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Wulffite

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About WulffiteHide

Georgiy V. Wulff
Formula:
K3NaCu4O2(SO4)4
Colour:
Dark green with bluish hue or deep emerald-green.
Lustre:
Vitreous
Hardness:
Specific Gravity:
3.23
Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Name:
Named in honor of the Russian crystallographer Georgiy Viktorovich Wulff (22 June 1863, Nizhyn (Russian Empire, nowadays Ukraine) – 25 December 1925, Moscow), who suggested the model of X-ray interference in crystals (1913).
Related to parawulffite in terms of both chemistry and structure. One of 4 K-Na-Cu sulfate minerals beside euchlorine, parawulffite, and piypite.

Structure details: (1) the heteropolyhedral quasi-framework of Cu–O–S, along [010], and NaO6 octahedra chains ; (2) Cu–O–S chains comprise Cu-centered square pyramids ([4+1] coordination of Cu) and sulfate tetrahedra; (3) different ratios of alkali cations and their arrangement in cavities of the quasi-framework when compared to parawulffite; (4) different configuration of Cu–O–S chains than that in parawulffite.



Classification of WulffiteHide

Approved
Approval Year:
2013

Physical Properties of WulffiteHide

Vitreous
Transparency:
Transparent
Colour:
Dark green with bluish hue or deep emerald-green.
Streak:
Light green
Hardness:
2½ on Mohs scale
Cleavage:
Perfect
2 perfect cleavages || elongation; additional one, coplanar to (010)
Fracture:
Step-Like
Density:
3.23(2) g/cm3 (Measured)    3.19 g/cm3 (Calculated)

Optical Data of WulffiteHide

Type:
Biaxial (+)
RI values:
nα = 1.582(3) nβ = 1.610(3) nγ = 1.715(3)
2V:
Calculated: 58°
Max Birefringence:
δ = 0.133
Image shows birefringence interference colour range (at 30µm thickness)
and does not take into account mineral colouration.
Surface Relief:
Moderate
Pleochroism:
Strong
Comments:
emerald-green (Z), medium-saturation green (Y), Z > Y

Chemical Properties of WulffiteHide

Formula:
K3NaCu4O2(SO4)4
Common Impurities:
Rb,Cs

Crystallography of WulffiteHide

Crystal System:
Orthorhombic
Class (H-M):
mm2 - Pyramidal
Cell Parameters:
a = 14.2810(6) Å, b = 4.9478(2) Å, c = 24.113(1) Å
Ratio:
a:b:c = 2.886 : 1 : 4.873
Unit Cell V:
1703.79 ų
Z:
4
Morphology:
coarse prismatic crystals up to 1.2 × 2 mm, in clusters and crusts; [010] elongation
Comment:
Space group is Pn21a

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
d-spacingIntensity
9.27(100)
7.16(22)
3.125(16)
2.882(16)
2.780(33)
2.725(14)
2.472(20)
2.366(13)
Comments:
From Type Description.

Type Occurrence of WulffiteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
prisms
Place of Conservation of Type Material:
Type material is deposited in the collections of the Fersman Mineralogical Museum of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia, registration number 4385/1
Geological Setting of Type Material:
incrustations on (1) basaltic scoria, (2) tenorite or (3) aphthitalite
Associated Minerals at Type Locality:

Synonyms of WulffiteHide

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
Kozyrevskite1 photo of Wulffite associated with Kozyrevskite on mindat.org.

Other InformationHide

IR Spectrum:
[cm-1]: ~1223, 1198, 1153s, 1118s (asymmetric stretching of sulfate), 1026s, 989s (symmetric stretching of sulfate), 671, 645sh, 635, 612 (bending of sulfate), 535sh, 511 (lattice modes: stretching of shorter bonds in Cu-centered polyhedra and
Notes:
slowly dissolves in RT water
Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

References for WulffiteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Pekov, I.V., Zubkova, N.V., Yapaskurt, V.O., Belakovskiy, D.I., Chukanov, N.V., Lykova, I.S., Sidorov, E.G. and Pushcharovsky, D.Y. (2013) Wulffite, IMA 2013-035. CNMNC Newsletter No. 17, October 2013, page 2998; Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 2997-3005.
Pekov, I.V., Zubkova, N.V., Yapaskurt, V.O., Belakovskiy, D.I., Chukanov, N.V., Lykova, I.S., Savelyev, D.P., Sidorov, E.G., Pushcharovsky, D.Yu. (2014): Wulffite, K3NaCu4O2(SO4)4, and parawulffite, K5Na3Cu8O4(SO4)8, two new minerals from fumarole sublimates of the Tolbachik Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia. Canadian Mineralogist, 52, 699-716.

Internet Links for WulffiteHide

Localities for WulffiteHide

ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
Russia (TL)
 
  • Kamchatka Oblast'
    • Tolbachik volcano
      • Great Fissure eruption (Main Fracture)
        • Northern Breakthrough (North Breach)
          • Second scoria cone
Pekov, I.V., Zubkova, N.V., Yapaskurt, V.O., Belakovskiy, D.I., Chukanov, N.V., Lykova, I.S., Sidorov, E.G. and Pushcharovsky, D.Y. (2013) Wulffite, IMA 2013-035. CNMNC Newsletter No. 17, October 2013, page 2998; Mineralogical Magazine, 77, 2997-3005; Pekov, I.V., Zubkova, N.V., Yapaskurt, V.O., Belakovskiy, D.I., Chukanov, N.V., Lykova, I.S., Savelyev, D.P., Sidorov, E.G., Pushcharovsky, D.Yu. (2014): Wulffite, K3NaCu4O2(SO4)4, and parawulffite, K5Na3Cu8O4(SO4)8, two new minerals from fumarole sublimates of the Tolbachik Volcano, Kamchatka, Russia. Canadian Mineralogist, 52, 699-716.
Mineral and/or Locality  
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