SUPPORT US. Covid-19 has significantly affected our fundraising. Please help!
Log InRegister
Home PageAbout MindatThe Mindat ManualHistory of MindatCopyright StatusWho We AreContact UsAdvertise on Mindat
Donate to MindatCorporate SponsorshipSponsor a PageSponsored PagesMindat AdvertisersAdvertise on Mindat
Learning CenterWhat is a mineral?The most common minerals on earthInformation for EducatorsMindat ArticlesThe ElementsBooks & Magazines
Minerals by PropertiesMinerals by ChemistryAdvanced Locality SearchRandom MineralRandom LocalitySearch by minIDLocalities Near MeSearch ArticlesSearch GlossaryMore Search Options
Search For:
Mineral Name:
Locality Name:
The Mindat ManualAdd a New PhotoRate PhotosLocality Edit ReportCoordinate Completion ReportAdd Glossary Item
Mining CompaniesStatisticsUsersMineral MuseumsMineral Shows & EventsThe Mindat DirectoryDevice Settings
Photo SearchPhoto GalleriesNew Photos TodayNew Photos YesterdayMembers' Photo GalleriesPast Photo of the Day GalleryMineral Photography


This page is currently not sponsored. Click here to sponsor this page.
Hide all sections | Show all sections

About ZirkeliteHide

Ferdinand Zirkel
Adamantine, Vitreous, Greasy, Sub-Metallic, Dull
Specific Gravity:
Crystal System:
Named after Ferdinand Zirkel (May 20, 1838 Bonn, Germany - June 12,1912), Professor of Mineralogy, University of Lemberg, later at University of Leipzig (Germany).
A pioneer in the microscopic investigation of rocks.
(Some sources erroneously list March as the birth month.)
Black grains or masses, rarely as simple to complex isometric crystals.

Compare the chemically related zirconolite.

Classification of ZirkeliteHide

Approved, 'Grandfathered' (first described prior to 1959)
Approval Year:

4 : OXIDES (Hydroxides, V[5,6] vanadates, arsenites, antimonites, bismuthites, sulfites, selenites, tellurites, iodates)
D : Metal: Oxygen = 1:2 and similar
L : With large (+- medium-sized) cations; fluorite-type structures

2 : A2B2O6(O,OH,F)

7 : Oxides and Hydroxides
10 : Oxides of Zr and Th

Physical Properties of ZirkeliteHide

Adamantine, Vitreous, Greasy, Sub-Metallic, Dull
May be brown when altered
Brownish black
5½ on Mohs scale
None Observed
Irregular/Uneven, Sub-Conchoidal
4.741 g/cm3 (Measured)    
May be lower due to alteration

Optical Data of ZirkeliteHide

RI values:
nα = 2.500
Isotropic minerals have no birefringence
Surface Relief:
Internal Reflections:
Reddish brown
Reddish brown in thin section

Chemical Properties of ZirkeliteHide

IMA Formula:

Crystallography of ZirkeliteHide

Crystal System:
Cell Parameters:
a = 5.02 Å
Unit Cell V:
126.51 ų (Calculated from Unit Cell)
Crystals as flattened octahedra.
On {111} very common, both polysynthetic and as complicated fourlings.
Redefined in 1989 as the isometric structure of a set of related chemically minerals. Earlier definitions gave monoclinic symmetry but that material is now called zirconolite.

Crystal StructureHide

Unit Cell | Unit Cell Packed
2x2x2 | 3x3x3 | 4x4x4
Big Balls | Small Balls | Just Balls | Spacefill
Polyhedra Off | Si Polyhedra | All Polyhedra
Remove metal-metal sticks
Display Options
Black Background | White Background
Perspective On | Perspective Off
2D | Stereo | Red-Blue | Red-Cyan
CIF File    Best | x | y | z | a | b | c
Stop | Start
Console Off | On | Grey | Yellow
IDSpeciesReferenceLinkYearLocalityPressure (GPa)Temp (K)
0000869ZirkeliteSinclair W, Eggleton R A (1982) Structure refinement of zirkelite from Kaiserstuhl, West Germany American Mineralogist 67 615-62019820293
0000893ZirkeliteMazzi F, Munno R (1983) Calciobetafite (new mineral of the pyrochlore group) and related minerals from Campi Flegrei, Italy; crystal structures of polymignyte and zirkelite: comparison with pyrochlore and zirconolite American Mineralogist 68 262-27619830293
CIF Raw Data - click here to close

