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Chrysothallite

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Formula:
K6Cu6Tl3+Cl17(OH)4·H2O
Colour:
Golden-yellow to light yellow
Lustre:
Vitreous
Specific Gravity:
2.95
Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Name:
Name is an allusion to the colour and thallium content.
Second known mineral with essential trivalent thallium, after avicennite.

Other thallium-bearing chlorides: hephaistosite, steropesite, lafossaite.

Unique crystal structure with layer of distorted edge-sharing CuCl4(OH)2 octahedra; two types of isolated Tl-centered octahedra: TlCl6 and TlCl4(H2O)2; two types of K polyhedra - KCl6 and KCl9 - linking the other building blocks (Pekov et al., 2015).

Product of the interaction of fumarole gas, atmospheric water and high-temperature sublimate minerals; forming at max. temperature of 150ºC.


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Classification of ChrysothalliteHide

Approved

Physical Properties of ChrysothalliteHide

Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
Golden-yellow to light yellow
Streak:
White
Tenacity:
Brittle
Cleavage:
None Observed
Fracture:
Irregular/Uneven
Density:
2.95 g/cm3 (Measured)    2.97 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of ChrysothalliteHide

Type:
Uniaxial (+)
RI values:
nω = 1.720 nε = 1.730
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.010
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
High

Chemical Properties of ChrysothalliteHide

Formula:
K6Cu6Tl3+Cl17(OH)4·H2O
IMA Formula:
K6Cu6Tl3+Cl17(OH)4 · H2O
Common Impurities:
Zn

Crystallography of ChrysothalliteHide

Crystal System:
Tetragonal
Class (H-M):
4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) - Ditetragonal Dipyramidal
Space Group:
I4/mmm
Setting:
I4/mmm
Cell Parameters:
a = 11.3689(7) Å, c = 26.207(2) Å
Ratio:
a:c = 1 : 2.305
Unit Cell V:
3,387.30 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Z:
4

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
13.20(44)
6.88(100)
5.16(30)
4.027(26)
3.471(28)
3.153(30)
3.075(47)
2.771(38)
Comments:
From Type Description.

Type Occurrence of ChrysothalliteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
tabular, lamellar, equant or short prismatic crystals up to 0.1 mm in size, their clusters and pseudomorphs after urusovite crystal crusts up to 1.5 cm × 2 cm in area.
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Type material is deposited in the collections of the collections of the Fersman Mineralogical Museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, registration number 4384/1
Geological Setting of Type Material:
Fumerole

Synonyms of ChrysothalliteHide

Other Language Names for ChrysothalliteHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Avdoninite5 photos of Chrysothallite associated with Avdoninite on mindat.org.
Belloite4 photos of Chrysothallite associated with Belloite on mindat.org.

Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for ChrysothalliteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Pekov, I.V., Zubkova, N.V., Belakovskiy, D.I., Vigasina, M.F., Sidorov, E.G. and Pushcharovsky, D.Y. (2013) Chrysothallite, IMA 2013-008. CNMNC Newsletter No. 16, August 2013, page 2702. Mineralogical Magazine: 77: 2695-2709.
Pekov, I.V., Zubkova, N.V., Belakovskiy, D.I., Yapaskurt, V.O., Vigasina, M.F., Lykova, I.S., Sidorov, E.G., Pushcharovsky, D.Y. (2015) Chrysothallite K6Cu6Tl3+Cl17(OH)4·H2O, a new mineral species from the Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka, Russia. Mineralogical Magazine: 79: 365-376.

Internet Links for ChrysothalliteHide

Localities for ChrysothalliteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Russia
 
  • Far-Eastern Region
    • Kamchatka Oblast'
      • Tolbachik volcano
        • Great Fissure eruption (Main Fracture)
          • Northern Breakthrough (North Breach)
            • Second scoria cone
Pekov, I.V., Zubkova, N.V., Yapaskurt, V.O., Lykova, I.S., Belakovskiy, D.I., Vigasina, M.F., Sidorov, E.G., Britvin, S.N., Pushscharovsky, D.Yu. (2015): New zinc and potassium chlorides from fumaroles of the Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka, Russia: mineral data and crystal chemistry. I. Mellizinkalite, K3Zn2Cl7. European Journal of Mineralogy, 27, 247-253.
Pekov, I.V., Zubkova, N.V., Belakovskiy, D.I., Vigasina, M.F., Sidorov, E.G. and Pushcharovsky, D.Y. (2013) Chrysothallite, IMA 2013-008. CNMNC Newsletter No. 16, August 2013, page 2702; Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 2695-2709.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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