brown spherulites (up to 2 cm diameter) and sheaf-like aggregates of prismatic crystals, flattened on {010} and up to 0.5 mm diameter, in intimate association (intergrowths) with golden-green tundrite-(Ce).
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Mineralogical Museum of St Petersburg State University, St Petersburg, Russia, registration number 1/19598, and the Geological and the Mineralogical Museum of the Geological Institute of the Kola Science Centre, Apatity, Russia, registration number GIM 67
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Intermediate zone of an arfvedsonite-aegirine-microcline vein in fenitized metavolcanic rock.
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:
Reference:
Yakovenchuk, V. N., Krivovichev, S. V., Ivanyuk, G. Y., Pakhomovsky, Ya. A., Selivanova, E. A.,Zhitova, E. A., Kalashnikova,G. O., Zolotarev, A. A., Mikhailova, J. A., Kadyrova, G. I. (2014) Kihlmanite-(Ce), Ce2TiO2[SiO4](HCO3)2(H2O), a new rare-earth mineral from the pegmatites of the Khibiny alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia. Mineralogical Magazine: 78: 483-496.

Synonyms of Kihlmanite-(Ce)Hide

Fluorescence of Kihlmanite-(Ce)Hide

not observed

Other InformationHide

Notes:
Reacts slowly in cold 10% HCl with weak effervescence and fragmentation into separate plates
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for Kihlmanite-(Ce)Hide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Yakovenchuk, V.N., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Krivovichev, S.V., Zhitova, E.A., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Selivanova, E.A., Korchak, J.A. and Kadyrova, G.I. (2013) Kihlmanite-(Ce), IMA 2012-081. CNMNC Newsletter No. 15, February 2013, page 11. Mineralogical Magazine: 77: 1-12.
Yakovenchuk, V. N., Krivovichev, S. V., Ivanyuk, G. Y., Pakhomovsky, Ya. A., Selivanova, E. A.,Zhitova, E. A., Kalashnikova,G. O., Zolotarev, A. A., Mikhailova, J. A., Kadyrova, G. I. (2014) Kihlmanite-(Ce), Ce2TiO2[SiO4](HCO3)2(H2O), a new rare-earth mineral from the pegmatites of the Khibiny alkaline massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia. Mineralogical Magazine: 78: 483-496.
Panikorovskii, T. L., Kalashnikova, G. O., Zhitova, E. S., Pakhomovsky, Ya. A., Bocharov, V. N., Yakovenchuk, V. N., Zolotarev, A. A. Jr., Krivovichev, S. V. (2017) Crystal chemistry of Na-rich kihlmanite-(Ce) from arfvedsonite-aegirine-microcline pegmatite at the Kihlman Mt. (Khibiny massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia). Zapiski RMO: 146: 113-124.

Internet Links for Kihlmanite-(Ce)Hide

Localities for Kihlmanite-(Ce)Hide

ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Russia (TL)
 
  • Murmanskaya Oblast'
    • Khibiny Massif
      • Kihlman Mt.
Yakovenchuk, V.N., Ivanyuk, G.Y., Krivovichev, S.V., Zhitova, E.A., Pakhomovsky, Y.A., Selivanova, E.A., Korchak, J.A. and Kadyrova, G.I. (2013) Kihlmanite-(Ce), IMA 2012-081. CNMNC Newsletter No. 15, February 2013, page 11; Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 1-12; Panikorovskii T. L., Kalashnikova G. O., Zhitova E. S., Pakhomovsky Ya. A., Bocharov V. N., Yakovenchuk V. N., Zolotarev A. A. jr., Krivovichev S. V. (2017): Crystal chemistry of Na-rich kihlmanite-(Ce) from arfvedsonite-aegirine-microcline pegmatite at the Kihlman Mt. (Khibiny massif, Kola Peninsula, Russia). Zapiski RMO 146, 113-124.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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