X-Ray Powder DiffractionHide

Powder Diffraction Data:
2.90 Å(100)
2.52 Å(40)
1.78 Å(70)
1.52 Å(60)
1.46 Å(20)
1.26 Å(20)
1.16 Å(30)
1.13 Å(20)
ICDD-PDF 38-0450

Type Occurrence of ZirkeliteHide

General Appearance of Type Material:
Black submetallic to vitreous grains and crystals

Other Language Names for ZirkeliteHide

Simplified Chinese:钛锆钍矿

Common AssociatesHide

Associated Minerals Based on Photo Data:
1 photo of Zirkelite associated with BruciteMg(OH)2
1 photo of Zirkelite associated with BiotiteK(Fe2+/Mg)2(Al/Fe3+/Mg)([Si/Al]Si2O10)(OH/F)2

Related Minerals - Nickel-Strunz GroupingHide

4.DL.05Cerianite-(Ce)(Ce4+,Th)O2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
4.DL.05ThorianiteThO2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)
4.DL.05UraniniteUO2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m) : Fm3m
4.DL.05Aeschynite GroupAD2O6
4.DL.10Hiärneite(Ca,Mn,Na)2(Zr,Mn3+)5(Sb,Ti,Fe)2O16Tet. 4/mmm (4/m 2/m 2/m) : I41/acd

Related Minerals - Dana Grouping (8th Ed.)Hide

Related Minerals - Hey's Chemical Index of Minerals GroupingHide

7.10.1BaddeleyiteZrO2Mon. 2/m : P21/b
7.10.3PainiteCaZrAl9(BO3)O15Hex. 6/m : P63/m
7.10.4SrilankiteZrTi2O6Orth. mmm (2/m 2/m 2/m) : Pbcn
7.10.9UhligiteCa3(Ti,Al,Zr)9O20 ?Iso.
7.10.10ThorianiteThO2Iso. m3m (4/m 3 2/m)

Fluorescence of ZirkeliteHide


Other InformationHide

Health Risks:
No information on health risks for this material has been entered into the database. You should always treat mineral specimens with care.

Zirkelite in petrologyHide

An essential component of rock names highlighted in red, an accessory component in rock names highlighted in green.

References for ZirkeliteHide

Reference List:
Sort by Year (asc) | by Year (desc) | by Author (A-Z) | by Author (Z-A)
Hussak (1894) Min. Mitt.: 14: 408.
Hussak and Prior (1895) Mineralogical Magazine (1895): 11: 80-88.
Blake, G.S., Smith, G.F. Herbert (1913) On Varieties of Zirkelite from Ceylon. Mineralogical Magazine: 16: 309-316.
Palache, Charles, Harry Berman & Clifford Frondel (1944) The System of Mineralogy of James Dwight Dana and Edward Salisbury Dana Yale University 1837-1892, Volume I: Elements, Sulfides, Sulfosalts, Oxides. John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York. 7th edition, revised and enlarged: 740.
Mazzi, F. and Munno, R. (1983) Calciobetafite (new mineral of the pyrochlore group) and related minerals from Campi Flegrei, Italy; crystal structures of polymignite, and zirkelite: comparison with pyrochlore and zirconolite. American Mineralogist: 68: 262-276.
Bayliss, P., Mazzi, F., Munno, R., and White, T., Mineralogical Magazine (1989): 53: 565.
Mineralogical Magazine: 62: 837-846.
Bulakh, Andrei G.; Nesterov, Alexander R.; Anastasenko, Galina F.; Anisimov, Ilija S. (1999) Crystal morphology and intergrowths of calzirtite Ca2Zr5TiO16, zirkelite (Ti,Ca,Zr)O2-x, zirconolite CaZrTi2O7 in phoscorites and carbonatites of the Kola Peninsula (Russia). Neues Jahrb. Mineral., Monatsh.: 1999: 11-20.

Internet Links for ZirkeliteHide

Localities for ZirkeliteHide

This map shows a selection of localities that have latitude and longitude coordinates recorded. Click on the symbol to view information about a locality. The symbol next to localities in the list can be used to jump to that position on the map.

Locality ListHide

- This locality has map coordinates listed. - This locality has estimated coordinates. ⓘ - Click for further information on this occurrence. ? - Indicates mineral may be doubtful at this locality. - Good crystals or important locality for species. - World class for species or very significant. (TL) - Type Locality for a valid mineral species. (FRL) - First Recorded Locality for everything else (eg varieties). Struck out - Mineral was erroneously reported from this locality. Faded * - Never found at this locality but inferred to have existed at some point in the past (eg from pseudomorphs.)

All localities listed without proper references should be considered as questionable.
  • Minas Gerais
    • Araxá
Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J., 2009, Carbonatites of the world, explored deposits of Nb and REE; database and grade and tonnage models: U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2009-1139, 17 p. and database.
  • São Paulo
    • Cajati
[MinRec 15:269]
  • British Columbia
    • Omineca Mining Division
      • Williston Lake
Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139; Jennifer Pell (1994) Carbonatites, Nepheline Syenites, Kimberlites and Related Rocks in British Columbia. Brithish Columbia Ministry of Energy Bulletin 88.
  • Ontario
    • Cochrane District
      • South of Ridge Lake Area
SAGE, R.P. (1981) Geology of the Martison carbonatite complex. Ontario Geological Survey Open File Report 5420, 99p.
    • Sudbury District
      • Chapleau Township
Berger, V.I., Singer, D.A., and Orris, G.J. (2009): USGS Open-File Report 09-1139
  • Québec
    • Nord-du-Québec
Nadeau, O., Stevenson, R., & Jébrak, M. (2016) Evolution ofMontviel alkaline-carbonatite complex by coupled fractional crystallization, fluid mixing and metasomatism — Part II: Trace element and Sm–Nd isotope geochemistry ofmetasomatic rocks: implications for REE-Nb mineralization. Ore Geology Reviews, 72, 1163-1162.
Czech Republic
  • Vysočina Region
    • Žďár nad Sázavou District
      • Nové Město na Moravě
Novák, M., Šrein, V.: Ryzí antimon v rutilu z dolomitického mramoru od Studnice u Nového Města na Moravě. Minerál, 1997, roč. 5, č. 4, s. 265-266.
  • Lapland
    • Savukoski
      • Tulppio
Vartiainen, H. 1980 The petrography, mineralogy and petrochemistry of the Sokli carbonative massif, northern Finland. Geological Survey of Finland, Bulletin, 313; H. Vartiainen, A.R. Woolley (1974) The age of the Sokli carbonatite, Finland and some relationships of the North Atlantic Igneous Province. Bull. Geol. Soc. Finl. vol 46, 81- 91, Kononova, V. A., Shanin, L. L., & Arakelyants, M. M. (1974). Times of formation of alkaline massifs and carbonatites. International Geology Review, 16(10), 1119-1130. H. Vartiainen, A.R. Woolley (1976) The petrology, mineralogy and chemistry of the fenites of the Sokli carbonatite intrusion, Finland. Geol. Surv. of Finland, Bull. 280 Mäkelä, M., & Vartiainen, H. (1978). A study of sulfur isotopes in the Sokli multi-stage carbonatite (Finland). Chemical Geology, 21(3-4), 257-265. Vartiainen, H., Kresten, P., & Kafkas, Y. (1978). Alkaline lamprophyres from the Sokli complex, northern Finland. Bull. Geol. Soc. Finland, 50(1-2), 59-68. Vartiainen, H. E. I. K. K. I., & Paarma, H. E. I. K. K. I. (1979). Geological characteristics of the Sokli carbonatite complex, Finland. Economic Geology, 74(5), 1296-1306. Vartiainen, H. (1980). The petrography, mineralogy and petrochemistry of the Sokli carbonatite massif, northern Finland. Bulletin of Geological Survey of Finland. Heinänen, K., & VARTIAINEN, H. (1981). Magnetite in Sokli carbonatite Massif and in Tulppio olivinite. Bull. Geol. Soc. Finland, 53, 83-90. Lapin, A. V., & Vartiainen, H. (1983). Orbicular and spherulitic carbonatites from Sokli and Vuorijärvi. Lithos, 16(1), 53-60. Vartiainen, H. (1989). The phosphate deposits of the Sokli Carbonatite Complex, Finland. In Phosphate deposits of the world. Phosphate rock resources (pp. 398-402). Kramm, U. (1993). Mantle components of carbonatites from the Kola Alkaline Province, Russia and Finland: a Nd-Sr study. European Journal of Mineralogy, 985-990. Kramm, U., Kogarko, L. N., Kononova, V. A., & Vartiainen, H. (1993). The Kola Alkaline Province of the CIS and Finland: Precise Rb Sr ages define 380–360 Ma age range for all magmatism. Lithos, 30(1), 33-44. Albers, K.-H., Woolley, A.R., Garcia, D. & Sonnet, P. 1998. Development of new technology for utilisation of the unique Nb deposit at Sokli, Finland, for the European super-alloy industry. Ingrid, H. K. (1998). Rare earth elements in sövitic carbonatites and their mineral phases. Journal of Petrology, 39(11-12), 2105-2121. Lee, M. J., Garcia, D., Moutte, J., Wall, F., Williams, C. T., Woolley, A. R., & Stanley, C. J. (1999). Pyrochlore and whole rock chemistry of carbonatites and phoscorites at Sokli, Finland. Pp. 651-653 in: Mineral Deposits: Processes to Processing (CJ Stanley et al., editors), 1. Lee, M. J., Garcia, D., Moutte, J., Williams, C. T., & Wall, F. (2004). Carbonatites and phoscorites from the Sokli Complex, Finland. Phoscorites and Carbonatites from Mantle to Mine: the Key Example of the Kola Alkaline Province”, eds. F. Wall and AN Zaitev, The Mineralogical Society of Great Britain and Ireland, London, 133-162. Lee, M. J., Lee, J. I., Garcia, D., Moutte, J., Williams, C. T., Wall, F., & Kim, Y. (2006). Pyrochlore chemistry from the Sokli phoscorite-carbonatite complex, Finland: implications for the genesis of phoscorite and carbonatite association. Geochemical Journal, 40(1), 1-13. Lee, M. J., Lee, J. I., Garcia, D., Moutte, J., Williams, C. T., Wall, F., & Kim, Y. (2006). Pyrochlore chemistry from the Sokli phoscorite-carbonatite complex, Finland: implications for the genesis of phoscorite and carbonatite association. Geochemical Journal, 40(1), 1-13. Rukhlov, A. S., & Bell, K. (2010). Geochronology of carbonatites from the Canadian and Baltic Shields, and the Canadian Cordillera: clues to mantle evolution. Mineralogy and Petrology, 98(1-4), 11-54. O’Brien, H., & Hyvönen, E. (2015). The Sokli carbonatite complex. In Mineral deposits of Finland (pp. 305-325). Elsevier. Woolley A.R. (2019) Alkaline Rocks and Carbonatites of the World. Part 4: Antarctica, Asia and Europe, p.315 Proceedings of the First Annual Workshop (Eurothen '98), Athens, Greece, National Technical University of Athens, Athens, 449-472.
  • Saxony-Anhalt
    • Saalekreis
      • Landsberg
Krüger, J. C., Romer, R. L., & Kämpf, H. (2013). Late Cretaceous ultramafic lamprophyres and carbonatites from the Delitzsch Complex, Germany. Chemical Geology, 353, 140-150. Seifert, W., Kämpf, H., & Wasternack, J. (2000). Compositional variation in apatite, phlogopite and other accessory minerals of the ultramafic Delitzsch complex, Germany: implication for cooling history of carbonatites. Lithos, 53(2), 81-100. Rollig, G., Viehweg, M., & Reuter, N. (1990). THE ULTRAMAFIC LAMPROPHYRES AND CARBONATITES OF DELITZSCH, GDR. ZEITSCHRIFT FUR ANGEWANDTE GEOLOGIE, 36, 49-54. Wand, U., Stiehl, G., Rölling, G., Mühle, K., Haase, G., & Gerstenberger, H. (1989). C, O, N and Sr isotope characteristics of carbonatites from the Central German Crystalline Zone, GDR. In Proc 5 th Working Meeting Isotopes in Nature, Leipzig (pp. 421-436).
  • Heves County
    • Eger
      • Szarvaskő
Koch: Minerals of Hungary, 1985
  • Campania
    • Naples
Francesco Civero collection
  • Lazio
    • Latina Province
      • Ponza
        • Ponza Island
H.E. Belkin, B. De Vivo, A. Lima : "Magmatic (silicte/saline/sulfur-rich/CO2) immiscibility and zirconium and rare-earth element enrichment from alkaline magam chamber margins : evidence from Ponza Island, Pontine Archipelago, Italy", Eur. J. Mineral. , 1996, 8, 1401-1420.
  • Karaganda Region
    • Osakarov
  • Vestfold
    • Larvik
      • Hedrum
Neumann, H. (1985): Norges Mineraler. Norges Geologiske Undersøkelse Skrifter 68, 278 pp.(p. 70).
  • Harghita
Hirtopanu, P. (2006). One hundred minerals for one hundred years (dedicated to the Centennial of the Geological Institute of Romania). In 3rd Conference on Mineral Sciences in the Carpathians, Miskolc Hungary. Acta Mineralogica–Petrographica, Abstract series (Vol. 5, p. 86).
  • Murmansk Oblast
    • Kolsky District
Bulakh, A. G., Nesterov, A. R., Anisimov, I. S., & Williams, C. T. (1998). Zirkelite from the Sebl'yavr carbonatite complex, Kola Peninsula, Russia; an X-ray and electron microprobe study of a partially metamict mineral. Mineralogical Magazine, 62(6), 837-846.
    • Northern Karelia
[World of Stones 12:49]
Saudi Arabia
  • Ha'il Region
Economic Geology (1996) 91:1414-1434
South Africa
  • Free State
    • Thabo Mofutsanyane District
      • Clocolan
Kamenetsky, V. S., Belousova, E. A., Giuliani, A., Kamenetsky, M. B., Goemann, K., & Griffin, W. L. (2014). Chemical abrasion of zircon and ilmenite megacrysts in the Monastery kimberlite: Implications for the composition of kimberlite melts. Chemical Geology, 383, 76-85.
  • Limpopo
    • Phalaborwa
      • Loolekop
Gliddon, J. (1996) Minerals of the Palabora open pit. British Micromount Society 43:2-7
Sri Lanka
Dissanayake, C.B., Chandrajith, R., Tobschall, H.J. (2000) The geology, mineralogy and rare element geochemistry of the gem deposits of Sri Lanka. Bulletin of the Geological Society of Finland, 72(1-2), 5-20.
  • Sabaragamuwa Province
    • Ratnapura District
      • Bambarabotuwa
[Blake, G.S., Smith, H. (1913): On varieties of Zirkelite from Ceylon, Mineralogical Magazine, July 1913, Vol. 16, pp 309-316] [De Hoog, J., van Bergen, M.J. (1997): Notes on the Chemical composition of Zirconolite with Thorutite inclusions from Walaweduwa, Sri Lanka, Mineralogical Magazine, October 1997, Vol. 61, pp 721-725]
  • Scotland
    • Highland
      • Isle of Rum
Williams, C.T. (1978) Contrib. Mineral. Petrol. 66, 29, 33.; Livingstone, A. and Macpherson, H.G. (1983) Fifth supplementary list of British minerals (Scottish). Mineralogical Magazine, vol. 47, n° 342, p. 99-105.
    • Outer Hebrides
Harding R.R., Merriman R.J. and Nancarrow P.H.A. 1982. Mineralogical Magazine vol 46
  • Colorado
    • Teller Co.
      • Cripple Creek Mining District
Min Rec 36:2 pp143-185
  • New Mexico
    • Socorro Co.
Minerals of New Mexico 3rd ed.
  • Texas
    • Culberson Co.
      • Apache Peak area
Rocks & Minerals: 66(3): 196-224.
      • Sierra Diablo
Audétat, A. (2010) Source and Evolution of Molybdenum in the Porphyry Mo(^Nb) Deposit at Cave Peak,Texas. Journal of Petrology 51(8),1739-60.
Mineral and/or Locality is an outreach project of the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy, a 501(c)(3) not-for-profit organization. Public Relations by Blytheweigh.
Copyright © and the Hudson Institute of Mineralogy 1993-2020, except where stated. Most political location boundaries are © OpenStreetMap contributors. relies on the contributions of thousands of members and supporters.
Privacy Policy - Terms & Conditions - Contact Us Current server date and time: August 3, 2020 19:13:48 Page generated: August 1, 2020 10:02:29
Go to top of page